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The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks

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The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Aug 2018, 07:01
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based on 821 sessions

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GMAT® Official Guide Verbal Review 2019

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 28 ~ 30
Online test bank question number : RC00267-01 ~ RC00267-03

The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks dating back 440 to 510 million years, to the Ordovician period, and teeming with evidence of tropical marine life. This rock record provides clues about one of the most significant radiations (periods when existing life-forms gave rise to variations that would eventually evolve into entirely new species) in the history of marine invertebrates. During this radiation the number of marine biological families increased greatly, and these families included species that would dominate the marine ecosystems of the area for the next 215 million years. Although the radiation spanned tens of millions of years, major changes in many species occurred during a geologically short time span within the radiation and, furthermore, appear to have occurred worldwide, suggesting that external events were major factors in the radiation. And , in fact, there is evidence of major ecological and geological changes during this period: the sea level dropped drastically and mountain ranges were formed, in this instance, rather than leading to large-scale extinctions, these kinds of environmental changes may have resulted in an enriched pattern of habitats and nutrients, which in turn gave rise to the Ordovician radiation. However, the actual relationship between these environmental factors and the diversification of life forms is not yet fully understood


1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) evaluating the evidence of a major geologic period and determining its duration
(B) describing an evolutionary phenomenon and speculating about its cause
(C) explaining the mechanisms through which marine life-forms evolved during a particular period
(D) analyzing the impact on later life-forms of an important evolutionary development
(E) contrasting a period of evolutionary change with other such periods



2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage regarding the geologic changes that occurred during Ordovician period?

(A) They were more drastic than those associated with other radiations.
(B) They may have created conditions favorable to the evolution of many new life-forms.
(C) They may have caused the extinction of many of the marine species living in shallow waters.
(D) They may have been a factor in the development of new species adapted to living both on land and in water.
(E) They hastened the formation of the extensive dry regions found in the western united states.


Spoiler: :: OA
E

3. Which of the following best describes the function of last sentence of the passage?

(A) it points out that the events described in the passage may be atypical.
(B) it alludes to the fact that there is disagreement in the scientific community over the importance of the Ordovician radiation.
(C) it concludes that the evidence presented in the passage is insufficient to support the proposed hypothesis because it comes from a limited geographic area.
(D) it warns the reader against seeing a connection between the biological and geologic changes described in the passage.
(E) it alerts the reader that current knowledge cannot completely explain the relationship suggested by the evidence presented in the passage.


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Originally posted by YangYichen on 26 Aug 2017, 20:19.
Last edited by workout on 17 Aug 2018, 07:01, edited 8 times in total.
Edited the OA for Q1.
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2017, 00:57
1
For Q5: what i think option B is clearly stated in the passage that "such changes gives rise to favorable conditions for development of species rather than their extinction"......option E can be inferred too. But I feel B is better than E ??

Please suggest.
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New post 30 Aug 2017, 05:21
I selected answer of 1st and 2nd question as B. Could you please help me understand the answers. Also,how to deal with such passages in real exam. Please provide with some tips for RC.
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2017, 08:16
IIMC wrote:
For Q5: what i think option B is clearly stated in the passage that "such changes gives rise to favorable conditions for development of species rather than their extinction"......option E can be inferred too. But I feel B is better than E ??

Please suggest.


The geological changes did not bring up the new species, the radiation did.

So for Q5, only E can be inferred :-)
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2017, 08:37
gayatriv21

for first question, I too initially jumped to B in a haste just focusing on a first part of the choice "describing an evolutionary phenomenon" -
but author is not speculating about its cause - author is clearly mentioning the causes.
Hence C is the correct choice
Q4: The passage is primarily concerned with
A. evaluating the evidence of a major geologic period and determining its duration - not evidence of major geological period, focus is evidence of marine life forms - "eventually evolve into entirely new species) in the history of marine invertebrates"
B. describing an evolutionary phenomenon and speculating about its cause
C. explaining the mechanisms through which marine life-forms evolved during a particular period
CORRECT - first line "evidence of tropical marine life"
D. analyzing the impact on later life-forms of an important evolutionary development -> author is not analyzing impact on later life forms but is discussing about the most significant radiations period
E. contrasting a period of evolutionary change with other such periods -> no other periods discussed and contrasted

Second question is explained above by streetking why E is better than B, rest all options are iffy
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2017, 18:27
YangYichen wrote:
The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks dating back 440 to 510 million years, to the Ordovician period, and teeming with evidence of tropical marine life. This rock record provides clues about one of the most significant radiations (periods when existing life-forms gave rise to variations that would eventually evolve into entirely new species) in the history of marine invertebrates. During this radiation the number of marine biological families increased greatly, and these families included species that would dominate the marine ecosystems of the area for the next 215 million years. Although the radiation spanned tens of millions of years, major changes in many species occurred during a geologically short time span within the radiation and, furthermore, appear to have occurred worldwide, suggesting that external events were major factors in the radiation. And , in fact, there is evidence of major ecological and geological changes during this period: the sea level dropped drastically and mountain ranges were formed, in this instance, rather than leading to large-scale extinctions, these kinds of environmental changes may have resulted in an enriched pattem of habitats and nutrients, which in turn gave rise to the Ordovician radiation. However, the actual relationship between these environmental factors and the diversification of life forms is not yet fully understood

Q4: The passage is primarily concerned with

A. evaluating the evidence of a major geologic period and determining its duration
B. describing an evolutionary phenomenon and speculating about its cause
C. explaining the mechanisms through which marine life-forms evolved during a particular period
D. analyzing the impact on later life-forms of an important evolutionary development
E. contrasting a period of evolutionary change with other such periods
Spoiler: :: OA
C



Q5. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage regarding the geologic changes that occurred during Ordovician period?

A. They were more drastic than those associated with other radiations
B. They may have created conditions favorable to the evolution of many new life-forms
C. They may have caused the extinction of many of the marine species living in shallow waters
D. They may have been a factor in the development of new species adapted to living both on land and in water
E. They hastened the formation of the extensive dry regions found in the western united states
Spoiler: :: OA
E



Q6. Which of the following best describes the function of last sentence of the passage ?

A. it points out that the events described in the passage may be atypical
B. it alludes to the fact that there is disagreement in the scientific community over the importance of the Ordovician radiation
C. it concludes that the evidence presented in the passage is insufficient to support the proposed hypothesis because it comes from a limited geographic area
D. it warns the reader against seeing a connection between the biological and geolgic changes described in the passage
E. it alerts the reader that current knowledge cannot completely explain the relationship suggested by the evidence presented in the passage
Spoiler: :: OA
E



can some one help exlain why Q5 is E not B?


Can you please provide the OEs?
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2017, 04:27
Hi experts,
Can you please explain answers to Q1 and Q2.

Thanks
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2017, 23:02
2
Requesting experts to look into this passage.
I don't agree with the OAs for Q1 and Q2.

Q1. the passage is clearly trying to speculate what could be the causes for the evolution of many life forms.
B. describing an evolutionary phenomenon and speculating about its cause . this is inline with what the passage says.
c is definitive . No where in the passage the passage we see any mechanism being explained but merely speculation is going on .
The last sentences of the passage also says the same
"these kinds of environmental changes may have resulted in an enriched pattem of habitats and nutrients, which in turn gave rise to the Ordovician radiation. However, the actual relationship between these environmental factors and the diversification of life forms is not yet fully understood"

As for Q2
OA given is E but the first sentence merely suggests it contains rocks from that period . We have information that suggest mountain ranges were formed because of geological changes but nothing about dry mountain ranges.
B on the other hand can be inferred from "and , in fact, there is evidence of major ecological and geological changes during this period: the sea level dropped drastically and mountain ranges were formed, in this instance, rather than leading to large-scale extinctions, these kinds of environmental changes may have resulted in an enriched pattern of habitats and nutrients"
Also "may have resulted in an enriched pattern of habitats and nutrients" this suggests that the mountains may not have been dry hence IMO E is not right .
hence i feel B is better.

Please let me know if my analyses is right .
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2018, 13:09
2
Hi jennpt,

I tried slicing and dicing question 1 and the passage but I still can't understand why B is wrong

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) evaluating the evidence of a major geologic period and determining its duration
(B) describing an evolutionary phenomenon and speculating about its cause
(C) explaining the mechanisms through which marine life-forms evolved during a particular period
(D) analyzing the impact on later life-forms of an important evolutionary development
(E) contrasting a period of evolutionary change with other such periods

B -describing an evolutionary phenomenon (radiation) and speculating about its cause (the sea level dropped drastically and mountain ranges were formed, in this instance, rather than leading to large-scale extinctions, these kinds of environmental changes may have resulted in an enriched pattem of habitats and nutrients, which in turn gave rise to the Ordovician radiation)

Perhaps you could shed some light on a blind spot here?

Thanks a ton.
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New post 17 Aug 2018, 02:42
Please explain why B is wrong in Q1? I can not find the mechanism in the paragraph ?

Thanks.
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 05:44
1
Shivikaa04 wrote:
Please explain why B is wrong in Q1? I can not find the mechanism in the paragraph ?

Thanks.


The correct answer is B. The OA is marked wrong here. Confirmed from verbal review 2019 book.

Regards
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The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 07:00
Dpzskr wrote:
The correct answer is B. The OA is marked wrong here. Confirmed from verbal review 2019 book.

Regards
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Thank you. I have corrected the OA. In cases like these, please tag a moderator.
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2018, 23:52
Kindly help to understand why Option C is not correct for Q1. The passage speaks about marine species which is specified in option C against option B,
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 00:08
P@PU wrote:
Kindly help to understand why Option C is not correct for Q1. The passage speaks about marine species which is specified in option C against option B,


it is wrong because the passage does not talk about any mechanism of evolution.
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 07:02
1
P@PU wrote:
Kindly help to understand why Option C is not correct for Q1. The passage speaks about marine species which is specified in option C against option B,


My friend,

Question 1 is "The passage is primarily concerned with". The meaning of the question stem is that you have to find the answer for which the passage was written.
So in question such as this general idea is the most important aspect. You have to read the whole passage and see what reason is it written for. So with this information in mind let us compare B and C

(B) describing an evolutionary phenomenon and speculating about its cause.
This choice is our answer it tells us about the phenomenon and its cause. Radiation and various geological activities make are discussed deeply.

(C) explaining the mechanisms through which marine life-forms evolved during a particular period.
Marine life is used as an example to the phenomenon of evolution during Ordovician period. So this can not be the aim of the passage.
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2018, 14:36
workout please correct the spoiler of the first question to be B rather than C.
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2018, 05:13
5:25
3/3
I think its a good 600-700 passage.!!
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2018, 02:10
Took me 4min 42sec. 3/3 correct.

Is this really a 700+ question? Seems more like 600-650 one...
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Re: The dry mountain ranges of the western United States contain rocks &nbs [#permalink] 29 Nov 2018, 02:10
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