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The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does

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The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2020, 07:52
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Question Stats:

39% (02:18) correct 61% (02:28) wrong based on 93 sessions

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The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does not prove that the much smaller amount of tobacco smoke inhaled by nonsmokers who share living space with smokers harms the nonsmokers to some degree. Many substances, such as vitamin A, are toxic in large quantities but beneficial in small quantities.

In which one of the following is the pattern of reasoning most similar to that in the argument above?


(A) The fact that a large concentration of bleach will make fabric very white does not prove that a small concentration of bleach will make fabric somewhat white. The effect of a small concentration of bleach may be too slight to change the color of the fabric.

(B) Although a healthful diet should include a certain amount of fiber, it does not follow that a diet that includes large amounts of fiber is more healthful than one that includes smaller amounts of fiber. Too much fiber can interfere with proper digestion.

(C) The fact that large amounts of chemical fertilizers can kill plants does not prove that chemical fertilizers are generally harmful to plants. It proves only that the quantity of chemical fertilizer used should be adjusted according to the needs of the plants and the nutrients already in the soil.

(D) From the fact that five professional taste testers found a new cereal product tasty, it does not follow that everyone will like it. Many people find broccoli a tasty food, but other people have a strong dislike for the taste of broccoli.

(E) Although watching television for half of every day would be a waste of time, watching television briefly every day is not necessarily even a small waste of time. After all, it would be a waste to sleep half of every day, but some sleep every day is necessary.

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Re: The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2020, 08:26
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Bunuel wrote:
The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does not prove that the much smaller amount of tobacco smoke inhaled by nonsmokers who share living space with smokers harms the nonsmokers to some degree. Many substances, such as vitamin A, are toxic in large quantities but beneficial in small quantities.

In which one of the following is the pattern of reasoning most similar to that in the argument above?


(A) The fact that a large concentration of bleach will make fabric very white does not prove that a small concentration of bleach will make fabric somewhat white. The effect of a small concentration of bleach may be too slight to change the color of the fabric.

(B) Although a healthful diet should include a certain amount of fiber, it does not follow that a diet that includes large amounts of fiber is more healthful than one that includes smaller amounts of fiber. Too much fiber can interfere with proper digestion.

(C) The fact that large amounts of chemical fertilizers can kill plants does not prove that chemical fertilizers are generally harmful to plants. It proves only that the quantity of chemical fertilizer used should be adjusted according to the needs of the plants and the nutrients already in the soil.

(D) From the fact that five professional taste testers found a new cereal product tasty, it does not follow that everyone will like it. Many people find broccoli a tasty food, but other people have a strong dislike for the taste of broccoli.

(E) Although watching television for half of every day would be a waste of time, watching television briefly every day is not necessarily even a small waste of time. After all, it would be a waste to sleep half of every day, but some sleep every day is necessary.


An example of harmful effect of smoking is given and it is paralleled with consumption of vitamin A .
Two non comparable things(one good and one bad) in usage are compared.
E does a similar comparison of comparing watching television with sleep (on good and one one) and their dosage.
E parallels it and it correct
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Re: The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2020, 08:54
Can someone plz explain the entire structure in a more elaborative manner
As i am not able to get the logic or similar structure as in the passage to reach opt E
Though by elimination it is easy to get E.

Plz explain the entire structure in the passage and how does E resembles that patter

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Re: The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Feb 2020, 18:27
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Shubhanshi06 The author is arguing that just because a LOT of tobacco smoke harms you, we can't conclude that a LITTLE bit does. They support this with an analogy to another case: LOTS of vitamin D is harmful, but a LITTLE is actually good.

So the basic idea is to demonstrate that in at least one case, we can't reason from large quantities to small quantities, because small amounts are good and large amounts are bad. The author uses this to conclude that we shouldn't do this in a specific case: tobacco inhalation.

We see the same thing in E. The author says that we can't conclude that a LITTLE television watching is BAD just because a LOT of television watching is bad. Why? Because a LOT of sleep is bad, even though a reasonable amount of sleep is good.

Answer choice A seems close, but it argues that small quantities may simply do nothing at all, so it doesn't as closely mirror the "small quantities are actually good" idea from the original.
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Re: The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Feb 2020, 20:08
Bunuel wrote:
The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does not prove that the much smaller amount of tobacco smoke inhaled by nonsmokers who share living space with smokers harms the nonsmokers to some degree. Many substances, such as vitamin A, are toxic in large quantities but beneficial in small quantities.

In which one of the following is the pattern of reasoning most similar to that in the argument above?


(A) The fact that a large concentration of bleach will make fabric very white does not prove that a small concentration of bleach will make fabric somewhat white. The effect of a small concentration of bleach may be too slight to change the color of the fabric.

(B) Although a healthful diet should include a certain amount of fiber, it does not follow that a diet that includes large amounts of fiber is more healthful than one that includes smaller amounts of fiber. Too much fiber can interfere with proper digestion.

(C) The fact that large amounts of chemical fertilizers can kill plants does not prove that chemical fertilizers are generally harmful to plants. It proves only that the quantity of chemical fertilizer used should be adjusted according to the needs of the plants and the nutrients already in the soil.

(D) From the fact that five professional taste testers found a new cereal product tasty, it does not follow that everyone will like it. Many people find broccoli a tasty food, but other people have a strong dislike for the taste of broccoli.

(E) Although watching television for half of every day would be a waste of time, watching television briefly every day is not necessarily even a small waste of time. After all, it would be a waste to sleep half of every day, but some sleep every day is necessary.


Very high quality question! I have found that with similar reasoning questions I can only get them right if I diagram out the argument and answer choice arguments with letters

The argument follows : Lots A =Harm x---> small A= harm ex : lots D = harm but little d x---> harm

(A) Lots of A = works x---> little A works a little this might be tempting, but we can do better

(B) Small A=good x---> lots of A = better out
(C) lots of A = bad x=> Any A bad, circumstances...... ok this arguments changes at the end out
(D) 5 people = good x=... ok if we are talking about 5 different elements this is already not the same argument
(E) lots of A = bad x==> little A = bad, example. this structure is identical to the structure of the argument. so OA = E
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Re: The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does   [#permalink] 29 Feb 2020, 20:08

The fact that tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers harms the smokers does

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