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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence

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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Oct 2017, 08:57
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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing

(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing

(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of

(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of

(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of

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Originally posted by bakfed on 28 Jan 2010, 16:04.
Last edited by hazelnut on 15 Oct 2017, 08:57, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2015, 02:21
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(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing --- There is a fundamental flaw in parallelism in this choice. Two ICs, that are joined by a conjunction such as ‘but' have to be in the same format; here, one is a clause and the other is not complete

(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing----- In the hierarchy of tenses, the top is the past perfect, then a past tense and then the present perfect. One cannot jump from past perfect to present perfect without traveling through a past tense. So grammatically wrong

(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of -- -- This is a forthright fragment because of the intrusion of relative pronoun ‘which’.

(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of --- The first part has no verb - a fragment.

(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of --- A correct simple sentence with a modifier phrase that modifies the subject of the clause. 2. Is also idiomatically better because of using the preposition ‘through’ to indicate a physical flow of water through the canals -- correct

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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2014, 08:50
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HERE IS THE COMPLETE DISSECTION


The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing.

The use of “having been” is incorrect. We do not expect a “so that” construction after “having been”. “so that” introduces a consequence to an action. “having been” introduces the concept of premise. They do not go well together. Moreover we should expect more informations after “having been”, which makes this answer a fragment.

(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing.

The use of “had” is incorrect. If past perfect is used in a sentence make sure that:
1. it is really needed (the two events are related, need a temporal regulation, and the earliest event is preceded by a past perfect verb).
2. The verb expressing the second temporal event is in past tense.

(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of.

“comma+which” refers to the item directly preceding “which” -except for cases in which a prepositional phrase is squeezed in, between the modifier's target and the comma preceding the modifier, because it cannot be logically placed elsewhere in the sentence. In this sentence the use of “which” is correct, but this rule is good to recall. What makes this sentence wrong is:
1. The lack of a comma after “Lake Michigan” we already have a subordinator (“which”) we do not want another one in the same sentence.
2. The use of “but” baffles and is incorrect. Because of “But” The entire sentence structure is screwed.

(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of

Once agin “having been” fits terribly beside “so that”. “But” bewilders the sentence’s meaning.

(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2010, 09:03
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I marked B because redirected through looks wrong idiom. Can someone confirm this?
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2010, 13:51
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IMO E. Clearly the choices are between B and E. A, C, D are improper sentence constructions in itself.

Now for B, past perfect (had) is not appropriate. There is no past tense later in the sentence to which this event can relate to; instead present perfect (have) is used. So this is incorrect. Possibly "had" could have been correct in case it was written "rivers had originally flowed into ..., but then their course was diverted by..."

That leaves E - which seems to have no flaws.

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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2010, 00:06
Nice question.

The Chicago and Calumet Rivers, [strike]originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan[/strike], have been redirected through the construction of canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

E it is.
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2010, 04:21
E is my Take as well.

B Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing . Had and constructing are spoiling the show
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2012, 03:47
In B 'by constructing' refers back to the rivers which is not the case...E is better
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2014, 15:32
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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing (-ing modifier is not correct)
(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing (past perfect is unnecessary no other past even is mentioned for sequencing )
(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of (fragmented sentence first part before but has no verb)
(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of (same mistake as A, -ing modifer having bean is 99% wrong)
(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of (perfect S,ing,verb...)

only E follows correct grammatical construction.
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2015, 01:31
amitdesai16 wrote:
IMO E. Clearly the choices are between B and E. A, C, D are improper sentence constructions in itself.

Now for B, past perfect (had) is not appropriate. There is no past tense later in the sentence to which this event can relate to; instead present perfect (have) is used. So this is incorrect. Possibly "had" could have been correct in case it was written "rivers had originally flowed into ..., but then their course was diverted by..."

That leaves E - which seems to have no flaws.

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I dont think so.

past perfect can go with present perfect. this case is proved by a sentence in gmatprep" immune to, immune from " and is proved by grammar books. some grammar book say that past perfect can go with past simple and present perfect.

so, B is correct regarding this point .
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2015, 01:52
the only error in B is "constructing canal"

by doing is used to show the method the subject uses to do the action in main clause. there is no reason grammatically to use constructing here.

second, b seem that they have been redirected by canal, not by construction of cannal, which is the intended meaning.
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2015, 01:58
bakfed wrote:
The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing
(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing
(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of
(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of
(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of


this is from gmatprep. the oa is e.

however, I do not like this question.

in e, following show an action which happen in the same time frame as redirected. I do not think this is logic

though the main action is in present perfect, happening from a point in the past to present, and following happen at the beginning of this period and we can consider that following is used loggically, I feel hard to see the logicness.

a very hard question.
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2018, 20:05
bakfed wrote:
The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing

(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing

(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of

(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of

(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of


I think that
"had followed" in choice B is correct because it happen before "have been redirected"
I dont think that "flowing" in choice E is correct because "following" take the tense of "have been redirected"
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2019, 04:48
daagh wrote:
(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing --- There is a fundamental flaw in parallelism in this choice. Two ICs, that are joined by a conjunction such as ‘but' have to be in the same format; here, one is a clause and the other is not complete

(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing----- In the hierarchy of tenses, the top is the past perfect, then a past tense and then the present perfect. One cannot jump from past perfect to present perfect without traveling through a past tense. So grammatically wrong

(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of -- -- This is a forthright fragment because of the intrusion of relative pronoun ‘which’.

(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of --- The first part has no verb - a fragment.

(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of --- A correct simple sentence with a modifier phrase that modifies the subject of the clause. 2. Is also idiomatically better because of using the preposition ‘through’ to indicate a physical flow of water through the canals -- correct


Thanks for the explanation. I am clear on the explanation, but I have doubt on "originally flowing" which indicates present continuous; I think it should be past form sense. So is it correct E in this sense? I would be glad if you explain my query.
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2019, 09:53
bakfed wrote:
The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing

(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing

(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of

(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of

(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of


look at choice B
contructing is wrong because doing show a process. we do not want to emphasize a process here, so, construction is better
second thing is that. we need "the" before construction because we refer to a specific construction, not a general construction. constructing cannall in B refer to a general action , and, so , is incorrect

anyone know why constructin in choice B is wrong, pls, share with us. thanks
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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2019, 02:13
thangvietnam wrote:
bakfed wrote:
The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing

(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing

(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of

(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of

(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of


look at choice B
contructing is wrong because doing show a process. we do not want to emphasize a process here, so, construction is better
second thing is that. we need "the" before construction because we refer to a specific construction, not a general construction. constructing cannall in B refer to a general action , and, so , is incorrect

anyone know why constructin in choice B is wrong, pls, share with us. thanks


Dear thangvietnam

B is wrong for the following reason.

Rivers had originally flowed ( past perfect) into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected ( present perfect) by constructing

Grammatical correct sequence is past perfect sentence, then past tense sentence , then present or present perfect sentence.

In this sense B is incorrect.

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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence   [#permalink] 08 Mar 2019, 02:13
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