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The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two

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The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition
Practice Question
Question No.: 14
Page: 120
Difficulty:

The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects that are especially pernicious. First, it often kills off the pests' natural enemies in the area . Second, it often unintentionally gives rise to insecticide-resistant pests, since those insects that survive a particular insecticide will be the ones most resistant to it, and they are the ones left to breed.

From the passage above, it can be properly inferred that the effectiveness of the sustained massive use of pesticides can be extended by doing which of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility?

(Al Using only chemically stable insecticides
(B) Periodically switching the type of insecticide used
(C) Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used
(D) Leaving a few fields fallow every year
(E) Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants

Please Explain! Thanks
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by dentobizz on 21 Oct 2013, 21:21, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two e [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2013, 22:23
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The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects that are especially pernicious. First, it often
kills off the pests' natural enemies in the area . Second, it often unintentionally gives rise to insecticide-resistant
pests, since those insects that survive a particular insecticide will bethe ones most resi stantto it, and they are
the ones left to breed.

From the passage above, it can be properly inferred that the effectiveness of the sustained massive use of
pesticides can be extended by doingwhich of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility?

survive a particular insecticide ...so massive use can only be extended if we can attack this "particular type insecticide"

(Al Using only chemically stable insecticides new knoweldge -ignore
(B) Periodically switching thetype of insecticide used->correct :there are changing it..so if that pesticide survived by one type chances r it will be killed by other type
(C) Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides usedthe stronger ones can resist the higher quantity
(D) Leavinga few fields fallow every yeardoes not help us
(E) Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plantsu need a ans discussing about pesticide

so B

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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two e [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2013, 22:31
As the OA mentiones, the answer would be [B].
We can see that the question requires the effectiveness of the sustained massive use of pesticides to be extended. The paragraph above describe the destructive effects of the massive use of pesticides in farming which are:
1. kills off the pests' natural enemies in the area
2. gives rise to insecticide-resistant pests.

Now the first effect is not highlighted in any of the choices, but the second reason can be countered by continous change in the variety of insectiside so that the pests do not get acquainted with a given type of insectiside. The above argument is presented under the choice [B]. Rest of the choices can be eliminated for obvious reasons.

Hope this helps! :)

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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two e [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2013, 22:33
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fozzzy wrote:
The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects that are especially pernicious. First, it often
kills off the pests' natural enemies in the area . Second, it often unintentionally gives rise to insecticide-resistant
pests, since those insects that survive a particular insecticide will be the ones most resistant to it, and they are
the ones left to breed.

From the passage above, it can be properly inferred that the effectiveness of the sustained massive use of
pesticides can be extended by doingwhich of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility?
(Al Using only chemically stable insecticides
(B) Periodically switching thetype of insecticide used
(C) Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used
(D) Leavinga few fields fallow every year
(E) Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants

Please Explain! Thanks


Fact: sustained massive use of pesticide ==> kills off the pest's enemies & give rise to insecticide-resistant pests
Conclusion: those insects survive a particular insecticide ==> the ones left to breed

Because pests can resist a particular insecticide ONLY IF this insecticide is used over and over again.
To prevent the pests from resisting a particular insecticide, the most effective way is to change type of insecticide used.

B says exactly how to prevent pests from resisting insecticide.

Hence, B is correct.
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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two e [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2013, 22:47
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Argument:
Sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects
1. it often kills off the pests' natural enemies in the area
2. it often unintentionally gives rise to insecticide-resistant pests , since those insects that survive a particular insecticide will be the ones most resistant to it, and they are the ones left to breed.

Pre thinking:
Sustained use kills natural enemies.
Sustained use of a particular pesticide wills make insects that survives as resistant to that pesticide.
So by using one pesticide for too long we are actually creating insects resistant to that pesticide. Hence a way to avoid this is not to use one particular pesticide for too long.

Analysis of answer choice
(Al Using only chemically stable insecticides
INCORRECT: Irrelevant as chemical stability is not a problem here.
(B) Periodically switching the type of insecticide used
CORRECT: Since using one particular pesticide makes insects resistant to it so a better approach would be to change pesticides so that insects which develops resistance against one type gets killed by other type of pesticides.

(C) Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used
INCORRECT: Argument already talks about sustained massive use which is not having effect on pesticide resistant insects.

(D) Leaving a few fields fallow every year
INCORRECT: It will not change the reasons which are causing the problem.

(E) Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants
INCORRECT: higher yielding plants can still get affected by insects.
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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2013, 02:19
fozzzy wrote:
The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects that are especially pernicious. First, it often kills off the pests' natural enemies in the area . Second, it often unintentionally gives rise to insecticide-resistant pests, since those insects that survive a particular insecticide will be the ones most resistant to it, and they are the ones left to breed.

From the passage above, it can be properly inferred that the effectiveness of the sustained massive use of pesticides can be extended by doing which of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility?

(Al Using only chemically stable insecticides
(B) Periodically switching the type of insecticide used
(C) Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used
(D) Leaving a few fields fallow every year
(E) Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants

Please Explain! Thanks




Let us examine the options.

Option A: Using only chemically stable insecticides.
Chemical stability of the insecticides is not mentioned anywhere in the passage. Irrelevant.
Hence Option A is incorrect.


Option B: Periodically switching the type of insecticide used.
It is given that insecticide-resistant pests arise due to breeding of the pests which survived a particular type of insecticide. Therefore it is a logical conclusion that by changing the insecticides there is a chance to reduce the incidence of insecticide-resistant pests thereby extending the effectiveness of sustained massive use of pesticides.
Hence Option B is correct.


Option C: Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used.
This doesn't help because pesticides are also responsible for killing off the pests' natural enemies in the area. Also this gradual increase can lead to an even stronger insecticide-resistant varieties among pests.
Hence Option C is incorrect.


Option D: Leaving a few fields fallow every year.
Irrelevant. This doesn't help increase the effectiveness of sustained massive use of pesticides.
Hence Option D is incorrect.


Option E: Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants.
Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants doesn't help with problem of pests. It doesn't, in anyway, increase the effectiveness of pesticides.
Hence Option E is incorrect.


So the correct answer is Option B.

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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2014, 16:59
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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2016, 16:47
Stmt structure :

Massive use of pest --> 1. Kill the natural enemy of pest --> 2. Resisted pest of the particular pesticide will breed. Hence the resisted pest will increase in the farming. This may not be good.

Pre-thinking: The resisted pest which can't be killed by a particular pesticide survives and breed.

a. Using only chemically stable insecticides - Nature of the pest is not discussed. can't be inferred.
b. Periodically switching the type of insecticide used - this is in alignment with prethinking. This will make sure that the survived pest may be killed if we use a diff one.
c. Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used - this can't be inferred.As the passage scope should be with in the usage of massive use of pesticides - and its reactions. Usage of more pest will not take any effect as it can be used only as much.
d. Leaving a few fields fallow every year - The passage scope is -- massive usage of pesticides and its effect. This option falls beyond its scope. Hence its incorrect.
e. Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants - clearly irrelevant to the passage's scope.

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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2016, 16:48
Stmt structure :

Massive use of pest --> 1. Kill the natural enemy of pest --> 2. Resisted pest of the particular pesticide will breed. Hence the resisted pest will increase in the farming. This may not be good.

Pre-thinking: The resisted pest which can't be killed by a particular pesticide survives and breed.

a. Using only chemically stable insecticides - Nature of the pest is not discussed. can't be inferred.
b. Periodically switching the type of insecticide used - this is in alignment with prethinking. This will make sure that the survived pest may be killed if we use a diff one.
c. Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used - this can't be inferred.As the passage scope should be with in the usage of massive use of pesticides - and its reactions. Usage of more pest will not take any effect as it can be used only as much.
d. Leaving a few fields fallow every year - The passage scope is -- massive usage of pesticides and its effect. This option falls beyond its scope. Hence its incorrect.
e. Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants - clearly irrelevant to the passage's scope.

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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2016, 06:40
The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects that are especially pernicious. First, it often kills off the pests' natural enemies in the area . Second, it often unintentionally gives rise to insecticide-resistant pests, since those insects that survive a particular insecticide will be the ones most resistant to it, and they are the ones left to breed.

Boil it down - 2 negative effects of pesticides - kills pest's natural enemies and gives rise to insecticide-resistant pests . The ones left will be resistant to pesticides .


From the passage above, it can be properly inferred that the effectiveness of the sustained massive use of pesticides can be extended by doing which of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility?

(Al Using only chemically stable insecticides - Irrelevant as per the argument the negative effects are for all kinds of pesticides
(B) Periodically switching the type of insecticide used - Correct - Suppose we use type A pesticide in first year and type B in second year , there is possibility that the pests that were resistant to type A might not be resistant to Type B .
(C) Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used - Incorrect
(D) Leaving a few fields fallow every year - Incorrect
(E) Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants - Irrelevant

Answer B
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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2017, 21:15
Evaluation of a Plan

Situation Continued high-level pesticide use often kills off the targeted pests' natural enemies. In addition, the pests that survive the application of the pesticide may become resistant to it, and these pesticide-resistant pests will continue breeding.

Reasoning What can be done to prolong the effectiveness of pesticide use?
It can be inferred that the ongoing use of a particular pesticide will not continue to be effective against the future generations of pests with an inherent resistance to that pesticide. What would be effective against these future generations? If farmers periodically change the particular pesticide they use, then pests resistant to one kind of pesticide might be
killed by another. This would continue, with pests being killed off in cycles as the pesticides are changed. It is also possible that this rotation might allow some of the
pests' natural enemies to survive, at least until the next cycle.

A Not enough information about chemically stable insecticides is given to make a sound inference.

B Correct. This statement properly identifies an action that could extend the effectiveness of pesticide use.

C Gradually increasing the amount of the pesticides being used will not help the situation since the pests are already resistant to it.

D Continued use of pesticides is assumed as part of the argument. Since pesticides would be unnecessary for fallow fields, this suggestion is irrelevant.

E Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crops does nothing to extend the effectiveness of the use of pesticides.

The correct answer is B.
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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2017, 11:02
Argument: Sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects:

1. Kills Pests
2. Gives rise to insecticide resistant pests

We are trying to look for a scenario which can help in overcoming or reducing the impact created by the second point.

(Al Using only chemically stable insecticides – Out of Scope, chemical stability not discussed.
(B) Periodically switching the type of insecticide used – Looks correct – Lets hold this
(C) Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used – This will worsen it more, incorrect
(D) Leaving a few fields fallow every year – Irrelevant
(E) Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants – Does not solve the pesticide issue

Correct Answer is B
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Re: The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two [#permalink]

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Get Major uses of pesticides, Plant growth Regulator And Major uses of biopesticide

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