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The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations

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The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 02 Sep 2018, 20:29
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The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations is that they are actually perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus of the relevant sensory organ. These perceptions are accompanied by a persuasive sense of their reality. Hallucinations are not to be confused with illusions, which are misinterpretations of actual external stimuli. In other words, in the case of a hallucination, for a person hallucinating a sound for instance, the sound actually exists, but in reality it exists nowhere but in the person’s mind; however, in the case of an illusion the stimulus that caused the illusion does exist in the real world. Although hallucinations are a key diagnostic feature of schizophrenia, a mental disorder that distorts the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others, they can occur in individuals devoid of any physical or mental disorder.

In order to understand why people hallucinate, some researchers have been studying people suffering from what is called the phantom limb syndrome, a condition in which people who have undergone amputation feel as though the missing body part were still very much present and attached to the body; for instance, it is not uncommon for a person who has lost a leg to unknowingly try to stand and walk without any external support after their surgery. One of the two main hypotheses behind the phantom limb syndrome offers an explanation that is possibly applicable to why people hallucinate in certain circumstances. As per this theory, the brain is programmed for a body where every body part is intact and in the appropriate place. Accordingly, when some signals go missing, because of the missing body part, the brain compensates for the lack of sensory input by triggering spontaneous nerve cell activity. Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements; after all the different areas of the brain that were used to receiving signals through the senses start to stimulate themselves in to action.

1. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT

A. Solitary confinement is a condition that it is not necessarily deemed out of the ordinary.
B. An illusion follows an actual stimulus whereas a hallucination does not.
C. On detecting that a patient is experiencing hallucinations, a psychiatrist is likely to check the patient for schizophrenia.
D. When a body part is amputated, the brain stops receiving some of the signals it usually does.
E. The applicability of phantom limb syndrome is limited to some instances of hallucinations.


2. The author is primarily concerned with

A. Differentiating hallucinations from other forms of disorders and discussing the relevance of a theory.
B. Discussing the relevance of a proposed hypothesis while defining hallucination and differentiating it from another phenomenon.
C. Explaining why a theory does not provide full insight into the circumstances leading up to hallucinations.
D. Defining hallucination by citing a unanimously agreed upon definition and providing insight into why hallucinations take place in circumstances not regarded out of the ordinary.
E. Elaborating on a theory that deals with a phenomenon that is triggered by circumstances not dissimilar to hallucinations in certain conditions.


3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

A. Hallucinations are caused by chemical imbalances in the brain, imbalances typical of people with mental disorders.
B. Hallucinations cannot be experienced at the same time as illusions.
C. A person suffering from the phantom limb syndrome is likely to suffer from hallucination at some point during the condition.
D. Auditory and visual hallucinations are the two most common types of hallucinations experienced by people in solitary confinement.
E. An illusion happens after there has been a real external trigger for the same.


4. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the first paragraph?

A. To elaborate a concept while differentiating it from other related concepts.
B. To define a phenomenon while discarding a common misunderstanding about its central feature.
C. To explain a key difference between two concepts.
D. To introduce a phenomenon while differentiating it from another.
E. To initiate a discussion about a concept that is normally mistaken for another phenomenon.


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Originally posted by Skywalker18 on 05 Jun 2018, 19:35.
Last edited by workout on 02 Sep 2018, 20:29, edited 2 times in total.
Added Q4 and OA
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Re: The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2018, 20:36
9
1. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT


A. Solitary confinement is a condition that it is not necessarily deemed out of the ordinary.

Correct: Opposite

This piece of information is against the information given in the last sentence of the final paragraph. The author distinctly states that:

Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements;

Through this sentence the author presents a contrast. In the first bolded statement, he/she indicates that the theory has limited applicability in conditions that are not deemed out of the ordinary, i.e. the theory has limited applicability in ordinary conditions. The author then presents the contrast – this theory is a step forward to understand hallucinations in solitary confinements. Thus, by combing these two aspects of contract, one can infer that the author does not consider solitary confinement as an ordinary condition.

Thus, this answer choice goes against the given information.

B. An illusion follows an actual stimulus whereas a hallucination does not.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This piece of information is given in the introductory paragraph. The author states that:

...is that they are actually perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus of the relevant sensory organ...however, in the case of an illusion the stimulus that caused the illusion does exist in the real world.

In the above extract, the author mentions that an illusion follows a real stimulus whereas a hallucination is in the absence of any external stimulus.

C. On detecting that a patient is experiencing hallucinations, a psychiatrist is likely to check the patient for schizophrenia.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information can be inferred from the information given in the last sentence of the first paragraph. The author states that hallucinations are a key diagnostic feature of schizophrenia, a mental disorder. What this phrase means is that hallucinations are a symptom and are used to check for the mental disorder schizophrenia.

D. When a body part is amputated, the brain stops receiving some of the signals it usually does.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information can be inferred from the explanation proposed in the hypothesis discussed in the second paragraph. The author states that:
As per this theory, the brain is programmed for a body where every body part is intact and in the appropriate place. Accordingly, when some signals go missing, because of the missing body part,

E. The applicability of phantom limb syndrome is limited to some instances of hallucinations.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information can be derived from the following portion in the second paragraph:

…Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements; after all the different areas of the brain that were used to receiving signals through the senses start to stimulate themselves in to action.

2. The author is primarily concerned with


A. Differentiating hallucinations from other forms of disorders and discussing the relevance of a theory.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does differentiate hallucinations from one phenomenon (illusions), but we are never told whether illusion is a form of disorder. Hence, this part of the choice cannot be justified: Differentiating hallucinations from other forms of disorders.

B. Discussing the relevance of a proposed hypothesis while defining hallucination and differentiating it from another phenomenon.

Correct

This choice corrects the error noted in the above choice and is on the same lines as our pre-thought main point noted in the summary section.

C. Explaining why a theory does not provide full insight in to the circumstances leading upto hallucinations.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does mention that the theory has limited applicability, but he/she never delves in to why it doesn't provide full insight. Also, this choice completely ignored the relevance of the first paragraph in the passage.

D. Defining hallucination by citing a unanimously agreed upon definition and providing insight into why hallucinations take place in circumstances not regarded out of the ordinary.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

First of all, this choice does not mention anything about the difference mentioned between hallucinations and illusions. Secondly, and more importantly, the author talks about how a particular theory explains hallucinations in specific circumstances that are not ordinary. This choice says the exact opposite.

E. Elaborating on a theory that deals with a phenomenon that is triggered by circumstances not dissimilar to hallucinations in certain conditions.

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice covers the scope of only the second paragraph. There is no mention of the function of the paragraph in the passage.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?


A. Hallucinations are caused by chemical imbalances in the brain, imbalances typical of people with mental disorders.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of chemical imbalance anywhere in the passage. Also, the author mentions in the last sentence of the first paragraph that hallucinations can occur in people who DO NOT have any mental disorder.

B. Hallucinations cannot be experienced at the same time as illusions.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given regarding the possibility of experiencing the two phenomena at the same time. Hence, this choice has no relevant basis in the passage.

C. A person suffering from the phantom limb syndrome is likely to suffer from hallucination at some point during the condition.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not discuss the probability of experiencing hallucinations and phantom limb syndrome.

D. Auditory and visual hallucinations are the two most common types of hallucinations experienced by people in solitary confinement.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

These types of hallucinations are mentioned in the second paragraph for people in solitary confinements; however, nowhere does the author say that these are "two most common" types of hallucinations in such circumstances.

E. An illusion happens after there has been a real external trigger for the same.

Correct

This is stated in the first paragraph of the passage. The author says that ...illusions, which are misinterpretations of actual external stimuli

4. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the first paragraph?


A. To elaborate a concept while differentiating it from other related concepts.

Incorrect: Irrelevant

First of all, the author introduces the concept of hallucinations here and does not elaborate on one. Secondly, the only other concept, and not concepts, it is differentiated from is illusions.

B. To define a phenomenon while discarding a common misunderstanding about its central feature.

Incorrect: Partial Scope

There is no "common misunderstanding" mentioned in the passage. The author merely advises that hallucinations are not to be mixed with illusions.

C. To explain a key difference between two concepts.

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice does encapsulate the part in which the author differentiates between hallucinations and illusions. However, it misses a key element that the reason the author mentions this difference is to increase our understanding about the concept of hallucinations.

D. To introduce a phenomenon while differentiating it from another.

Correct

This is indeed the function of the first paragraph. The author introduces the concept of hallucinations while differentiating it from illusions.

E. To initiate a discussion about a concept that is normally mistaken for another phenomenon.

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author does start a discussion about hallucinations in this paragraph; however, this choice, like choice B, is incorrect as we do not know that hallucinations are mistaken for illusions normally.
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Re: The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2018, 19:54
Skywalker18

Can you provide OE for first two questions.
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Re: The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2018, 03:16
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workout wrote:
1. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT


A. Solitary confinement is a condition that it is not necessarily deemed out of the ordinary.

Correct: Opposite

This piece of information is against the information given in the last sentence of the final paragraph. The author distinctly states that:

Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements;

Through this sentence the author presents a contrast. In the first bolded statement, he/she indicates that the theory has limited applicability in conditions that are not deemed out of the ordinary, i.e. the theory has limited applicability in ordinary conditions. The author then presents the contrast – this theory is a step forward to understand hallucinations in solitary confinements. Thus, by combing these two aspects of contract, one can infer that the author does not consider solitary confinement as an ordinary condition.

Thus, this answer choice goes against the given information.

B. An illusion follows an actual stimulus whereas a hallucination does not.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This piece of information is given in the introductory paragraph. The author states that:

...is that they are actually perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus of the relevant sensory organ...however, in the case of an illusion the stimulus that caused the illusion does exist in the real world.

In the above extract, the author mentions that an illusion follows a real stimulus whereas a hallucination is in the absence of any external stimulus.

C. On detecting that a patient is experiencing hallucinations, a psychiatrist is likely to check the patient for schizophrenia.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information can be inferred from the information given in the last sentence of the first paragraph. The author states that hallucinations are a key diagnostic feature of schizophrenia, a mental disorder. What this phrase means is that hallucinations are a symptom and are used to check for the mental disorder schizophrenia.

D. When a body part is amputated, the brain stops receiving some of the signals it usually does.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information can be inferred from the explanation proposed in the hypothesis discussed in the second paragraph. The author states that:
As per this theory, the brain is programmed for a body where every body part is intact and in the appropriate place. Accordingly, when some signals go missing, because of the missing body part,

E. The applicability of phantom limb syndrome is limited to some instances of hallucinations.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information can be derived from the following portion in the second paragraph:

…Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements; after all the different areas of the brain that were used to receiving signals through the senses start to stimulate themselves in to action.

2. The author is primarily concerned with


A. Differentiating hallucinations from other forms of disorders and discussing the relevance of a theory.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does differentiate hallucinations from one phenomenon (illusions), but we are never told whether illusion is a form of disorder. Hence, this part of the choice cannot be justified: Differentiating hallucinations from other forms of disorders.

B. Discussing the relevance of a proposed hypothesis while defining hallucination and differentiating it from another phenomenon.

Correct

This choice corrects the error noted in the above choice and is on the same lines as our pre-thought main point noted in the summary section.

C. Explaining why a theory does not provide full insight in to the circumstances leading upto hallucinations.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does mention that the theory has limited applicability, but he/she never delves in to why it doesn't provide full insight. Also, this choice completely ignored the relevance of the first paragraph in the passage.

D. Defining hallucination by citing a unanimously agreed upon definition and providing insight into why hallucinations take place in circumstances not regarded out of the ordinary.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

First of all, this choice does not mention anything about the difference mentioned between hallucinations and illusions. Secondly, and more importantly, the author talks about how a particular theory explains hallucinations in specific circumstances that are not ordinary. This choice says the exact opposite.

E. Elaborating on a theory that deals with a phenomenon that is triggered by circumstances not dissimilar to hallucinations in certain conditions.

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice covers the scope of only the second paragraph. There is no mention of the function of the paragraph in the passage.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?


A. Hallucinations are caused by chemical imbalances in the brain, imbalances typical of people with mental disorders.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of chemical imbalance anywhere in the passage. Also, the author mentions in the last sentence of the first paragraph that hallucinations can occur in people who DO NOT have any mental disorder.

B. Hallucinations cannot be experienced at the same time as illusions.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given regarding the possibility of experiencing the two phenomena at the same time. Hence, this choice has no relevant basis in the passage.

C. A person suffering from the phantom limb syndrome is likely to suffer from hallucination at some point during the condition.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not discuss the probability of experiencing hallucinations and phantom limb syndrome.

D. Auditory and visual hallucinations are the two most common types of hallucinations experienced by people in solitary confinement.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

These types of hallucinations are mentioned in the second paragraph for people in solitary confinements; however, nowhere does the author say that these are "two most common" types of hallucinations in such circumstances.

E. An illusion happens after there has been a real external trigger for the same.

Correct

This is stated in the first paragraph of the passage. The author says that ...illusions, which are misinterpretations of actual external stimuli

4. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the first paragraph?


A. To elaborate a concept while differentiating it from other related concepts.

Incorrect: Irrelevant

First of all, the author introduces the concept of hallucinations here and does not elaborate on one. Secondly, the only other concept, and not concepts, it is differentiated from is illusions.

B. To define a phenomenon while discarding a common misunderstanding about its central feature.

Incorrect: Partial Scope

There is no "common misunderstanding" mentioned in the passage. The author merely advises that hallucinations are not to be mixed with illusions.

C. To explain a key difference between two concepts.

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice does encapsulate the part in which the author differentiates between hallucinations and illusions. However, it misses a key element that the reason the author mentions this difference is to increase our understanding about the concept of hallucinations.

D. To introduce a phenomenon while differentiating it from another.

Correct

This is indeed the function of the first paragraph. The author introduces the concept of hallucinations while differentiating it from illusions.

E. To initiate a discussion about a concept that is normally mistaken for another phenomenon.

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author does start a discussion about hallucinations in this paragraph; however, this choice, like choice B, is incorrect as we do not know that hallucinations are mistaken for illusions normally.



For your explanation of ques 2 option D, the passage does talk about incidents that are not deemed OUT OF THE ORDINARY. Which means they are indeed ordinary.
You have written the opposite--- " Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations"
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Re: The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2018, 23:32
how long should i have taken to do this one? it took me 9 mins and 3/4 correct :(
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Re: The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2018, 10:26
Although I got all 4 correct in just over 8 minutes, I am still not sure how D beat C in Q4. Can anyone shed some light on that?
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Re: The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 03:21
workout

For Q3 option C, the author does mention that it is not uncommon for people without a leg to suffer from phantom leg syndrome. Doesn't this imply what is stated in option C?

Thanks in advance.
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Re: The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2018, 00:38
For me this was a hard one got 2/4 this time unfortunately
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Re: The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations &nbs [#permalink] 01 Nov 2018, 00:38
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The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations

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