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Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting

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Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2009, 09:27
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Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writing the history of United States women. Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish (1736–1818) makes little effort to place her story in the context of recent historiography on women. Lebsock, meanwhile, attempts not only to write the history of women in one southern community, but also to redirect two decades of historiographical debate as to whether women gained or lost status in the nineteenth century as compared with the eighteenth century. Although both books offer the reader the opportunity to assess this controversy regarding women’s status, only Lebsock’s deals with it directly. She examines several different aspects of women’s status, helping to refine and resolve the issues. She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example. In contrast, Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the eighteenth century but does not give the reader much guidance in analyzing the controversy over women’s status.
76. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) examine two sides of a historiographical debate
(B) call into question an author’s approach to a historiographical debate
(C) examine one author’s approach to a historiographical debate
(D) discuss two authors’ works in relationship to a historiographical debate
(E) explain the prevalent perspective on a historiographical debate



77. The author of the passage mentions the supervision of schools primarily in order to
(A) remind readers of the role education played in the cultural changes of the nineteenth century in the United States
(B) suggest an area in which nineteenth-century American women were relatively free to exercise power
(C) provide an example of an occupation for which accurate data about women’s participation are difficult to obtain
(D) speculate about which occupations were considered suitable for United States women of the nineteenth century
(E) illustrate how the answers to questions about women’s status depend on particular contexts



78. With which of the following characterizations of Lebsock’s contribution to the controversy concerning women’s status in the nineteenth-century United States would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?
(A) Lebsock has studied women from a formerly neglected region and time period.
(B) Lebsock has demonstrated the importance of frame of reference in answering questions about women’s status.
(C) Lebsock has addressed the controversy by using women’s current status as a frame of reference.
(D) Lebsock has analyzed statistics about occupations and property that were previously ignored.
(E) Lebsock has applied recent historiographical methods to the biography of a nineteenthcentury woman.



79. According to the passage, Lebsock’s work differs from Buel and Buel’s work in that Lebsock’s work
(A) uses a large number of primary sources
(B) ignores issues of women’s legal status
(C) refuses to take a position on women’s status in the eighteenth century
(D) addresses larger historiographical issues
(E) fails to provide suffi cient material to support its claims



80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents



81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.



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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2012, 11:48
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voodoochild wrote:
Mike,Can you please explain me why Answer choice e) in Question #80 (OG12) is incorrect?

Quote:
80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents

This is a very tricky question, because in the passage, the comparison goes one way, but in this question, the comparison goes in the opposite direction. In the passage, we get that, compared to eighteenth-century American women, nineteenth-century American women:
* gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, [but] they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere.
* lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men
* gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example.

All of those are in the form --- starting from the eighteenth-century American women, how were things different for the nineteenth-century American women?

Then, the question turns things around ---- starting from the nineteenth-century American women, how were things different for the eighteenth-century American women? Everything quoted here has to be reversed --- "more" becomes "less", "gain" becomes "loss", and vice versa. What's extremely tricky about this question is: you have to take the opposite of everything stated in black and white.

Now, with all this in mind, look at (E).
The passage tells us, nineteenth-century American women less likely to work as school superintendents than were eighteenth-century American women. This means that eighteenth-century American women were more likely to work as school superintendents than were nineteenth-century American women. (E) is incorrect.

By contrast, look at (C)
The passage tells us, nineteenth-century American women "lost [autonomy] in many aspects of the economic sphere", so the nineteenth-century American women had less autonomy, less independence, than did the eighteenth-century American women. This means, the eighteenth-century American women were "generally more economically independent" than were the nineteenth-century American women. (C) is correct.

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if anyone reading this has any further questions.

Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2011, 15:55
nitya34 wrote:
relatively easy passage

my take is
DBBDCC
..got one incorrect

OAs are .......
..DEBDCC



for 81), can u pls explain answer c)???

Thanks!
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2012, 13:17
Thank you Mike for your wonderful explanation. I have an unrelated question. The passage states that "She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example.


color is what Lebsock believes. Do you think that color is something the author believes or Lebsock? It gets tricky because author describes someone else's work and suddenly puts his view point. It could be tricky. Any thoughts? there is no indication about who believes in "omen also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example" The common sense could say that Lebsock would agree with PINK statement. But I just want to make sure that I confirm it with you. thanks in advance.

Please help me....
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2012, 10:54
voodoochild wrote:
color (??) is what Lebsock believes. Do you think that color is something the author believes or Lebsock? It gets tricky because author describes someone else's work and suddenly puts his view point. It could be tricky. Any thoughts? there is no indication about who believes in "omen also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example" The common sense could say that Lebsock would agree with PINK statement. But I just want to make sure that I confirm it with you. thanks in advance.
Please help me....

Voodoo:
It's very confusing when you ask a question about color and don't have all the colors clearly marked. Details, details, details. In the business world, details are money, and when you lose details in the shuffle, you lose money in the process.

Everything about the passage suggests that it is purely descriptive --- the author of the passage is describing what Lesbock thinks and then what Buel and Buel think. We would need a major signpost to indicate a switch from an objective description of what Lesbock said to a interjection from the author about what is really true. That would have to be huge and unmistakable. This switch, simply the word "yet", is not nearly enough to mark a complete change in flow that large.

How frequently do you read the Book Review in the Sunday NYT? That's an excellent place to get a sense of authors of articles talking about authors of books, and there you frequently see an interchange between description of what the book author said vs. the article author's own commentary on the subject matter. There is no substitute for reading. There is no magical formula for GMAT RC that can take the place of a long-standing habit of reading.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2012, 19:23
Mike,
I am sorry about color coding issue. Somehow it didn't work properly. Let me retype my question. I believe that {} is something Lebsock believes. However, [] is expressed by the author -- something as an review. I am not sure whether Lebsock would agree with it. Please share your thoughts.

Passage: {She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. }
[Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example.]


Similar Passage: {In one of his posts, Mike corrected Voodoo Child for using the right color codes. Mike concluded that everything in the passage was purely descriptive --- the author of the passage was what Lesbock thinks and then what Buel and Buel think. Mike recommended people to read NYT.} [Many people read that post and benefited, as a result.]

Here {} is all author talks about Mike and Mike's opinions. [] is where author talks about his own opinion. Am I correct?
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2012, 10:43
voodoochild wrote:
Mike,
I am sorry about color coding issue. Somehow it didn't work properly. Let me retype my question. I believe that {} is something Lebsock believes. However, [] is expressed by the author -- something as an review. I am not sure whether Lebsock would agree with it. Please share your thoughts.

Passage: {She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. }
[Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example.]


Similar Passage: {In one of his posts, Mike corrected Voodoo Child for using the right color codes. Mike concluded that everything in the passage was purely descriptive --- the author of the passage was what Lesbock thinks and then what Buel and Buel think. Mike recommended people to read NYT.} [Many people read that post and benefited, as a result.]

Here {} is all author talks about Mike and Mike's opinions. [] is where author talks about his own opinion. Am I correct?

Voodoo

Once again, NO. The passage is entirely descriptive of what Lesbock thinks and of what Buel & Buel think. A single "change of direction word" (but, yet, nevertheless, although, however, etc. etc.) is simply not enough to indicate the gigantic shift away from the descriptive mode (author talking about these other authors) to a more direct argumentative mode (authors tells us directly what she thinks). Especially on the GMAT, we would need a much larger, more pronounced, transition to mark such a major change in mode.

Once again, read the Book Review in the Sunday NYT. Read that, and keep a log of all the examples of how those articles switch from descriptions of what the book author says to the opinions of the writer of the article. Do not ask anything else about this issue, and do not argue for or against anything concerning this issue, until you do the hard work of researching this in the field for yourself. No abstract rules can replace experiencing it for yourself.

Does that make sense?

Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2014, 07:00
mikemcgarry wrote:
voodoochild wrote:
Mike,
I am sorry about color coding issue. Somehow it didn't work properly. Let me retype my question. I believe that {} is something Lebsock believes. However, [] is expressed by the author -- something as an review. I am not sure whether Lebsock would agree with it. Please share your thoughts.

Passage: {She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. }
[Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example.]


Similar Passage: {In one of his posts, Mike corrected Voodoo Child for using the right color codes. Mike concluded that everything in the passage was purely descriptive --- the author of the passage was what Lesbock thinks and then what Buel and Buel think. Mike recommended people to read NYT.} [Many people read that post and benefited, as a result.]

Here {} is all author talks about Mike and Mike's opinions. [] is where author talks about his own opinion. Am I correct?

Voodoo

Once again, NO. The passage is entirely descriptive of what Lesbock thinks and of what Buel & Buel think. A single "change of direction word" (but, yet, nevertheless, although, however, etc. etc.) is simply not enough to indicate the gigantic shift away from the descriptive mode (author talking about these other authors) to a more direct argumentative mode (authors tells us directly what she thinks). Especially on the GMAT, we would need a much larger, more pronounced, transition to mark such a major change in mode.

Once again, read the Book Review in the Sunday NYT. Read that, and keep a log of all the examples of how those articles switch from descriptions of what the book author says to the opinions of the writer of the article. Do not ask anything else about this issue, and do not argue for or against anything concerning this issue, until you do the hard work of researching this in the field for yourself. No abstract rules can replace experiencing it for yourself.

Does that make sense?

Mike :-)


Mike I thought the answer was A, any clues on what may be wrong with that answer choice? Is it too general?

Thanks
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2014, 07:29
Can someone explain Q81?
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2014, 13:40
jlgdr wrote:
Mike I thought the answer was A, any clues on what may be wrong with that answer choice? Is it too general?

Thanks
Cheers
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Dear jlgdr,
There are several questions here. Please give the question number of the question about which you are asking.
Thanks,
Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2014, 13:42
akankshasoneja wrote:
Can someone explain Q81?

Dear akankshasoneja
Here is the text of question #81.

81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.


Tell me, what do you understand what do you not understand? What is your choice for the answer, and what don't you understand about the OA?

Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2014, 19:32
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mikemcgarry wrote:
akankshasoneja wrote:
Can someone explain Q81?

Dear akankshasoneja
Here is the text of question #81.

81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.


Tell me, what do you understand what do you not understand? What is your choice for the answer, and what don't you understand about the OA?

Mike :-)



I also puzzle about this question, I think this questions is linked to the last sentence of the passage

"In contrast, Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the
eighteenth century but does not give the reader much guidance in analyzing the controversy over women’s status."

First, I don't understand what is "the myth" for Buel to question.
Second, "the myth" is modified by "fostered by some historian" means that some historian support "the myth"
Third," of a colonial golden age", at my first glance, I think it is to modify historians, but later I may wonder whether it is to modify "the myth"
Lastly, come to the choice (C), I think as I don't understand what is "the myth", then I don't know what the "some historian" believe, as a result, I don't know whether the colonial era was favorable for women or not

Greatly appreciate you can help to explain.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2014, 23:28
Question 77 .

Why answer is not B ? is it because of the phrase " Exercise Power " ??? can anyone please explain ?
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2014, 23:53
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VREN wrote:
Question 77 .

Why answer is not B ? is it because of the phrase " Exercise Power " ??? can anyone please explain ?



Hi, I can give you some explanation for this question from my own understanding, not in that professional way

please look at the whole sentence

"More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men."

jobs like delivering babies, supervising schools were mainly positions for women, but now were taken over by men (most of doctors who help deliver babies are men now, supervising schools aslo). Thus, it is said that women lost power in relation to men. Answer choice B says women are free to exercise power, obviously wrong

The right answer is E, because the portion in pink color is to explain the statement in front "the debate itself depends on frame of reference", depending on frame of reference is equivalently saying the debate replies on certain context.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2014, 14:39
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bluebell2014 wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
akankshasoneja wrote:
Can someone explain Q81?

Dear akankshasoneja
Here is the text of question #81.

81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.


Tell me, what do you understand what do you not understand? What is your choice for the answer, and what don't you understand about the OA?

Mike :-)


I also puzzle about this question, I think this questions is linked to the last sentence of the passage

"In contrast, Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the
eighteenth century but does not give the reader much guidance in analyzing the controversy over women’s status."

First, I don't understand what is "the myth" for Buel to question.
Second, "the myth" is modified by "fostered by some historian" means that some historian support "the myth"
Third," of a colonial golden age", at my first glance, I think it is to modify historians, but later I may wonder whether it is to modify "the myth"
Lastly, come to the choice (C), I think as I don't understand what is "the myth", then I don't know what the "some historian" believe, as a result, I don't know whether the colonial era was favorable for women or not

Greatly appreciate you can help to explain.

Dear bluebell2014,
The phrase "fostered by some historians" is set off in commas, as a non-vital modifier. For more on vital modifiers, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... modifiers/
This means, we can understand the meaning of what surrounds it by eliminating it:
"...ample raw material for questioning the myth of a colonial golden age in ....
This is a hugely important tip: when every any little piece of a sentence is set off by commas, simply remove that piece to understand better the grammatical relationships of everything else.

The myth, apparently, is that there was some kind of "golden age" for women in the 18th century colonial period --- that life was particular good for women during this period. Apparently some historians fostered this myth --- perhaps, say, some 19th century historians who didn't have access to the kind of information we have now. Those historians with not enough information might have thought that the 18th century colonial period was a wonderful time for women, but Buel & Buel have show conclusively that it was not. Thus, "The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed." Answer = (C).

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2014, 14:57
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prasannajeet wrote:
Hi Mike
Can help me out for q-77.....Why the answer is not "B"???
Rgds, Prasannajeet

VREN wrote:
Question 77 .
Why answer is not B ? is it because of the phrase " Exercise Power " ??? can anyone please explain ?

Dear prasannajeet & VREN,
I'm happy to respond. :-) It appears that bluebell2014 already gave an good answer to this, but I will say a little more.

Here's the question (which is RC #70 in the OG13)
77. The author of the passage mentions the supervision of schools primarily in order to
(A) remind readers of the role education played in the cultural changes of the nineteenth century in the United States
(B) suggest an area in which nineteenth-century American women were relatively free to exercise power
(C) provide an example of an occupation for which accurate data about women’s participation are difficult to obtain
(D) speculate about which occupations were considered suitable for United States women of the nineteenth century
(E) illustrate how the answers to questions about women’s status depend on particular contexts


First of all, let's look at the passage surrounding this ....
She [Lesbock] examines several different aspects of women’s status, helping to refine and resolve the issues. She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men.
So, first of all, tangible facts. Apparently at one time, schools were primarily the domain of women, and during the 19th century, that realm was taken over more and more by males, so women lost power in that particular arena. This is why (B) is wrong --- women did not remain powerful in schools: rather, they lost power.
Now, why was this fact mentioned? In order to answer a detail question, it's important to understand the entire argument, the point of the whole passage. The passage is about these two works, and how they reflect two different approaches to women's history. The passage is more about "what's the best way to study women's history?" then it is about real live women and their rights & struggles. This is a very academic passage: the author is more concerned with the writers and the academic debate than she is with the particulars of the historical periods mentioned. Even that sentence about schools begins with the clause: "More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference." In other words, the entire question of how powerful women were in the 19th century depends on the perspective we adopt: more powerful in the homes? more powerful in the workplace? more powerful with respect to income? more powerful with respect to land ownership? In other words, if we adopt different criteria for defining what constitutes more or less powerful, then the answer to the power question will change. In other words, "the answers to questions about women’s status depend on particular contexts." Answer = (E)

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 20 Mar 2014, 22:07
1
81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.

Folks,
Need some explanation on this one. I was completely lost in this. Buel made little effort to place her story in context of recent histography. If that is the case, how can we know what evidence it provides on views of womens history.

I could not answer this question at all. Primary reason was I couldnt understand the question itself.

In all the answer choices it talked about womens status. But buel didnt mention anything about this. Now I understand that this is an inference question, but I still need some help in connecting the dots here.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2014, 08:17
mikemcgarry wrote:
voodoochild wrote:
Mike,Can you please explain me why Answer choice e) in Question #80 (OG12) is incorrect?

Quote:
80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents

This is a very tricky question, because in the passage, the comparison goes one way, but in this question, the comparison goes in the opposite direction. In the passage, we get that, compared to eighteenth-century American women, nineteenth-century American women:
* gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, [but] they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere.
* lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men
* gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example.

All of those are in the form --- starting from the eighteenth-century American women, how were things different for the nineteenth-century American women?

Then, the question turns things around ---- starting from the nineteenth-century American women, how were things different for the eighteenth-century American women? Everything quoted here has to be reversed --- "more" becomes "less", "gain" becomes "loss", and vice versa. What's extremely tricky about this question is: you have to take the opposite of everything stated in black and white.

Now, with all this in mind, look at (E).
The passage tells us, nineteenth-century American women less likely to work as school superintendents than were eighteenth-century American women. This means that eighteenth-century American women were more likely to work as school superintendents than were nineteenth-century American women. (E) is incorrect.

By contrast, look at (C)
The passage tells us, nineteenth-century American women "lost [autonomy] in many aspects of the economic sphere", so the nineteenth-century American women had less autonomy, less independence, than did the eighteenth-century American women. This means, the eighteenth-century American women were "generally more economically independent" than were the nineteenth-century American women. (C) is correct.

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if anyone reading this has any further questions.

Mike :-)


Hi Mike

Not clear on why D is not the correct option in line with your thought process. Could you please help me on that ?
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2014, 10:55
himanshujovi wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents

Hi Mike

Not clear on why D is not the correct option in line with your thought process. Could you please help me on that ?

Dear himanshujovi,
I'm happy to help. :-)

Here's what the passage says: "Lebsock, meanwhile, attempts not only to write the history of women in one southern community, but also to redirect two decades of historiographical debate as to whether women gained or lost status in the nineteenth century as compared with the eighteenth century. .... She examines several different aspects of women’s status, helping to refine and resolve the issues. She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere."
So, in going from the 18th century to the 19th century, "women gained autonomy ... in the private sphere," so 19th cent. women had more autonomy, more independence, in the private sphere than did the 18th cent. women.

Now, the tricky thing about the question is that the comparison is historically backwards --- "compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women" were more what? Well, the 19th century women had more personal autonomy, so the 18th century women must have had less personal autonomy. Thus, (C) is the exact opposite of what the passage says.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2014, 07:35
infotalk wrote:
81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.

Folks,
Need some explanation on this one. I was completely lost in this. Buel made little effort to place her story in context of recent histography. If that is the case, how can we know what evidence it provides on views of womens history.

I could not answer this question at all. Primary reason was I couldnt understand the question itself.

In all the answer choices it talked about womens status. But buel didnt mention anything about this. Now I understand that this is an inference question, but I still need some help in connecting the dots here.


Well, first off try, it's good that you see this question asking you to make an inference based on what's said in the passage.
Now, that does not mean that we need evidence in order to answer this answer.
We need to draw an inference from what's stated in the passage.

Here's the reasoning for Choice C:

"In contrast, Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the
eighteenth century but does not give the reader much guidance in analyzing the controversy over women’s status."

When's a time period is described as "Golden Age", the era is thought to be as "very favorable".
Now, "fostered by some historians" = supported by some historians ...
We can rephrase that last sentence as: "B and B's Bio provides ample raw material that goes against the myth, supported by some historians, of a Very Favorable Colonial Time [for women] ... " --- This part is implied towards women of the Colonial Time.

Essentially, that last sentence is rephrased rather fancifully to give the reader a hard time in deciphering its underlying meaning.
When broken down piece-by-piece, Choice C rephrases that last sentence, perfectly.
Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting   [#permalink] 08 Jul 2014, 07:35

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