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The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many peopl

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The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many peopl  [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2010, 23:45
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The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Any person who receives chiropractic treatment for back pain may also benefit from other forms of treatment.

(B) Large insurance carriers cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments.

(C) Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.

(D) Chiropractic treatment is more effective in treating severe back problems when utilized over a long period of time, as opposed to sporadically.

(E) Severe back pain and other problems often cause individuals to miss workdays.

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18 Jun 2011, 04:29
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The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems.

c)Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.

The society is recommending this treatment only for those who already suffer from severe back problem.

Why did it not recommend the treatment for those adults who don't suffer from back problem still?

Because, it assumes that the treatment is not preventive but curative.
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18 Apr 2010, 05:59
ykaiim wrote:
The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
• Any person who receives chiropractic treatment for back pain may also benefit from other forms of treatment.
• Large insurance carriers cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments.
• Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.
• Chiropractic treatment is more effective in treating severe back problems when utilized over a long period of time, as opposed to sporadically.
• Severe back pain and other problems often cause individuals to miss workdays.

I narrowed it down to C and D but I am going with C

I did not choose D because the argument does not say anything about how long people need treatment. The argument says that if you get back pain then chiropractic treatment helps. The assumption then becomes if you get treatment before you get pain then you won't get the pain. In other words, it's assuming chiropractic care is also a preventative measure.
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18 Apr 2010, 08:11
ykaiim wrote:
The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
• Any person who receives chiropractic treatment for back pain may also benefit from other forms of treatment.
• Large insurance carriers cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments.
• Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.
• Chiropractic treatment is more effective in treating severe back problems when utilized over a long period of time, as opposed to sporadically.
• Severe back pain and other problems often cause individuals to miss workdays.

well, it took long time me to understand the issue, still i am not clear. first of all stem says once you have back pain then take the medicine in that case it will be beneficial, then how come taking medicine became preventive measure. all of the choices are not clear to me. i concentrated on C but that too I am not able to comprehend how it can be assumption, while in stem it has clearly mentioned take medicine after the back pain.. could you please tell the source of this problem or any one can elaborate more. thanks
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18 Apr 2010, 13:01
Simply negate the option C and you will find that the option destroys the argument...!!
It has to be C.
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18 Apr 2010, 21:33
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nverma wrote:
Simply negate the option C and you will find that the option destroys the argument...!!
It has to be C.

could you please put option C i.e. "Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not" in your wordings.. i am not able to comprehend or taking in different way.. many thanks
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19 Apr 2010, 00:48
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einstein10 wrote:
nverma wrote:
Simply negate the option C and you will find that the option destroys the argument...!!
It has to be C.

could you please put option C i.e. "Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not" in your wordings.. i am not able to comprehend or taking in different way.. many thanks

In other words...IMO
C means:

"Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are equally likely to develop back pain than those who do not"... SO, there is no point giving treatment to the people in advance...so...."Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back pain"./... ONLY THOSE PEOPLE CAN BE TREATED WHO ARE ALREADY SUFFERING FROM PAIN... NO ADVANCE PRECAUTIONS?TREATMENTS WILL WORK..!!
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18 Jun 2011, 08:36
thanks a lot fluke and great way of thinking.
Just one question though,how do we interpret such a complex choice in exam(as in ,i could only prephrase this much that adults who sufer from back pain form a major proportion of people suffering from back pain)
thanks agian
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18 Jun 2011, 09:13
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thanks a lot fluke and great way of thinking.
Just one question though,how do we interpret such a complex choice in exam(as in ,i could only prephrase this much that adults who sufer from back pain form a major proportion of people suffering from back pain)
thanks agian

Seriously, I don't consciously follow any strict rule or protocol while solving these. I suggest you to read "Powerscore CR bible". It really helped me a lot.

For this question in particular, because it is an assumption question, locating the argument is highly important AND not missing anything what's mentioned in argument is necessary. Spend 10 seconds thinking whether we really require some additional information for that conclusion. Let me tell you this; most of the time, I can't figure out just by reading the argument what a possible assumption might be. But, after looking at the options, I can eliminate 2-3 options easily.

Don't eliminate an answer choice just because it's wordy, sounds convoluted, uses unheard words. Keep it aside and proceed further to eliminate the choices with conspicuous errors and then come back to the difficult option.

But, read the CR powerscore bible.
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01 Aug 2011, 02:59
The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a)Any person who receives chiropractic treatment for back pain may also benefit from other forms of treatment.

b)Large insurance carriers cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments.

c)Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.

d)Chiropractic treatment is more effective in treating severe back problems when utilized over a long period of time, as opposed to sporadically.

e)Severe back pain and other problems often cause individuals to miss workdays.

although i was able to get answer using poe ,iam not exactly sure why oa is correct

Although I choose C, I dislike this question.

negation of C shows that treatment prior the disease can reduce the number of patients. But it is true that the treatment after the disease is still effective. the treatment is both preventive and curative and the argument is still correct. and C can not be correct

Although I see manhantan CR very nice, I see some of the questions are strange. why do I not have this feel with OG or gmatprep?
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01 Aug 2011, 03:12

Note the key words in the argument

Quote:
The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion[u] of the population [/u]that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems.

The logic jumps like this: Many people develop "something" during adulthood. Virtually all of them improve after treatment A.
Hence, to reduce population suffering from "something" ES says A treatment be directed towards the already something adults.

What is the logic gap here? 1. 'Many' people who develop "something" in adulthood are significant proportion of population
2. Treating others, say non-adults suffering from "something" and adults not already suffering from "something" is not necessary to reduce the population suffering from "something".

Hence C.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a)Any person who receives chiropractic treatment for back pain may also benefit from other forms of treatment.

b)Large insurance carriers cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments.

c)Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.

d)Chiropractic treatment is more effective in treating severe back problems when utilized over a long period of time, as opposed to sporadically.

e)Severe back pain and other problems often cause individuals to miss workdays.

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05 Aug 2011, 00:22
fluke wrote:
The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems.

c)Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.

The society is recommending this treatment only for those who already suffer from severe back problem.

Why did it not recommend the treatment for those adults who don't suffer from back problem still?

Because, it assumes that the treatment is not preventive but curative.

Nice explanation Fluke. But we are talking of chiropractic or other treatments POST developing severe back problems and not PRIOR
So only people with back ache problems should be in scope.

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05 Aug 2011, 02:42
Conclusion says "Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems."

If we negate C we get "Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are less likely to develop back pain than those who do not."

I dont think we are bothered about a situation "prior to developing back problem".It doesn't match with the conclusion.

B when negated says "Large insurance carriers do not cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments."

Since Insurance companies are not going to cover chiropractic care, adults wouldn't go for it.Hence it weakens the arguement.

What do you guys think of this reasoning?
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08 Dec 2012, 13:45
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The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
Any person who receives chiropractic treatment for back pain may also benefit from other forms of treatment.
Large insurance carriers cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments.
Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.
Chiropractic treatment is more effective in treating severe back problems when utilized over a long period of time, as opposed to sporadically.
Severe back pain and other problems often cause individuals to miss workdays.

In the above answer choices, can someone apply Logical Negation to choice (C), which is the answer to the question.
My question is to know in which part of the sentence we need to apply the logical negation. In answer choice (C), we can apply logical negation at 3 places. So can someone explain where to apply.

Individuals who DO/DON'T receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are LESS LIKELY not less likely to develop back pain than those who do DOES not.

Thanks
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08 Dec 2012, 14:05
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Hi Krackgmat,

Let me see if I can help..

Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.

Is answer C. It's tricky, because as you say there are lots of negatives to work out. So, before we go any further, we need to work out what it actually saying.

It is saying that people who get preventative chiropractic treatment will not fare better than people who do not receive preventative treatment.

Re phrased like that the key 'negation' is clearer (highlighted above).

And it also makes it clear that this is an assumption. Because if we put all our \$\$ into treating people with back problems we need to know that we could not have spent the money better by treating all people before they get pain (preventative treatment).

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30 Aug 2013, 07:28

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

The argument proposes that directing chiropractic treatment toward adults with severe back problems is the best way to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain. The argument assumes a high degree of overlap between those adults who suffer from severe back problems and all people who suffer from back pain, where the former group may comprise only a subset of the latter group. It also assumes that there is not another recommendation that could better accomplish the goal of minimizing back pain for a larger segment of the population than treating just those adults with severe back problems.

(A) The argument does not depend upon whether or not chiropractic treatment can or cannot be used in conjunction with other medical treatments. The fact that people could benefit from other forms of treatment aside from chiropractic care weakens the argument to a slight degree, and does not act as a supportive assumption.

(B) The relative degree of insurance coverage of chiropractic care compared with other medical treatments is not vital to the argument. Also, that insurance carriers cover chiropractic care to a lesser degree weakens the argument marginally, and does not act as a supportive assumption.

(C) CORRECT. This statement rules out the possibility that chiropractic care or other medical treatments could effectively prevent or lessen back pain among those people who have not yet developed severe back problems.

(D) That chiropractic treatment is more effective over time is irrelevant to the argument.

(E) The economic impact of severe back pain and other problems is not addressed in the argument. Instead, addressing back pain is treated as an intrinsic goal, with no mention of economic externalities.
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25 Sep 2015, 05:06
ykaiim wrote:
The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
• Any person who receives chiropractic treatment for back pain may also benefit from other forms of treatment.
• Large insurance carriers cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments.
• Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.
• Chiropractic treatment is more effective in treating severe back problems when utilized over a long period of time, as opposed to sporadically.
• Severe back pain and other problems often cause individuals to miss workdays.

Hi all egmat manhattan

why my thought process & meaning analysis is just opposite ?
where am I wrong?
negate-
Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.
Meaning- Individual who receive chiropractic treatment are less likely get back pain

If I negate the option it does not shatter the conclusion instead it is strengthening the conclusion.

Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.

Meaning - Individual who receive chiropractic treatment are not less likely to develop back pain problem
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06 Jun 2016, 07:59
The Ergonomic Society conducted a study that indicated that many people develop severe back problems during adulthood, and that virtually all such people who received chiropractic treatment showed great improvement. Therefore, in order to minimize the proportion of the population that suffers from back pain, the Ergonomic Society recommended that chiropractic treatment be directed toward those adults who suffer from severe back problems.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a)Any person who receives chiropractic treatment for back pain may also benefit from other forms of treatment.

b)Large insurance carriers cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments.

c)Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not.

d)Chiropractic treatment is more effective in treating severe back problems when utilized over a long period of time, as opposed to sporadically.

e)Severe back pain and other problems often cause individuals to miss workdays.

although i was able to get answer using poe ,iam not exactly sure why oa is correct

Virtually all people who are treated with chiropractic treatment for back problem showed great improvements. Hence, it is recommended to institute this treatment to reduce the proportion of back pain.

We have to look for assumptions:-
1) The effects will be no different from earlier seen effects
2) proportion can not be reduced if the treatment is instituted in people who are not suffering from back ache
3) It is possible to reduce the proportion

a)Any person who receives chiropractic treatment for back pain may also benefit from other forms of treatment. We are not concerned about other treatments

b)Large insurance carriers cover chiropractic care for back problems to a lesser degree than they do other medical treatments. We are not concerned about other treatments

c)Individuals who receive chiropractic or other treatment prior to developing severe back problems are not less likely to develop back pain than those who do not. this is one of the assumption that we made

d)Chiropractic treatment is more effective in treating severe back problems when utilized over a long period of time, as opposed to sporadically. Period of instituting the treatment is not required

e)Severe back pain and other problems often cause individuals to miss workdays. effect of back pain is not discussed
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04 Jul 2016, 22:08
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Not less likely is the key.

Explanation for C

Bruce Wayne: Chiropractor helps reduce pain. So in order to reduce the proportion of population suffering from back pain, send people who have EXISTING back pains to chiropractors.

Alfred: Can we not send people who don't have pain? We can prevent before things go wrong. We always do.

Bruce: no Alfred. Back pain is destiny. Chiropractors are the saviors. We cannot prevent but we can save.
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02 Sep 2016, 05:04
agourav wrote:
The argument proposes that directing chiropractic treatment toward adults with
severe back problems is the best way to minimize the proportion of the
population that suffers from back pain. The argument assumes a high degree of
overlap between those adults who suffer from severe back problems and all
people who suffer from back pain, where the former group may comprise only a
subset of the latter group. It also assumes that there is not another
recommendation that could better accomplish the goal of minimizing back pain
for a larger segment of the population than treating just those adults with severe
back problems.
(A) The argument does not depend upon whether or not chiropractic treatment
can or cannot be used in conjunction with other medical treatments. The fact that
people could benefit from other forms of treatment aside from chiropractic care
weakens the argument to a slight degree, and does not act as a supportive
assumption.
(B) The relative degree of insurance coverage of chiropractic care compared with
other medical treatments is not vital to the argument. Also, that insurance carriers
cover chiropractic care to a lesser degree weakens the argument marginally, and
does not act as a supportive assumption.
(C) CORRECT. This statement rules out the possibility that chiropractic care or
other medical treatments could effectively prevent or lessen back pain among
those people who have not yet developed severe back problems.
(D) That chiropractic treatment is more effective over time is irrelevant to the
argument.
(E) The economic impact of severe back pain and other problems is not
intrinsic goal, with no mention of economic externalities.

Hi ! this is a very nice explanation. I found this question rather tricky and took almost 5mins to work this out. Which strategy would you recommend for such detail type questions in order to perform in this question in time ?
thanks .
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