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# The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a

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The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2011, 08:35
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802. The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them: the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as “standing waves.”

(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are
(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
(D) stationary crests and troughs although he air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

Last edited by DeeptiM on 11 Jul 2011, 08:53, edited 1 time in total.
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11 Jul 2011, 08:42
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I like C

The resulting pattern = singular = is
Left with C and E
In E, I have a problem with 'they' - no clear antecedent
On a second look, I also feel E is in passive voice
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11 Jul 2011, 13:41
I will go with C too. I think E changes the meaning a bit too by moving "stationary" from "that" clause to in front of compound subject.
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11 Jul 2011, 14:02
C it is.

Simplifying sentence,

The resulting flow pattern, with (description) are known as “standing waves.”

Singular noun: pattern, hence singular verb: is,

Eliminating all options with 'are' we short them down to C and E.

(C) Crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is >> 'although' is necessary to indicate contradictory conditions (stationary and moving) >> Correct option
(E) Stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is >> though grammatically correct, not suitable here.
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11 Jul 2011, 20:37
OA is C

Why is the subject "The pattern" and not "The peaks of a mountain range"?

This might be a stupid question but need help.

Thanks Guys!
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11 Jul 2011, 21:03
The peaks of mountain range is subject of the main clause. 'peaks of mountain range' is plural so correctly them is used for them [The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over THEM]

However after semi-colon we have another clause, and this clause too should follow subject verb agreement of its own . remove the non-essential part of sentence to see.

'the resulting flow pattern ARE known as standing waves'.

ask yourself how many patterns are we talking about ? The answer is one. the resulting flow pattern. so it should be the The resulting flow pattern is known as standing waves.

crux of the matter- subject of each clause should agree with its verb. Main clause doesn't dictates the agreement issue of subordinate clause or other clauses of the sentence.
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11 Jul 2011, 23:30
Thanks for the explanation..I get the stated point.

Below is the logic I hold, pls correct me if I am wrong...

A new clause begings after ":" and
A new sentence begins after ";"

In each of the above scenario, subject of each should agree with its verb.
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12 Jul 2011, 02:47
DeeptiM wrote:
Thanks for the explanation..I get the stated point.

Below is the logic I hold, pls correct me if I am wrong...

A new clause begings after ":" and
A new sentence begins after ";"

In each of the above scenario, subject of each should agree with its verb.

A new sentence only begins after a period . (.)

A clause is group of words that contains both a subject and a verb. It may or may not be able to stand on it's own. A clause which can stand on it's own(as a meaningful sentence) is called independent clause. A clause which can't stand on it's own is called a dependent clause.

If a sentence contains two clauses, verbs of both clauses should agree with their subject,

semicolon (;) is used to link two independent clause.
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12 Jul 2011, 03:39
Aj85 wrote:
DeeptiM wrote:
Thanks for the explanation..I get the stated point.

Below is the logic I hold, pls correct me if I am wrong...

A new clause begings after ":" and
A new sentence begins after ";"

In each of the above scenario, subject of each should agree with its verb.

A new sentence only begins after a period . (.)

A clause is group of words that contains both a subject and a verb. It may or may not be able to stand on it's own. A clause which can stand on it's own(as a meaningful sentence) is called independent clause. A clause which can't stand on it's own is called a dependent clause.

If a sentence contains two clauses, verbs of both clauses should agree with their subject,

semicolon (;) is used to link two independent clause.

Thanks for the explanation..below is what i meant..

I have solved couple of SC questions wherein i learnt that in GMAT, answer choices with semi colon (;) are the best and they initiate a new sentence...does colon (:) also serves the same purpose..as per my understanding they are used to provide further explanation or to expand on something.
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12 Jul 2011, 04:27
DeeptiM wrote:
802. The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them: the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as “standing waves.”

(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are
(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
(D) stationary crests and troughs although he air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them: the resulting flow pattern, [highlight]with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly[/highlight], is known as “standing waves.”

The highlighted portion is some extra info about the pattern. Ignore it for a moment.

The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them: the resulting flow pattern is known as “standing waves.”

"Pattern" is singular and agrees with "is".

A,B,D- out.

Now, let's focus on the comma embedded portion.
crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly.
crests and troughs-plural
remain-plural verb
them- correctly refers to crests ad troughs
Good.

crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly
air-singular
forms-singular verb
is-singular

Air forms crest and troughs
crest and troughs remain stationary
BUT the air that actually formed crest and troughs moves rapidly.

":" follows by a sentence that provides extra info about previous statement.
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12 Jul 2011, 04:35
fluke wrote:
DeeptiM wrote:
802. The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them: the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as “standing waves.”

(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are
(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
(D) stationary crests and troughs although he air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them: the resulting flow pattern, [highlight]with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly[/highlight], is known as “standing waves.”

The highlighted portion is some extra info about the pattern. Ignore it for a moment.

The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them: the resulting flow pattern is known as “standing waves.”

"Pattern" is singular and agrees with "is".

A,B,D- out.

Now, let's focus on the comma embedded portion.
crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly.
crests and troughs-plural
remain-plural verb
them- correctly refers to crests ad troughs
Good.

crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly
air-singular
forms-singular verb
is-singular

Air forms crest and troughs
crest and troughs remain stationary
BUT the air that actually formed crest and troughs moves rapidly.

":" follows by a sentence that provides extra info about previous statement.

That's one heck of an explanation..simply awsum Fluke!!
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2013, 07:06
C and E are the only choices which agree in subject and verb, but not sure why E is wrong.
Rest all get eliminated as are is wrong verb here.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2013, 03:24
I believe the the right answer is C as it has proper subject verb agreement and correct modifier.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2013, 04:04
i know C is correct by looking for the reason why E is wong.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2013, 04:22
"flow pattern" is singular. So verb should be "is". You are left with C and E. E sounded awkward and also as sudhir has pointed out, "they" has no clear antecedent.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2013, 06:37
atalwar wrote:
i know C is correct by looking for the reason why E is wong.

Thanks for posting this question. This is a very nice question that once again exemplifies the importance of understanding the meaning and noting when a choice may change the meaning of the sentence.

Lets first analyze the original sentence -

The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves".

The peaks produce ripple in air. This creates a flow pattern. This flow pattern has crests and troughs. Even though the air that forms them moves rapidly, these remain stationary. This pattern is called standing waves.

Now given this meaning, lets focus on choice C - It communicates exactly the same thing. So C is the correct answer.

Now lets look at choice E - here the use of modifier - stationary- distorts the intended meaning. Now the intended contrast is not very apparent. It is no longer clear. Per choice A and C, the contrast is very clear - crests and troughs REMAIN stationary, whereas the air that forms them moves rapidly. But in choice E - it appears as if the stationary crests and troughs are made by the rapidly moving air.

This is why choice E is not correct.

Thanks.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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20 Feb 2015, 07:27
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egmat wrote:
atalwar wrote:
i know C is correct by looking for the reason why E is wong.

Thanks for posting this question. This is a very nice question that once again exemplifies the importance of understanding the meaning and noting when a choice may change the meaning of the sentence.

Lets first analyze the original sentence -

The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves".

The peaks produce ripple in air. This creates a flow pattern. This flow pattern has crests and troughs. Even though the air that forms them moves rapidly, these remain stationary. This pattern is called standing waves.

Now given this meaning, lets focus on choice C - It communicates exactly the same thing. So C is the correct answer.

Now lets look at choice E - here the use of modifier - stationary- distorts the intended meaning. Now the intended contrast is not very apparent. It is no longer clear. Per choice A and C, the contrast is very clear - crests and troughs REMAIN stationary, whereas the air that forms them moves rapidly. But in choice E - it appears as if the stationary crests and troughs are made by the rapidly moving air.

This is why choice E is not correct.

Thanks.

For me it is not still clear why E is awkward and unclear as OG describes.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2015, 10:28
I have a simple questions.
Why does "them" in the second clause cannot refer to "ripples" in the first clause ?
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2016, 07:27
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2016, 07:37
With all due respect egmat your explanation is not at all clear what exactly has changed in the meaning!
Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a   [#permalink] 18 Jul 2016, 07:37
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