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The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment

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The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2019, 09:14
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 460, Date: 18-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment is well documented, and policy makers and responsible employers are particularly sensitive to the plight of the black female employee on the theory that she is doubly the victim of discrimination. That there exist differences in income between white and black people is clear, but it is not so clear that these differences are solely the result of racial discrimination in employment. The two groups differ in productivity, so basic economics dictates that their incomes will differ.

To obtain a true measure of the effect of racial discrimination in employment it is necessary to adjust the gross black/ white income ratio for these productivity factors. White women in urban areas have a higher educational level than black women and can be expected to receive larger incomes. Moreover, state distribution of residence is important because blacks are over-represented in the South where wage rates are typically lower than elsewhere and where racial differentials in income are greater. Also, black people are over-represented in large cities; incomes of black people would be greater if black people were distributed among cities of different sizes in the same manner as white people.

After standardization for these productivity factors, the income of black urban women is estimated to be between 108 and 125 percent of the income of white women. This indicates that productivity factors more than account for the actual white/black income differential for women. Despite their greater education, white women’s actual median income is only 2 to 5 percent higher than that of black women in the North. Unlike the situation of men, the evidence indicates that the money income of black urban women was as great as, or greater than, that of whites of similar productivity in the North, and probably in the United
States as a whole. For men, however, the adjusted black/white income ratio is approximately 80 percent.

At least two possible hypotheses may explain why the adjustment for productivity more than accounts for the observed income differential for women, whereas the income differential persists for men. First, there may be more discrimination against black men than against black women. The different occupational structures for men and women give some indication why this could be the case, and institutionalized considerations—for example, the effect of unionization in cutting competition— may also contribute. Second, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the intensity of discrimination against women differs little between white and black people. Therefore, racial discrimination adds little to the effects of existing sex discrimination.

These findings suggest that a black woman does not necessarily suffer relatively more discrimination in the labor market than does a white woman. Rather, for women, the effects of sexual discrimination are so pervasive that the effects of racial discrimination are negligible. Of course, this is not to say that the more generalized racial discrimination of which black women, like black men, are victims does not disadvantage black women in their search for work. After all, one important productivity factor is level of education, and the difference between white and black women on this scale is largely the result of racial discrimination.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) explain the reasons for the existence of income differentials between men and women
(B) show that racial discrimination against black women in employment is less important than sexual discrimination
(C) explore the ways in which productivity factors such as level of education influence the earning power of black workers
(D) sketch a history of racial and sexual discrimination against black and female workers in the labor market
(E) offer some suggestions as to how public officials and private employers can act to solve the problem of discrimination against black women



2. According to the passage, the gross black/white income ratio is not an accurate measure of discrimination in employment because the gross ratio

(A) fails to include large numbers of black workers who live in the large cities and in the South
(B) must be adjusted to reflect the longer number of hours and greater number of days worked by black employees
(C) represents a subjective interpretation by the statistician of the importance of factors such as educational achievement
(D) is not designed to take account of the effects of the long history of racial discrimination
(E) includes income differences attributable to real economic factors and not to discrimination



3. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the income level of black women and that of black men?

(A) In general, black men earn less money than do black women.
(B) On the average, black women in the South earn less money than do black men in large northern cities.
(C) Productivity factors have a greater dollar value in the case of black women.
(D) Black men have a higher income level than black women because black men have a higher level of education.
(E) The difference between income levels for black and white women is less than that for black and white men.



4. Which of the following best describes the logical relationship between the two hypotheses presented (Text in Blue)?

(A) The two hypotheses may both be true since each phenomenon could contribute to the observed differential.
(B) The two hypotheses are contradictory, and if one is proved to be correct, the other is proved incorrect.
(C) The two hypotheses are dependent on each other, and empirical disconfirmation of the one is disconfirmation of the other.
(D) The two hypotheses are logically connected, so that proof of the first entails the truth of the second.
(E) The two hypotheses are logically connected, so that it is impossible to prove either one to be true without also proving the other to be true.



5. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

(A) Confident and overbearing
(B) Ill-tempered and brash
(C) Objective and critical
(D) Tentative and inconclusive
(E) Hopeful and optimistic



6. If the second hypothesis mentioned by the author (Text in Red) is correct, a general lessening of the discrimination against women should lead to

(A) a higher white/black income ratio for women
(B) a lower white/black income ratio for women
(C) lower female/male income ratio
(D) an increase in the productivity of women
(E) an increase in the level of education of women



7. The author’s attitude toward racial and sexual discrimination in employment can best be described as one of

(A) apology
(B) concern
(C) indifference
(D) indignation
(E) anxiety



Source: Master GMAT
Difficulty Level: 700

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Re: The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2019, 00:17
Can somebody please explain why Q6 answer is A and not C as we are talking about sexual discrimination in BW over WW?
The racial discrimination has already been ruled out from the data so from where does income come into picture?
I don't know what I am missing in it?
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Re: The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2019, 06:03
Psyllium9 wrote:
Can somebody please explain why Q6 answer is A and not C as we are talking about sexual discrimination in BW over WW?
The racial discrimination has already been ruled out from the data so from where does income come into picture?
I don't know what I am missing in it?


Official Explanation


6. If the second hypothesis mentioned by the author (Text in Red) is correct, a general lessening of the discrimination against women should lead to

Difficulty Level: Hard

Explanation

This is an application question. What would happen if sexual discrimination against women were no longer a factor? On the assumption that the second hypothesis is correct, racial discrimination against women is not a significant factor because it is overpowered by sexual discrimination. The author acknowledges the existence of the racial discrimination, so elimination of the sexual discrimination should result in the manifestation of increased racial discrimination against black women (on the assumption that the second theory is correct). The result should be a greater disparity between white and black female workers, with white female workers enjoying the higher end of the ratio. This is articulated by (A).

(B) is contradicted by this analysis and must be incorrect.

(C) is irrelevant since male earning levels are not being explained.

Finally, there is nothing to suggest that (D) or (E) would occur.

The correct answer is (A).


Hope it helps
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Re: The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2019, 20:05
Can someone post official explanations.
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Re: The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2019, 02:39
saishivapriya wrote:
Can someone post official explanations.


Official Explanation


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This is a main idea question. The author begins by acknowledging that there exists an actual differential between the earnings of whites and blacks, but then the author moves quickly to block the automatic presupposition that this is attributable to discrimination in employment. The author then examines the effect of various productivity variables on the differentials between black and white men and between black and white women, with particular emphasis on the latter.

The conclusion of the argument is that there is little difference in the adjusted earnings of black and white women, and the reason for this is the overpowering influence of sexual discrimination. (B) captures this analysis.

(A) is incorrect since the author’s primary focus is the black woman. Black female workers are studied by comparing them with white female workers. The differentials between men and women generally are only incidentally related to this analysis.

(C) fails because this is a subordinate level of argumentation. The author introduces productivity factors to adjust actual earnings merely to evaluate better the effects of discrimination.

(D) is incorrect since no history is offered aside from casual references to the distribution of workers.

Finally, (E) is incorrect since the author makes no such recommendations.

The correct answer is (B).


2. According to the passage, the gross black/white income ratio is not an accurate measure of discrimination in employment because the gross ratio

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This is an explicit idea question, the answer to which is found in paragraphs one and two. There the author states that the actual ratio is not an accurate measure of discrimination in employment because it fails to take account of productivity factors.

(A) is incorrect because of the word “include”—the gross ratio fails to adjust for distribution.

(B) is not mentioned and so cannot be an answer to a question that begins with the phrase “According to the passage . . .” (C), too, is never mentioned in the passage, and so it fails for the same reason, as does (D).

The correct answer is (E).


3. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the income level of black women and that of black men?

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

This is an explicit detail question and our needed reference is the third paragraph, which gives us comparisons, or ratios, of the earnings of black men to the earnings of white men and of the earnings of black women to the earnings of white women. Notice that the comparisons are relative. We never get actual dollar amounts, nor do we get comparisons between women and men.

(E) recognizes that the only conclusion that can be drawn on this basis is that the differential between black and white women is less than the differential between black and white men. The first is a difference of only 2 to 5 percent (before adjustment for productivity factors), while the second is about 20 percent (before adjustment).

(A), (C), and (D) can be eliminated on the ground that no such male/female comparison is possible.

(B) can be eliminated since no such information is supplied.

The correct answer is (E).


4. Which of the following best describes the logical relationship between the two hypotheses presented (Text in Blue)?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This is a logical structure question. The author states that there are two explanations to be considered: (1) black men are found in jobs characterized by greater racial discrimination, and (2) sexual discrimination in the case of women renders insignificant the racial discrimination against black women. But each of these could be true since both could contribute to the phenomenon being studied.

There is only an empirical, not a logical, connection between the two, that is, the extent to which each does have explanatory power as a matter of fact. On this ground we can eliminate every other answer choice.

The correct answer is (A).


5. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

This is a tone question, and the best description of the treatment of the subject matter is provided by (C).

(A) can be eliminated for the treatment, while confident, is not offensive.

(B) can be eliminated for that reason as well.

(D) is incorrect since there is nothing tentative or inconclusive about the treatment. To acknowledge that one is unable to determine which of two competing theories is preferable is not to be inconclusive or tentative. Finally, though some readers may find in the author’s discussion reason for hope or optimism, we cannot say that the author actually shows us these attitudes.

The correct answer is (C).


For Question #6, Follow below link.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-existenc ... l#p2408358

7. The author’s attitude toward racial and sexual discrimination in employment can best be described as one of

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

This is a tone question. Notice that this question asks not about the tone of the presentation but about the author’s attitude toward a particular subject. We must take our cue from the first paragraph, where the author refers to the efforts of “responsible employers.” This indicates that the author is sympathetic to the situation of workers who are victims of discrimination.

(B) is the best way of describing this attitude.

(E) is much too strong, for concern is not anxiety.

Further, (C) is much too weak, for the reference to responsible employers indicates the author is not indifferent.

(D), like (E), overstates the case. Finally, (A) is incorrect since the author offers no apology.

The correct answer is (B).


Hope it helps
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Re: The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment   [#permalink] 22 Nov 2019, 02:39
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