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The professionalization of the study of history in the second half of

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The professionalization of the study of history in the second half of [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2014, 07:59
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Passage-18 [url=http://gmatclub.com/forum/all-gmat-prep-rcs-collection-176232.html]GMATPrep RCs-Collection(Main article)[/url]
The professionalization of the study of history in the second half of the nineteenth century, including history's transformation from a literary genre to a scientific discipline, had important consequences not only for historians' perceptions of women but also for women as historians. The disappearance of women as objects of historical studies during this period has elements of irony to it. On the one hand, in writing about women, earlier historians had relied not on firsthand sources but rather on secondary sources; the shift to more rigorous research methods required that secondary sources be disregarded. On the other hand, the development of archival research and the critical editing of collections of documents began to reveal significant new historical evidence concerning women, yet this evidence was perceived as substantially irrelevant: historians saw political history as the general framework for historical writing. Because women were seen as belonging to the private rather than to the public sphere, the discovery of documents about them, or by them, did not, by itself, produce history acknowledging the contributions of women. In addition, genres such as biography and memoir, those forms of "particular history" that women had traditionally authored, fell into disrepute. The dividing line between "particular history" and general history was redefined in stronger terms, widening the gulf between amateur and professional practices of historical research.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. describing some effects of the professionalization of the study of history on the writing of women's history
B. explaining some reasons for the professionalization of the writing of history
C. discussing the kinds of historical writing traditionally practiced by women
D. contrasting the approach to the writing of history taken by women with the approach taken by men
E. criticizing certain changes that occurred in the writing of history during the second half of the nineteenth century

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


2. Which of the following best describes one of the "elements of irony" referred to in the highlighted text?
A. Although the more scientific-minded historians of the second half of the nineteenth century considered women appropriate subjects for historical writing, earlier historians did not.
B. Although archival research uncovered documentary evidence of women's role in history, historians continued to rely on secondary sources for information about women.
C. Although historians were primarily concerned with writing about the public sphere, they generally relegated women to the private sphere.
D. The scientific approach to history revealed more information about women, but that information was ignored.
E. The professionalization of history, while marginalizing much of women's writing about history, enhanced the importance of women as historical subjects.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


3. According to the passage, the development of archival research and the critical editing of collections of documents had which of the following effects?
A. Historians increasingly acknowledged women's contributions to history.
B. Historians began to debate whether secondary sources could provide reliable information.
C. Historians began to apply less rigorous scientific research criteria to the study of women's history.
D. More evidence concerning women became available to historical researchers.
E. Women began to study history as professional historians.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA

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Last edited by bb on 28 Nov 2016, 23:31, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: The professionalization of the study of history in the second half of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2016, 08:53
Why is option B wrong in 2nd question? Can someone please explain?

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New post 28 Nov 2016, 16:28
If someone could explain the best approach to answering these questions and comprehending the passage, that would be very helpful.

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Re: The professionalization of the study of history in the second half of [#permalink]

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New post 11 Feb 2017, 13:40
rmadmit wrote:
Why is option B wrong in 2nd question? Can someone please explain?


Hi,

Lines from the pasasge :
On the one hand, in writing about women, earlier historians had relied not on firsthand sources but rather on secondary sources.

In passage these lines tell about earlier historians whereas this line from passage suggests the shift to more rigorous research methods required that secondary sources be disregarded the view of current historian. Irony is about current historians not old , therefore B is wrong.
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Re: The professionalization of the study of history in the second half of [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2017, 09:06
Feel free to use the request verbal experts' reply button to post specific questions. As described in the Rules to post on the Verbal Forum, avoid short/useless posts.

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Re: The professionalization of the study of history in the second half of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2017, 12:27
Could you please explain how option D is right for the second question?

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Re: The professionalization of the study of history in the second half of [#permalink]

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ADiCR7 wrote:
Could you please explain how option D is right for the second question?

Quote:
2. Which of the following best describes one of the "elements of irony" referred to in the highlighted text?

Remember to use process of elimination on ALL GMAT verbal questions:

Quote:
A. Although the more scientific-minded historians of the second half of the nineteenth century considered women appropriate subjects for historical writing, earlier historians did not.

The passage describes the "disappearance of women as objects of historical studies during this period". Choice (A) suggests the opposite, so it can be eliminated.

Quote:
B. Although archival research uncovered documentary evidence of women's role in history, historians continued to rely on secondary sources for information about women.

The passage specifically states that "the shift to more rigorous research methods required that secondary sources be disregarded." Choice (B) directly contradicts this information and be eliminated.

Quote:
C. Although historians were primarily concerned with writing about the public sphere, they generally relegated women to the private sphere.

This seems in line with the information in the passage, but does it describe "elements of irony"? If women belong to the private sphere and historians are primarily focused on the public sphere, we would EXPECT a disappearance of women as objects of historical studies. There is nothing inconsistent or contradictory about that result, but leave choice (C) for now if you aren't sure.

Quote:
D. The scientific approach to history revealed more information about women, but that information was ignored.

The new approach revealed more information about women.. great! Oh wait, that new approach also means that we are going to IGNORE much of the additional information. The same approach that helped us GATHER the new information also tells us that we should IGNORE that same information.

We would expect an approach that reveals more information about women to INCREASE historical studies of women. But that same approach caused historians to ignore the very information they discovered. This surprising and seemingly contradictory result (much like a discrepancy) has "elements of irony", unlike the facts stated in choice (C). (D) seems like the best answer so far.

Quote:
E. The professionalization of history, while marginalizing much of women's writing about history, enhanced the importance of women as historical subjects.

As stated for choice (A), the passage describes the "disappearance of women as objects of historical studies during this period". This implies that the importance of women as historical subjects was not ENHANCED during this period, so (E) can be eliminated.

Choice (D) is the best answer.
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Re: The professionalization of the study of history in the second half of   [#permalink] 28 Nov 2017, 21:54
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