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The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background

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The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2017, 04:53
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The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background, typically the bark of trees. In the late nineteenth century, those peppered moths with the lightest pigmentation had the greatest contrast with their backgrounds, and therefore were the most likely to be seen and eaten by predators. It follows, then, that the darkest peppered moths were the least likely to be seen and eaten.

Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the reasoning of the argument?

(A) The argument overlooks the possibility that light peppered moths had more predators than dark peppered moths.

(B) The argument takes for granted that peppered moths are able to control the degree to which they blend into their backgrounds.

(C) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that all peppered moths with the same coloring had the same likelihood of being seen and eaten by a predator.

(D) The argument overlooks the possibility that there were peppered moths of intermediate color that contrasted less with their backgrounds than the darkest peppered moths did.

(E) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that the only defense mechanism available to peppered moths was to blend into their backgrounds.

Souce: LSAT
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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ganand wrote:
The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background, typically the bark of trees. In the late nineteenth century, those peppered moths with the lightest pigmentation had the greatest contrast with their backgrounds, and therefore were the most likely to be seen and eaten by predators. It follows, then, that the darkest peppered moths were the least likely to be seen and eaten.

Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the reasoning of the argument?

(A) The argument overlooks the possibility that light peppered moths had more predators than dark peppered moths.

(B) The argument takes for granted that peppered moths are able to control the degree to which they blend into their backgrounds.

(C) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that all peppered moths with the same coloring had the same likelihood of being seen and eaten by a predator.

(D) The argument overlooks the possibility that there were peppered moths of intermediate color that contrasted less with their backgrounds than the darkest peppered moths did.

(E) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that the only defense mechanism available to peppered moths was to blend into their backgrounds.

Souce: LSAT


E seems most make sense to me.
I don't get why D is relevant

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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2017, 23:43
Only option B and E are the possible answers... Can some one, plz explain D??

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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2017, 08:36
Hi,
Please explain how "D" is correct option.
As per me, 'E' should be the answer.
Reason: Premise says, light coloured moths were eaten less. So the conclusion is, darker ones will be eaten more. Measn the assumption is colour is the defining reason for being predated or not.
'E' says only colour cannot be the resaon for being predated upon. Which describes the flaw.
'D' option says that argument overlooks the possibility that moths of intermediate colors were also there. But how does it pojnt out any flaw, as it has no correlation with the conclusion.

Please explain.
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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2017, 08:57
I go for D because it is still relevant to the argument while E is considering another fact that gas not been mentioned at the beginning of the passage.

Is D the correct answer?


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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2017, 09:28
ganand wrote:
The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background, typically the bark of trees. In the late nineteenth century, those peppered moths with the lightest pigmentation had the greatest contrast with their backgrounds, and therefore were the most likely to be seen and eaten by predators. It follows, then, that the darkest peppered moths were the least likely to be seen and eaten.


Story of the Argument - Light moths are most likely to be eaten by predators and the darkest moths are least likely to be eaten because of the contrast with their backgrounds. The entire argument is based on the moth's colour contrast with its background.

Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the reasoning of the argument?

Quote:
(A) The argument overlooks the possibility that light peppered moths had more predators than dark peppered moths.

This is irrelevant. Even if the light peppered moths had 1 predator, and it ate all the moths then the likelihood of light peppered moths being dinner is still the same. OUT!


Quote:
(B) The argument takes for granted that peppered moths are able to control the degree to which they blend into their backgrounds.

The author's hasn't assumed this to be the case in his argument at all. This is irrelevant. OUT!


Quote:
(C) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that all peppered moths with the same coloring had the same likelihood of being seen and eaten by a predator.

This option is comparing the same moth with itself, and the argument is stating that the darkest moths are the least likely to be eaten. It doesn't state all dark moths have the same probability of being eaten. This is OUT!


Quote:
(D) The argument overlooks the possibility that there were peppered moths of intermediate color that contrasted less with their backgrounds than the darkest peppered moths did.

So this states that there is a possibility of a third kind of peppered moth that's of intermediate colouring and doesn't contrast as much with its background. Well this directly attacks the author's conclusion that the darkest moths are the least likely to be eaten by predators. KEEP!


Quote:
(E) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that the only defense mechanism available to peppered moths was to blend into their backgrounds.

This is attacking a stated premise i.e. moths blend in with their background to protect themselves from their predators. So whether they have additional defence mechanisms or not wouldn't change a thing, as the new defence mechanism would be applicable to both type of moths, and hence, their likelihood of being eaten wouldn't change with respect to one another. This is OUT!


So the answer is D.
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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2017, 02:54
None of the options are perfect, though the option E makes more sense to me.
D should not be the OA.
Experts, can you please give your comments on this?

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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2017, 11:11
"d" qualifies for the correct answer, as it presents one of the possibility that intermediate ones could have contrasted least as compared to dark and light peppered moths.

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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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darn wrote:
None of the options are perfect, though the option E makes more sense to me.
D should not be the OA.
Experts, can you please give your comments on this?

Quote:
(E) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that the only defense mechanism available to peppered moths was to blend into their backgrounds.

The argument does not necessarily presume that the ONLY defense mechanism available to peppered moths was to blend into their backgrounds. The author merely states "that the darkest peppered moths were the least likely to be seen and eaten." This argument could be valid even if the moth had other defense mechanisms.

Quote:
(D) The argument overlooks the possibility that there were peppered moths of intermediate color that contrasted less with their backgrounds than the darkest peppered moths did.

We are told that "those peppered moths with the lightest pigmentation had the greatest contrast with their backgrounds, and therefore were the most likely to be seen and eaten by predators." The author then reasons "that the darkest peppered moths were the least likely to be seen and eaten." But what if the darkest peppered moths are actually much darker than the tree bark that often serves as the moths' background? In that case, the darkest moths might be easy to see, while moths of intermediate color closely match the tree bark and are thus difficult to see.

Choice (D) expresses this possibility, which represents a flaw in the argument.
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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2017, 20:46
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GMATNinja wrote:
darn wrote:
None of the options are perfect, though the option E makes more sense to me.
D should not be the OA.
Experts, can you please give your comments on this?

Quote:
(E) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that the only defense mechanism available to peppered moths was to blend into their backgrounds.

The argument does not necessarily presume that the ONLY defense mechanism available to peppered moths was to blend into their backgrounds. The author merely states "that the darkest peppered moths were the least likely to be seen and eaten." This argument could be valid even if the moth had other defense mechanisms.

Quote:
(D) The argument overlooks the possibility that there were peppered moths of intermediate color that contrasted less with their backgrounds than the darkest peppered moths did.

We are told that "those peppered moths with the lightest pigmentation had the greatest contrast with their backgrounds, and therefore were the most likely to be seen and eaten by predators." The author then reasons "that the darkest peppered moths were the least likely to be seen and eaten." But what if the darkest peppered moths are actually much darker than the tree bark that often serves as the moths' background? In that case, the darkest moths might be easy to see, while moths of intermediate color closely match the tree bark and are thus difficult to see.

Choice (D) expresses this possibility, which represents a flaw in the argument.


Thank You. Nice explanation.

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Re: The peppered moth avoids predators by blending into its background   [#permalink] 18 Aug 2017, 20:46
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