Official Solution:

A survey of charitable giving in the state found that the average dollar amount contributed annually by residents of urban areas to programs for the homeless was $15 greater than the amount contributed by residents of rural areas. The survey’s creators, an urban-promotion group known as Live in the City, concluded that city dwellers are on average more generous than residents of rural areas.

EACH of the following, if true, casts doubt on the conclusion of the survey’s creators EXCEPT

A. An unrelated survey of annual charitable giving finds that residents of rural areas give 3% less to charity than residents of urban areas.

B. There are more homeless people in urban areas than rural areas, making it more likely that urban residents would contribute to those charities.

C. There are more charities in general operating in urban areas than in rural areas.

D. The survey is calculated based on dollar amount rather than percentage of income, and does not account for the fact that incomes in urban areas are often higher.

E. The group Live in the City has been known to alter survey results for marketing purposes.

Situation:A group that promotes urban living has published survey results that conclude city dwellers give more money to charity than residents of rural areas.

Resoning: Which option supports the conclusion of the survey’s creators?The question stem informs us that all the answer choices

except one will undermine the survey’s conclusion. The correct answer will present independent confirmation of the survey’s finding that city dwellers are more generous than residents of rural areas.

- Though phrased differently, this option presents the same conclusion as that reached by the Live in the City survey – that residents of rural areas statistically give less than residents of urban areas. Both surveys are concerned with annual giving, and the 3% in this option echoes the average dollar amount of the original survey.
- This statement undermines the original survey’s conclusion by giving a reason that city dwellers give more money to charities for the homeless: there are more homeless in cities.
- This statement undermines the original survey’s conclusion by making it clear that there are more opportunities in general for charitable giving in cities than in rural areas, making it likely that the annual dollar amount given would be greater in urban areas.
- This statement undermines the original survey’s conclusion by pointing out that the conclusion does not account for a difference in average incomes in the two areas. generous also depends on the income
- This statement undermines the original survey’s conclusion by casting doubt on Live in the City’s integrity.

Answer: A

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