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# The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neandertha

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The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neandertha  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 27 Feb 2019, 06:50
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39% (02:03) correct 61% (02:13) wrong based on 109 sessions

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The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neanderthal settlement exhibits every quality of a device capable of indicating the time of day with the shadows cast depending on the position of the sun-perhaps the earliest sundial ever discovered. Thus, researchers at the site theorize that sundials were developed and used centuries earlier than expected.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

A. Sundials were likely the only technology most Neanderthal communities possessed

B. No object capable of indicating the time by the way of solar positioning has been attributed to an earlier date than the sundial discovered at the Neanderthal settlement.

C. The sundial is made of Kazakh limestone and there is an ancient limestone quarry located near the settlement

D. Sundials are the simplest but most effective wat to tell the time in the absence of advanced machinery

E. The sundial was apparently constructed to indicate the time at the precise latitude wee the Neanderthal settlement in which it was found is located

Originally posted by aniket16c on 27 Feb 2019, 06:36.
Last edited by Bunuel on 27 Feb 2019, 06:50, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neandertha  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2019, 07:10
Hi, can anyone offer an explanation for the option E why is it correct. ?
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Re: The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neandertha  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2019, 07:19
abhishek31 wrote:
Hi, can anyone offer an explanation for the option E why is it correct. ?

The argument uses ' perhaps' so author is not 100% sure .

in choice B. 'No other object ' is too strong for teh answer choice .

So by POE, We see only the E is the suitable option.

Posted from my mobile device
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27 Feb 2019, 07:55
I would like to provide my side of explanation and then post the question.

A: Irrelevant
B: The argument is that the researchers are postulating of an object existing prior to their discovery. So this option is merely stating what scientists know. The option is not providing information which will help to understand if object existed prior to study or not = Eliminate B
C: This option suggests that there could be a possibility of existence of sundial manufacturing plant that predates the found sundial. However, since the options only mentions "ancient" we are not entirely sure about the time-frame. = Confused should I eliminate it or not.
D. Irrelevant
E. The option tells us about the function of sundial and also gives us hint that sundial was pretty precise. However, I am not able to understand how can they draw a conclusion that sundial pre-existed that the date they are postulating. Can it be that, the precise working of the instrument suggests there were number of iterations to manufacture it?
My query: By applying the above logic I am not able to zero down to option E.
Can you please explain where I am going wrong?
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Re: The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neandertha  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2019, 10:39
Anyone please explain why it will be E.
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Re: The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neandertha  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2019, 01:56
I believe B is wrong because the argument is not discussing whether the sun dial was discovered on an earlier date than the sundial discovered at the Neanderthal settlement, it is in fact arguing that the Neanderthal settlement exhibits man-made stone projection (sundial) was in fact built at that time, developed and used centuries earlier than expected.
Answer E presents evidence to back up this argument.
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Re: The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neandertha  [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2019, 22:08
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Karano wrote:
The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neanderthal settlement exhibits every quality of a device capable of indicating the time of day with the shadows cast depending on the position of the sun -- perhaps the earliest sundial ever discovered. Thus, researchers at the site theorize that sundials were developed and used centuries earlier than expected.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

A. Sundials were likely the only technology most Neanderthal communities possessed.

B. No object capable of indicating the time by way of solar positioning has been attributed to an earlier date than the sundial discovered at the Neanderthal settlement.

C. The sundial is made of Kazakh limestone and there is an ancient limestone quarry located to the settlement.

D. Sundials are the simplest but most effective way to tell the time in the absence of advanced machinery.

E. The sundial was apparently constructed to indicate the time at the precise latitude where the Neanderthal settlement in which it was found is located.

It is extremely important to read the question properly to know exactly what you are looking for.

"Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?" - So we are looking for an option that will support our hypothesis. It will make our hypothesis more probable. What is our hypothesis?
"Sundials were developed and used centuries earlier than expected."

What are the premises?
The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neanderthal settlement exhibits every quality of a device capable of indicating the time of day with the shadows cast depending on the position of the sun -- perhaps the earliest sundial ever discovered.

So the researchers have discovered a man made projection. It exhibits every quality a device indicating time with the shadows cast should have. It seems like it is a sundial - the earliest one. Based on this the researchers are hypothesising that sundials were developed much before expected earlier. It seems that the Neanderthals were using sundials. What will strengthen it? If we can show that the man made projection is very likely to be a sundial.

E. The sundial was apparently constructed to indicate the time at the precise latitude where the Neanderthal settlement in which it was found is located.
It says that the projection indicates the time of the precise latitude where it was found. So the construction is such that it indicates time of this latitude. So it seems more likely that it was constructed to tell time here. That it is not just some random construction. That it actually is a sundial. This strengthens our hypothesis that sundials were developed and used centuries earlier than expected.

The only confusing option is (B)

B. No object capable of indicating the time by way of solar positioning has been attributed to an earlier date than the sundial discovered at the Neanderthal settlement.

Note what our hypothesis is: "Sundials were developed and used centuries earlier than expected."
Till recently, it was believed that sundials were developed and used since time X. Now with this discovery at Neanderthal site, we are hypothesising that they were developed and used centuries earlier. How does "no sundial has been attributed to an earlier date than the Neanderthal one" help strengthen our hypothesis? Our hypothesis is "used centuries earlier". It doesn't say that Neanderthals were the first ones to use. Something that helps us establish that sundials were used before time X is helpful to us.

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Re: The man-made stone projection discovered at the center of a Neandertha   [#permalink] 01 Mar 2019, 22:08
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