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# Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the

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Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2014, 03:25
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77% (01:46) correct 23% (02:03) wrong based on 476 sessions

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Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner. A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness. If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.

Which of the following most weakens the conclusion in the argument above?

(A) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction.

(B) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated.

(C) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes.

(D) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs.

(E) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age.

Explanation: The conclusion in the argument is that the tape would not be available if the frogs had become extinct. If, however, as choice C states, the tape were designed by looking at dead frogs, it would not matter if there were no live frogs. Therefore, this choice weakens the conclusion.

(A) This comparison is irrelevant. We cannot assume that the same tape would have been invented by looking at lizards.

(B) The conclusion is based on the proposition “If tree frogs had become extinct”, so the fact that they were not actually going to become extinct is out of the scope.

(D) The argument is strictly about a particular tape, so any discussion of other tapes is out of the scope.

(E) This does not weaken the conclusion. No claim was made that the frogs’ footpads would never lose adhesiveness.
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2014, 03:26
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Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner. A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness. If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.

Which of the following most weakens the conclusion in the argument above?

a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs.

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age.
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2014, 03:27
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Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner. A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness. If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.

Which of the following most weakens the conclusion in the argument above?

a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs.

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age.
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2014, 07:27
1
hapless12 wrote:
Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner. A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness. If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.

Which of the following most weakens the conclusion in the argument above?

a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs.

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age.

My choice is C, Reasoning for choice C is pretty straightforward.

In the argument : Conclusion is that New tape will not be possible if tree frog got extinct 5 year ago.

There is no Premise that support's conclusion, the conclusion is drawn mere as a coorelation,
Now since the question has asked us to select statement that if true weaken the argument :

A) Irrelevant : As we need to find link between Tape & Frog . < Lizards of no use>
B) A good disguise in form of correct ans - because the ans choice still support that frog are on verge of their extinction <Although we can say possibility of extinction is 10% but overestimate as 90%>
C) Correct Choice : If this is true then Tape will be discovered any how
D) Irrelevant
E) Not even close

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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2014, 01:54
lastshot wrote:
hapless12 wrote:
Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner. A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness. If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.

Which of the following most weakens the conclusion in the argument above?

a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs.

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age.

My choice is C, Reasoning for choice C is pretty straightforward.

In the argument : Conclusion is that New tape will not be possible if tree frog got extinct 5 year ago.

There is no Premise that support's conclusion, the conclusion is drawn mere as a coorelation,
Now since the question has asked us to select statement that if true weaken the argument :

A) Irrelevant : As we need to find link between Tape & Frog . < Lizards of no use>
B) A good disguise in form of correct ans - because the ans choice still support that frog are on verge of their extinction <Although we can say possibility of extinction is 10% but overestimate as 90%>
C) Correct Choice : If this is true then Tape will be discovered any how
D) Irrelevant
E) Not even close

Hi

D also suits the idea . we have to break relation between frog and tape, that tape can be made without frog, so that is valid too
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2014, 06:52
hapless12 wrote:
Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner. A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness. If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.

Which of the following most weakens the conclusion in the argument above?

a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs.

Target here, while answering is to break the dependency of tape manufacturing on frogs. C and D both do that. Why D is wrong?

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age.

D is incorrect, because it doesn't address the author's argument: The tree frogs needed to be alive in order to create the new adhesive tapes.
Choice D only says that there's an alternative tape available -- it doesn't attack the author's claim at all, as the answer choice does nothing to weaken the author's claim.

Choice C, attacks this hidden assumption directly: The frogs didn't have to be alive, in order to create the new tapes. The frogs could've been simply preserved in a jar, and those samples used in turn to create the adhesive tapes.

Thus, Choice C is the only answer choice that attacks the author's argument.

PS: I think the main trick with any one of these Strengthen/Weaken questions is to always stay focused on the author's argument. Ultimately, that's what your focusing on either destroying or supporting. Don't get distracted by answer choices that don't address the argument directly.
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2014, 20:42
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I must say that a andc were quite confusing.

A ---> If lizards have the same feature and they are not going extinct any sooner , there there was a strong possibility of studying them to create this

C --> This clearly removes any dependency on living frogs along with keeping the possibility of this being discovered by studing frogs alive.

Though I answered C because it was "restricted in its scope" to frog only but on a pure logical plane , won't A be a strong contender as well ?
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2014, 22:55
a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction- This comparison with Lizards is out of scope.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated- Out of scope- Since the overestimation is not necessary.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes- This sounds good, HOLD- They have taken the frogs foot as example to create the tape, and it doesn't matter whether the frog is extinct or not as the tape is created by looking at the preserved remains.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs- This is also out of scope

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age- Irrelevant as we don't need any info on the tests conducted.

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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2014, 13:03
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hapless12 wrote:
Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner. A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness. If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.

Which of the following most weakens the conclusion in the argument above?

a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs.

Target here, while answering is to break the dependency of tape manufacturing on frogs. C and D both do that. Why D is wrong?

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age.

The highlight prevents other people from practicing to answer the question.
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2016, 09:10
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Premise 1: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner.
Premise 2 : A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness.
Conclusion : If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.
.
This is a weaken question and we need to choose one of the 5 "True" answers that would most / actually weaken the conclusion above. before we analyze each choice, the conclusion is based on the assumption that if tree frogs had become extinct 5 years back the manufacturers of these tapes would have had no chance to study the frog's footpad channels to model their tapes after the frog foot functionalities. To Weaken this we obviously need to weaken the causal conclusion , i.e, whether extinct or not the manufacturer could have still been able to achieve this. Let us search for a matching answer choice :

a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction. - This compares only adhesive factor whereas the main feature is not just being more adhesive but also re-usable without cracks hence will not weaken the argument.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated. - Broadens the scope of the argument to an extent that is irrelevant. There was no specific time frame when a concern was raised in the argument hence eliminate this.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes. - Perfect Choice to Weaken the conclusion. This means that even if the frogs had become extinct it wouldn't have borne any impact on the manufacturer as the source of finding is from already preserved remains of the same species.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs - This merely restates the premise hence false choice (Remember any answer choice that simply paraphrases the premise in such questions are downright wrong answers as they have no impact on the argument)

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age - This has no relevance to the conclusion hence out of scope.
.

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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2016, 05:06
hapless12 wrote:
Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner. A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness. If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.

Which of the following most weakens the conclusion in the argument above?

a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs.

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age.

I selected A.
If lizards have the same feature and they are not going extinct any sooner , there there was a strong possibility of studying them to create this.

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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2016, 04:17
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if tree frogs extinct five years ago

assumption- tree frogs is the only source to copy this concept

weaken- there is some other resource for this concept

conclusion- this tape wouldn't be available without tree frogs
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2017, 22:08
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munnabhaimbbs wrote:
hapless12 wrote:
Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the ability to repeatedly adhere to surfaces without the cracking that occurs when adhesive tape is reused in a similar manner. A new commercially available tape mimics these channels, not only giving the tape the ability to be reused many times, but also increasing the tape’s adhesiveness. If tree frogs had become extinct five years ago, as was feared at the time, this tape would not now be available.

Which of the following most weakens the conclusion in the argument above?

a) The footpads of tree frogs are not as adhesive as the foot pads of certain lizards that are in no danger of extinction.

b) At the time when concern was raised over the possible extinction of the tree frog, the actual risk of extinction was greatly overestimated.

c) The tape was designed by looking at the footpads of the preserved remains of tree frogs that had died of natural causes.

d) A commercially available adhesive tape that has been chemically treated can be reused in much the same manner as the tape that mimics the footpads of tree frogs.

e) Tests have shown that the footpads of tree frogs become slightly less adhesive as the frogs age.

I selected A.
If lizards have the same feature and they are not going extinct any sooner , there there was a strong possibility of studying them to create this.

The lizards do not have the same feature - the adhesiveness of their foot-pads may be higher than that of tree frogs, but it is not stated that the mechanism (tiny channels that enables repeated use without cracking) that is mimicked in the design of the commercial tape is there in the lizards. Therefore option A is wrong.
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2017, 06:40
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the  [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2018, 06:31
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Re: Tiny channels on the footpads of tree frogs give these frogs the   [#permalink] 10 Oct 2018, 06:31
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