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# Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety

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Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 11:26
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65% (hard)

Question Stats:

60% (01:33) correct 40% (06:50) wrong based on 703 sessions

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Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 12:16
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Skywalker18 wrote:
Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

 Introduction of new safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat in automobilesAnnual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight for automobile accidents decreasedRegulations ===> Made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers ( Involved in accidents )

Except option (E) all other options are out of scope and irrelevant...

Why (E) ? Lets negate option (E)

 Over the past ten years, there has been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

Decline in no of accidents = Decline in no of hospitalization

So, the new regulations are not responsible for the improvements in safety standards of Drivers.... <----- The argument falls apart.

Hence correct answer will be (E)

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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2017, 08:41
Hi all,
Even though I couldn't understand the convoluted sentence in choice B-- the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased--it is somehow out-of-scope.The percentage of automobile accident to the overall could be anything.
While option E eliminate another possibility,which if true slays our conclusion,that the number of accidents might stay the same,but the number of passenger is less;hence the number of victims is less.
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2017, 09:19
3
1
There are two important GMAT patterns in the stem. Noticing these patterns can help make a prediction before looking at the answer choices.

First, this is a classic correlation/causation argument. The stem argues that because two things happened together (the new regulations and the decline in injuries requiring hospitalization) one of those things caused the other (the new regulations led to the decline in the number of people going to the hospital after auto accidents). Built into this argument is the assumption that something else wasn't the real cause. In this case we have to assume that something other than seat-belts and airbags wasn't the real reason the number of people who went to the hospital after an accident declined. That's already a pretty good prediction.

The second useful pattern to notice in the stem is the word 'number'. The GMAT loves to reward test takers who are always on the look out for the difference between percentages/rates/proportions and absolute numbers. Here, our evidence is just that the absolute number of hospitalization-requiring injuries sustained in auto accidents declined. It doesn't tell us, for example, that the percentage of accidents that resulted in injuries requiring hospitalization declined. And that gives us a pretty good idea of something other than regulations about seatbelts and airbags that might have caused the decline: maybe there were just fewer accidents. This way the percentage of accidents that caused severe injuries could have remained the same (i.e. seatbelts and airbags didn't help at all) even though a smaller number of accident victims showed up at the hospital.

In other words, we have to assume that there was NOT a steady decline in the number of accidents. D.
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2017, 11:08
sleepynut wrote:
Hi all,
Even though I couldn't understand the convoluted sentence in choice B-- the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased--it is somehow out-of-scope.The percentage of automobile accident to the overall could be anything.
While option E eliminate another possibility,which if true slays our conclusion,that the number of accidents might stay the same,but the number of passenger is less;hence the number of victims is less.

Hey sleepy, I believe it's a typo. The question should probably be "the percentage being treated" or similar structure.

On topic, I also believe that E is the only correct answer
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2017, 00:28
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2017, 02:10
1
shweta234 wrote:

hii
shweta,
happy to respond you
see what we need focus on this part of the stimulus 'the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined' . so it deos not mean that the # of accidents has decreased, and in option E it states that although the no of accidents has not declined but the safety plan helped in reducing injuries and getting hospitalized of drivers and passengers involved in accidents .
so many of the driver and passengers would have involved in accidents but it does not necessary that they all have injured and hospitalized just because the safety plan such air bags and seat belts .

hope that makes sense
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2017, 10:17
My 2 cents:
It is very important to NOTE a very subtle point here - The author is telling us that the ONLY way we can correctly assume that airbags and seat belts have improved the driver safety is that there are still equal/similar number of accidents but we are seeing a REDUCTION in -

"the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents"

Thus, E
(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

Because if the # of accidents was falling - it may have being due to better ROAD SAFETY MEASURES and not better airbags and seat belts!!!
Thanks
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2018, 00:45
Correct answer should accident happened but the drivers and passengers are not admitted overnight because they are not injured due to accident . Option E says that there is no decline in no of accidents happened, therefore it means the decline in overnight hospitalization is due to air bags and seat belts. If we negate option E it says that there is decline in accidents, which results in our argument to fail because it means that decline in overnight hospitalization is because there are less accidents.
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2018, 11:22
Quote:
Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

Approach -
1) Eliminate A --> opposite to conclusion
2) Eliminate B --> switching terms( numbers and percentages are different)
3) Eliminate C --> negate C, it might have increased the price but the number of automobiles sold might still increase and so the number of accidents, both from new and old vehicles.
4) Eliminate D --> no tie to conclusion
5) Negating E implies less injuries due to decline in accident and not due to auomobiles safety regulations, which destroys the argument.
Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety &nbs [#permalink] 10 Jul 2018, 11:22
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