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Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re

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Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?


(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

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Originally posted by Skywalker18 on 19 Jun 2016, 11:26.
Last edited by Bunuel on 31 Oct 2018, 22:31, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Vorland regulation  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2019, 01:06
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sayan640 wrote:
Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?


(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

VeritasKarishma GMATNinja Can you help me eliminate B and choose E ? Negation test is not working here...


Vorland adopted new regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles 10 yrs ago. (regulations that make a car safer in case of an accident)
Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for automobile accidents has steadily declined. (So serious injuries have gone down.)

Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

The argument is trying to tell us that of 100 accidents, if serious injuries used to be 50 before, now they are only 25 because of better seat belts and air bags. So from 50 serious injuries, now we have only 25.

We need an assumption.

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

Irrelevant. Something that has stayed the same has no impact on our argument.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

Percentage of accident treatments is irrelevant. We don't even know whether number of auto accident injuries treated has increased or decreased. It depends on the total number of patients treated.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

Price of new automobiles is not very relevant directly. If the prices have increased significantly and hence number of vehicles has reduced, that could imply fewer accidents and hence fewer serious injuries. But it sure is a long shot. Let's move ahead.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

Increase in speed limit is irrelevant. Whether people actually drove at higher/lower speeds is not known.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

Correct. This is our assumption. If we are to say that the cars have become safer for people involved in accidents, we are assuming that total number of accidents has not reduced. Perhaps people have started driving more slowly and number of accidents has reduced. Perhaps from 100 accidents, now only 50 happen. So number of serious injuries would have automatically gone down. We are assuming that this did not happen. That actually 100 accidents took place as usual and only 25 serious injuries took place. So the new regulations did make the car safer for those involved in accidents.

Let's negate (E)
(E) There has been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.
If number of accidents has been decreasing, it makes sense that serious injuries would decrease too. Then we can't say that the new regulations have made the cars safer for people involved in accidents.

Answer (E)
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2016, 04:18
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Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles.

Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined.

Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

we can filter out options A, D and C for going out of scope regarding speed limits.

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits. ......OFS

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles. .......OFS

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years. .........OFS

Tight competition is between B and E. Both talk about accidents.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years. ............key word is percentage here. %reduction can never ensure the reduction of the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents. Both the the percentage treated being treated for injuries and annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized can reduce and still the regulations may not have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.


(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland................Here we have no ambiguity and is the correct choice.
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2016, 12:16
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Skywalker18 wrote:
Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.


Introduction of new safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat in automobiles
Annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight for automobile accidents decreased
Regulations ===> Made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers ( Involved in accidents )



Except option (E) all other options are out of scope and irrelevant...

Why (E) ? Lets negate option (E)

Over the past ten years, there has been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.


Decline in no of accidents = Decline in no of hospitalization

So, the new regulations are not responsible for the improvements in safety standards of Drivers.... <----- The argument falls apart.

Hence correct answer will be (E)

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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2016, 20:56
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(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits. -- out of context

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years. -- precentage cannot be related to number here.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles. -- out of scope

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years. -- out of context

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

correct . if we negate this option, as the no. of accidents reduced so no. of people hospitalised reduced but not the effect of regulations.
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2016, 00:36
Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits. -- regulation is about airbags and seat belts. So, no to this.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years. Not related to conclusion.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles. Not relevant

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years. -- wins

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland. No
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2016, 22:51
Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

it's not the regulations that hade made automobiles safer for drivers and passanagers who are involved in accidents. => it's not the regulations but some other factors such has road has improved, driving exam more rigid, driver more careful or car better functioning.

or automobiles not safer for drivers and passanagers => this could happen if they immediately die on the spot so overnight patient will be lower in that case.


Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.
negate :- The citizens of Vorland don't obey all national and local speed limits. Even then if patients has reduced, that means safety regulations is actually helping.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.
There has been an increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years. More speed => more accidents. Accidents should happen more but still if patients less that means conclusion stands corrected.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland :- if there is an decrease in accidents itself, that can explain lesser annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents. Aligned with prethinking 1) CORRECT
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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Here is what the argument states -

the annual number of people hospitalized overnight or longer for automobile injuries --> Regulations have made automobiles safer.

Note that there is a jump in the argument from 'the annual number' (on the LHS) to 'safer' (on the RHS).

This ratio = (No.of people involved in automobile accidents NOT hospitalized overnight or longer) / (Total no. of people involved in automobile accidents) is a measure of safety.
The higher the ratio, the safer automobiles have become.

Let us look at the answer options -

A - this option weakens the argument. If they obey all national and local speed limits, then probably the reductions in the number of people hospitalized is due to these speed limits and not due to regulations on airbags and seat belts.
Also, note that we are concerned only with regulations on airbags and seat belts. Whether people follow all or some of these regulations is not relevant to the argument.
This option does not make it clear when the people started following these speed limits?
If they started following more than 10 years ago, it strengthens the argument. If they started following less than 10 years ago, it weakens the argument. Since, the option goes either way, it is incorrect.

B - Since this option talks about percentages, it is better to write the percentage down to get a clear picture.

this ratio - (Number of people treated for automobile accidents)/ (total number of people treated at hospitals) - has reduced.
This does not mean that the numerator has reduced.
It can very well mean that the numerator has increased, but the denominator has increased much more. In this case my conclusion that 'regulations have made automobiles more safe' would be weakened.

C - Not relevant. We do not know how price ties to safety.

D - let us negate this statement. We get - 'There has been an increase in speed limits'. Negating option D strengthens the argument.
Suggests that even with an increase in speed limits, the annual number of people hospitalized has reduced. So, clearly regulations on seatbelts and airbags have done a good job to make automobiles safer.

E - Correct answer. Let us look back at the safety ratio -
(No.of people involved in automobile accidents NOT hospitalized overnight or longer) / (Total no. of people involved in automobile accidents)

What if this ratio increased because the denominator decreased and not because of a reduction in the number of people involved in automobile accidents who were hospitalized overnight or longer? This exposes a flaw in the argument.
Negating this flaw leads us to the assumption.
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2017, 09:19
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There are two important GMAT patterns in the stem. Noticing these patterns can help make a prediction before looking at the answer choices.

First, this is a classic correlation/causation argument. The stem argues that because two things happened together (the new regulations and the decline in injuries requiring hospitalization) one of those things caused the other (the new regulations led to the decline in the number of people going to the hospital after auto accidents). Built into this argument is the assumption that something else wasn't the real cause. In this case we have to assume that something other than seat-belts and airbags wasn't the real reason the number of people who went to the hospital after an accident declined. That's already a pretty good prediction.

The second useful pattern to notice in the stem is the word 'number'. The GMAT loves to reward test takers who are always on the look out for the difference between percentages/rates/proportions and absolute numbers. Here, our evidence is just that the absolute number of hospitalization-requiring injuries sustained in auto accidents declined. It doesn't tell us, for example, that the percentage of accidents that resulted in injuries requiring hospitalization declined. And that gives us a pretty good idea of something other than regulations about seatbelts and airbags that might have caused the decline: maybe there were just fewer accidents. This way the percentage of accidents that caused severe injuries could have remained the same (i.e. seatbelts and airbags didn't help at all) even though a smaller number of accident victims showed up at the hospital.

In other words, we have to assume that there was NOT a steady decline in the number of accidents. D.
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2017, 00:28
please explain why the answer is E
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2017, 02:10
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shweta234 wrote:
please explain why the answer is E



hii
shweta,
happy to respond you
see what we need focus on this part of the stimulus 'the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined' . so it deos not mean that the # of accidents has decreased, and in option E it states that although the no of accidents has not declined but the safety plan helped in reducing injuries and getting hospitalized of drivers and passengers involved in accidents .
so many of the driver and passengers would have involved in accidents but it does not necessary that they all have injured and hospitalized just because the safety plan such air bags and seat belts .

hope that makes sense :)
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2018, 08:22
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P1: New safety rules, air bags and better seat belts in all cars.
P2: Annual # of overnight or longer hospitalized injuries decreased
C: New regulations made cars safer for ppl involved in accidents
Assumption
Number of accidents is not less than before -> If less then the number of hospitalized injures decreased could be due to other factor
There can be other assumptions. We need to pay attention to those answers that either Support the conclusion by introducing some other facts that help strengthen the conclusion or Defend the conclusion from possible attack by other contradicting/weakening facts that can undermine the conclusion.
1) Ppl generally obey all speed limits -> this affects only the number of accidents and we don’t know whether most of the accidents happened because of people not obeying speed limits -> IRRELEVANT
2) Overall percentage of patients involved in automobile accidents has decreased in the last 10 years -> This includes all cases, including those overnight or longer cases. We care about a specific case. -> Hence INCORRECT
3) Price of cars is IRRELEVANT
4) We DON’T know how speed limit affects the severity of the accidents. IRRELEVANT
5) If number of accidents declined -> number of hospitalized injures could also decrease proportionally and this could hurt the argument. This assumption negates such possibility. CORRECT
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 13:00
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Bunuel,

Exact Same question by the same user has been posted twice.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/ten-years-ag ... 20582.html

Can these be considered for topics that need to be merged.

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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2019, 23:21
Skywalker18 wrote:
Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?


(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.


VeritasKarishma generis GMATNinja chetan2u

Can you please explain why B is incorrect and E is correct ?
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Vorland regulation  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2019, 23:27
Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?


(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

VeritasKarishma GMATNinja Can you help me eliminate B and choose E ? Negation test is not working here...
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Re: Vorland regulation  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2019, 01:18
sayan640 wrote:
Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?


Hi sayan640
I would try to help you out here
Looking at the para and Q. stems it seems that the Q. stems are warping the basic info. and that an extra assumption has to be made for ever option to test. Look at the explanation below for better undertstanding

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits. - very generic

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.- if there's an overall reduction nothing can be said abt the contribution of safety measures in reduction of "hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries" specifically. Try negating this- Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has not decreased in the past ten years : even if it is not decreased nothing can be said as the no. of commuters too would have increased over a period of 10 yrs. Also we are not sure whether it is constant or has increased. Also this data is relative to the total no. of patients(for all the diseases) at Vorland

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles. - this needs one extra layer of assumption and hence os out of focus

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years. - way out of focus

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.- Not a steady decline means that the no. of automobile accidents are more or less constant that means the % of accidents requiring "hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries" has decreased and that the % of accidents that do not require hospitalisation or require a quicker treatment has increased and hence this option is correct.
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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2019, 01:54
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Merged similar posts.

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Question is already present on gmatclub.Please search before posting any new questions.

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Re: Ten years ago, the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety re   [#permalink] 11 May 2019, 01:54
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