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The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by

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The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 18:34
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The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by a giant impact between a large planet-like object and the proto-Earth very early in the evolution of our solar system. The energy of this impact was sufficiently high that the Moon formed from melted material that began with a deep liquid magma ocean. As the Moon cooled, this magma ocean solidified into different mineral components, the lightest of which floated upwards to form the oldest crust. Although samples of this presumed ancient crust were brought back to Earth by the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, it was not until recently that scientists could successfully date them. Recent analysis of one of the samples, a rock called ferroan anorthosite or FAN, which is believed to be the oldest of the Moon's crustal rocks, has given scientists new insights into the formation of the Moon, suggesting that the Moon may be much younger than currently believed.

The sample that had been carefully stored at NASA’s Johnson Space Center had to be extensively pre-cleaned to remove terrestrial contamination. Once the sample was contamination free, the researchers were able to study it. The team analyzed the isotopes of the elements lead and neodymium to place the age of the sample at 4.36 billion years. This figure is significantly younger than earlier estimates of the Moon's age that range to nearly as old as the age of the solar system itself at 4.567 billion years. The new, younger age obtained for the oldest lunar crust is similar to ages obtained for the oldest terrestrial minerals -- zircons from Western Australia -- suggesting that the oldest crust on both Earth and the Moon formed at approximately the same time.

This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques. This result strongly suggests that these ages pinpoint the time at which this sample crystallized. The extraordinarily young age of this lunar sample either means that the Moon solidified significantly later than previous estimates -- and therefore the moon itself is much younger than previously believed -- or that this sample does not represent a crystallization product of the original magma ocean. Either scenario requires major revision to existing models for the formation of the Moon.

1. Which of the following captures the primary purpose of the passage?

A. To explain a recent scientific analysis while analyzing some important implications of its findings

B. To establish how a prevailing scientific theory is no longer valid

C. To discuss two competing theories regarding a scientific phenomenon

D. To present the details of a recent scientific analysis and its findings

E. To question the outcome of a recent finding

2. The passage states which of the following?

A. The oldest terrestrial minerals can be said to be at least 4.36 billion years old.

B. In the recent analysis, more than one dating mechanism was applied to the FAN sample.

C. A significant amount of more research is required before anything certain can be concluded regarding the age of the FAN samples.

D. Zircons from Western Australia corroborated the age of the FAN sample.

E. Terrestrial contamination often occurs in samples brought from space.

3. The passage supports which of the following statements?

A. In the light of the analysis done on the FAN sample, it is possible that ferroan anorthosite is not a light mineral.

B. If the Moon was indeed formed 4.36 billion years ago, then the age of the solar system itself needs to be reconsidered.

C. The fact that the moon was not formed at a much later stage than generally believed does not affect the requirement for significant changes in the existing theory of Moon formation.

D. A consistent result from multiple isotope dating techniques had never been achieved in any field before the mentioned study on the FAN sample.

E. Since the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, scientists have not been able to obtain more samples from the Moon’s crust.


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Re: The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 18:41

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions


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The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 01:15
1
Q1 - why not D, as passage explains about theory and its findings...

Q2 - This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques, hence B is correct ans..

Q3, as per my understanding C is wrong bcz the last line of 3rd para states that "Either scenario requires major revision to existing models for the formation of Moon."

please explain...
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The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 02:56
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jareen wrote:
Q1 - why not D, as passage explains about theory and its findings...

Q2 - This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques, hence B is correct ans..

Q3, as per my understanding C is wrong bcz the last line of 3rd para states that "Either scenario requires major revision to existing models for the formation of Moon."

please explain...



hey jareen,

jareen wrote:
Q1 - why not D, as passage explains about theory and its findings...


D is not correct because this answer choice doesn't mention "important implications" also D "presents details" which is wrong, because as per the thid para below - the scientfic study was explained" i marked "recent scientfic explanation in blue and highlighted important implications in yellow. hence answer A is correct.

The sample that had been carefully stored at NASA’s Johnson Space Center had to be extensively pre-cleaned to remove terrestrial contamination. Once the sample was contamination free, the researchers were able to study it. The team analyzed the isotopes of the elements lead and neodymium to place the age of the sample at 4.36 billion years. This figure is significantly younger than earlier estimates of the Moon's age that range to nearly as old as the age of the solar system itself at 4.567 billion years. The new, younger age obtained for the oldest lunar crust is similar to ages obtained for the oldest terrestrial minerals -- zircons from Western Australia -- suggesting that the oldest crust on both Earth and the Moon formed at approximately the same time.

jareen wrote:
Q3, as per my understanding C is wrong bcz the last line of 3rd para states that "Either scenario requires major revision to existing models for the formation of Moon."


C is correct The fact that the moon was not formed at a much later stage than generally believed does not affect the requirement for significant changes in the existing theory of Moon formation.


because the age of moon formation doesnt affect the existing theory of Moon formation, you can assume whatever age you wish, but the excisting theory HOW moon was formed, is not really ifluenced by age of moon formation. see below extract from first para

The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by a giant impact between a large planet-like object and the proto-Earth very early in the evolution of our solar system. The energy of this impact was sufficiently high that the Moon formed from melted material that began with a deep liquid magma ocean.


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Re: The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 08:29
thanks D, for nice explanation..
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Re: The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 23:18
1. Which of the following captures the primary purpose of the passage?


A. To explain a recent scientific analysis while analyzing some important implications of its findings

Correct

B. To establish how a prevailing scientific theory is no longer valid

Incorrect: Inconsistent

This choice is too extreme. The author never discards the prevailing theory. He/She instead recommends that in the light of the new findings, major revisions need to be made to the existing models of Moon formation.

C. To discuss two competing theories regarding a scientific phenomenon

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There are no two competing theories about Moon formation. As stated in the explanation for choice B, the analysis mentioned in the passage has implications for the existing theory.

D. To present the details of a recent scientific analysis and its findings

Incorrect: Partial Scope

Yes, the author indeed does so but in the final paragraph, the author even analyzes the implications of the analysis. Hence, this choice fails to capture the essence of the entire passage.

E. To question the outcome of a recent finding

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author never doubts the findings of the analysis. The impact of the findings is explored in the passage.

2. The passage states which of the following?


A. The oldest terrestrial minerals can be said to be at least 4.36 billion years old.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage says that the age of the FAN sample is similar to that of the oldest terrestrial minerals. This means that these minerals can be said to be around (accounting for a few years younger or older than this number) 4.36 billion years old. However, this choice says that they are at least these many years old, implying that they could be older but not younger than 4.36 billion years.

B. In the recent analysis, more than one dating mechanism was applied to the FAN sample.

Correct

This information is explicitly given to us in the following section of the passage (last para- 1st sentence):. This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques.

C. A significant amount of more research is required before anything certain can be concluded regarding the age of the FAN samples.

Incorrect: Opposite

The statement made in this choice goes against the following contents of the passage:. This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques. This result strongly suggests that these ages pinpoint the time at which this sample crystallized.

D. Zircons from Western Australia corroborated the age of the FAN sample.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The similarity between the age of the zircons and FAN sample points towards the conclusion that the oldest crust on both Earth and Moon formed at approximately the same time and not that the zircons helped establish the age of the FAN samples in the first place.

E. Terrestrial contamination often occurs in samples brought from space.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

We know that there was terrestrial contamination in the sample studies but there is no given information regarding how often such contamination occurs.

3. The passage supports which of the following statements?


A. In the light of the analysis done on the FAN sample, it is possible that ferroan anorthosite is not a light mineral.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

We are told that it is possible that the FAN sample does not belong to the original magma that cooled down to form the Moon, meaning that it is not a part of the ancient crust of the Moon as it was thought to be. This ancient crust was formed of the lightest minerals in the magma. However, if the sample itself does not represent the magma, no conclusion can be drawn regarding its weight properties. Also, this choice says “light” mineral, which is an absolute judgment; the passage makes a comparison between the minerals on the crust and other minerals in the magma.

B. If the Moon was indeed formed 4.36 billion years ago, then the age of the solar system itself needs to be reconsidered.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage says that if the Moon was formed at a stage later than 4.567 billion years ago, the age of the solar system, then existing models of Moon formation need to be revised. However, the finding has no stated implication for the age of the solar system itself.

C. The fact that the moon was not formed at a much later stage than generally believed does not affect the requirement for significant changes in the existing theory of Moon formation.

Correct

This statement can be inferred from the author’s analysis of the implications of the findings. Please refer to the relevant section below:

The extraordinarily young age of this lunar sample either means that the Moon solidified significantly later than previous estimates -- and therefore the moon itself is much younger than previously believed -- or that this sample does not represent a crystallization product of the original magma ocean. Either scenario requires major revision to existing models for the formation of the Moon.

D. A consistent result from multiple isotope dating techniques had never been achieved in any field before the mentioned study on the FAN sample.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given to conclude anything about the application of these dating techniques in other fields.

E. Since the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, scientists have not been able to obtain more samples from the Moon’s crust.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given in the passage to support any inference about other scientific missions.
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Re: The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by &nbs [#permalink] 07 Oct 2018, 23:18
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