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Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke

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Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2012, 19:07
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Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke poses a serious health risk. After the publication of yet another research paper explicating the link between exposure to second-hand smoke and a shorter life span, some members of the State House of Representatives proposed a ban on smoking in most public places in an attempt to promote quality of life and length of lifespan.

Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the actions of the State Representatives?

A) The amount of damaging chemicals and fumes released into the air by cigarette smoke is far less than the amount released from automobiles, especially from older models.
B) Banning smoking in most public places will not considerably reduce the percent of the population in the state in question that smokes.
C) The state whose legislators are proposing the tough smoking legislation has a relatively high percent of its population that smoke.
D) Another state that enacted a similar law a decade ago saw a statistically significant drop in lung-cancer rates among non-smokers.
E) A nearby state up-wind has the highest number of smokers in the country.
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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2012, 05:37
kingb wrote:
Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke poses a serious health risk. After the publication of yet another research paper explicating the link between exposure to second-hand smoke and a shorter life span, some members of the State House of Representatives proposed a ban on smoking in most public places in an attempt to promote quality of life and length of lifespan.

Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the actions of the State Representatives?

A) The amount of damaging chemicals and fumes released into the air by cigarette smoke is far less than the amount released from automobiles, especially from older models.
B) Banning smoking in most public places will not considerably reduce the percent of the population in the state in question that smokes.
C) The state whose legislators are proposing the tough smoking legislation has a relatively high percent of its population that smoke.
D) Another state that enacted a similar law a decade ago saw a statistically significant drop in lung-cancer rates among non-smokers.
E) A nearby state up-wind has the highest number of smokers in the country.


We need a strengthener that will support the Ban that will result in quality of life and in increase in lifespan of non smoker.

Let's look at the answer choices:

A. is incorrect as it states that the ban will hardly have any affect. It works as Strengthener.
B. is incorrect for the same reason as A.
C. is incorrect as it talks about the population of smokers and not the affect. Out of scope.
D. is correct. It provides an instance in which the same ban worked.
E. is incorrect as we are not concerned about the population of smokers. Out of Scope.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2012, 11:39
I narrowed it down to B and C

Pls help me to eliminate B, It states that population of smokers in the state, where the law is to be enacted is more, hence they need the law to improve the standard of life and health of non smoker.

So by stressing on the large population of smoker it becomes necessary to enforce the law.

Option C states that it worked in some other state so the law will be effective in other states also. there can be N no of reasons which are present in the state where the stint was successful, the same reasons may or may not be present in the states in which the law is to be enforced.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2012, 12:33
Archit143 wrote:
I narrowed it down to B and C

Pls help me to eliminate B, It states that population of smokers in the state, where the law is to be enacted is more, hence they need the law to improve the standard of life and health of non smoker.

So by stressing on the large population of smoker it becomes necessary to enforce the law.

Option C states that it worked in some other state so the law will be effective in other states also. there can be N no of reasons which are present in the state where the stint was successful, the same reasons may or may not be present in the states in which the law is to be enforced.


A strengthener should support the conclusion. The conclusion in the argument is that banning smoking in public place will promote quality of life and length of lifespan.

Choice B states that the percent of smokers will not decrease thus, people will continue to smoke. Whether the law will provide the desire results cannot be determined.

Choice C states that the law will be applicable to places where smokers are high. There are 2 ways to look at it. If smokers are high then non-smokers will be low, thus the length of lifespan is not applicable in this case. Secondly, even if the law is applied, we are not sure of the results. What if smokers still continue to smoke in the public place..

Choice D clearly state that the similar law was levied on other state and the results were achieved. Thus, it supports the conclusion.

Hope it helps.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2012, 13:04
srry there was typo in my original post pls read option C as D.

I narrwoed it to B and D

@vineetk: As u mentioned there are two ways of looking at option B, similarly there are two of looking at D also,
One is exclusively the state enacted the law and got the result as the quality and lifespan improved.

Another way is the state enacted the law as well as enforced other measures, the later was more helpful in improving the quality and lifespan rather than the former, hence the option will weaken the argument.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2012, 13:05
I feel that B,C, and D all three are debatable options.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2012, 13:10
Archit143 wrote:
srry there was typo in my original post pls read option C as D.

I narrwoed it to B and D

@vineetk: As u mentioned there are two ways of looking at option B, similarly there are two of looking at D also,
One is exclusively the state enacted the law and got the result as the quality and lifespan improved.

Another way is the state enacted the law as well as enforced other measures, the later was more helpful in improving the quality and lifespan rather than the former, hence the option will weaken the argument.


We just have to go with the given statement. The statement is stating similar law and that is enough, we do not need to assume any additional information because the statement are framed very carefully by GMAC and GMAC does not leave any statement that it wants to communicate. Thus, every word in the statement is put intentionally. If GMAC wanted to communicate that city used other factor along with law, it would have stated it.

Hope this clears your doubt.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2012, 15:03
I doubt der are many such options which are eliminated on the basis of implied meaning.

Few such choices are the choices that contain wordings such as Some, many etc.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2012, 23:52
Archit143 wrote:
I doubt der are many such options which are eliminated on the basis of implied meaning.

Few such choices are the choices that contain wordings such as Some, many etc.


You can check this link. It will provide you the detail how the words mentioned by you - Some, Any etc. work/ mean in GMAT.

article-what-and-how-to-negate-4-exercise-questions-138510.html

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Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke poses a serious health risk. After the publication of yet another research paper explicating the link between exposure to second-hand smoke and a shorter life span, some members of the State House of Representatives proposed a ban on smoking in most public places in an attempt to promote quality of life and length of lifespan.

Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the actions of the State Representatives?

A) The amount of damaging chemicals and fumes released into the air by cigarette smoke is far less than the amount released from automobiles, especially from older models.

B) Banning smoking in most public places will not considerably reduce the percent of the population in the state in question that smokes.

C) The state whose legislators are proposing the tough smoking legislation has a relatively high percent of its population that smoke.

D) Another state that enacted a similar law a decade ago saw a statistically significant drop in lung-cancer rates among non-smokers.

E) A nearby state up-wind has the highest number of smokers in the country.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA - in a while

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Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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A) The amount of damaging chemicals and fumes released into the air by cigarette smoke is far less than the amount released from automobiles, especially from older models. Chemicals and fumes from automobiles is not essential to the argument. This is out of scope.

B) Banning smoking in most public places will not considerably reduce the percent of the population in the state in question that smokes. We don't need to reduce the percent of the population that smokes. as long as they don't smoke near non-smokers. If anything, this weakens the argument.

C) The state whose legislators are proposing the tough smoking legislation has a relatively high percent of its population that smoke. This is the correct answer. If the inverse was true, and only a low percent of the population smoked, then a ban on public smoking would have little effect.

D) Another state that enacted a similar law a decade ago saw a statistically significant drop in lung-cancer rates among non-smokers. What happened in another state a decade ago has little bearing on current conditions. This is out of scope.

E) A nearby state up-wind has the highest number of smokers in the country. A ban on smoking in public areas in one state would not change the smoke coming from another state.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2015, 19:59
C and D are contenders here. I will choose C to D.. D states "significant drop in lung-cancer rates among non-smokers". But its not clear that wheather smoking caused lung cancer earlier.

C states that lots of people smoke. So, some non-smokers are vulnurable to passive smoking. Hence it is needed to pass the law.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2015, 10:20
Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke poses a serious health risk.
After the publication of yet another research paper explicating the link between exposure to second-hand smoke and a shorter life span,
some members of the State House of Representatives proposed a ban on smoking in most public places in an attempt to promote quality of life and length of lifespan.

Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the actions of the State Representatives?

SR r proposing the ban to promote the quality of life and length of life span. And reason behind that is mentioned in underlined part.
Its between C & D.

A) The amount of damaging chemicals and fumes released into the air by cigarette smoke is far less than the amount released from automobiles, especially from older models.
>>Other source of health risk is not a concern here. So out.
B) Banning smoking in most public places will not considerably reduce the percent of the population in the state in question that smokes.
>>Reverse of what v r looking for.
C) The state whose legislators are proposing the tough smoking legislation has a relatively high percent of its population that smoke.Also argument is about the reducing second hand smokers. IMO D is pretty direct in supporting the ban.
>>This could be a a motivation for legislators, so what? May be majority of people smoke indoor. Doesn't link the merit of the law to the ban.
D) Another state that enacted a similar law a decade ago saw a statistically significant drop in lung-cancer rates among non-smokers.
>>Correct This confirms the benefit of the law.
E) A nearby state up-wind has the highest number of smokers in the country.
>>irrelevant
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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2015, 21:39
+1 for C. I initially picked D, but in retrospection agree that C makes more sense.

OA please.

souvik101990 wrote:
Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke poses a serious health risk. After the publication of yet another research paper explicating the link between exposure to second-hand smoke and a shorter life span, some members of the State House of Representatives proposed a ban on smoking in most public places in an attempt to promote quality of life and length of lifespan.

Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the actions of the State Representatives?

A) The amount of damaging chemicals and fumes released into the air by cigarette smoke is far less than the amount released from automobiles, especially from older models.

B) Banning smoking in most public places will not considerably reduce the percent of the population in the state in question that smokes.

C) The state whose legislators are proposing the tough smoking legislation has a relatively high percent of its population that smoke.

D) Another state that enacted a similar law a decade ago saw a statistically significant drop in lung-cancer rates among non-smokers.

E) A nearby state up-wind has the highest number of smokers in the country.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA - in a while

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2015, 23:11
Shortlisted C and D. Choice C does not link to non-smokers. Are we assuming here that the high percentage of population that smokes is in the vicinity of non-smokers? D offers direct support by saying that a similar law in the past resulted in significant drop in lung cancer rates among non-smokers. . Therefore D. OA please.

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New post 14 May 2015, 04:57
souvik101990 wrote:
Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke poses a serious health risk. After the publication of yet another research paper explicating the link between exposure to second-hand smoke and a shorter life span, some members of the State House of Representatives proposed a ban on smoking in most public places in an attempt to promote quality of life and length of lifespan.

Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the actions of the State Representatives?

A) The amount of damaging chemicals and fumes released into the air by cigarette smoke is far less than the amount released from automobiles, especially from older models.

B) Banning smoking in most public places will not considerably reduce the percent of the population in the state in question that smokes.

C) The state whose legislators are proposing the tough smoking legislation has a relatively high percent of its population that smoke.

D) Another state that enacted a similar law a decade ago saw a statistically significant drop in lung-cancer rates among non-smokers.

E) A nearby state up-wind has the highest number of smokers in the country.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA - in a while



OA PLEASE..IMO C
:)

D talks about " a decade ago"

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2015, 10:39
IMO, the answer is C. The conclusion of the argument is that second hand smoking is linked to health risks and shorter life span. Thus banning smoking will increase the life span. It also tries to give evidence by stating about recent research papers.

Option D states the example of another state, which somewhat strengthens the conclusion. But as the argument already states the evidence of research paper, another example is unnecessary.

Option C says about higher percentage of smokers. Thus it is implied that the citizens are prone to health risks and banning it is the most effective solution.

please correct me if my reasoning is wrong.

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Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2015, 00:39
OA: D
SOURCE: PLATINUM GMAT

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

The State Representatives' argument for banning smoking is based upon scientific research and the presence of a correlation between second-hand smoke and life expectancy. However, it could be strengthened if data existed to show that other regions that enacted tough anti-smoking reform experienced longer life spans. In other words, although we know there is a relationship between second-hand smoke and life expectancy, we do not know that enacting tough anti-smoking reform will influence second-hand smoke levels and thereby influence life expectancy.

A. The legislators' argument is about protecting people from second-hand smoke, not about taking one action versus another (i.e., the legislators are not comparing sources of toxin, but rather attempting to prevent one source from entering the air).

B. The question at hand does not pertain to the percent of the population that smokes but the ability of the law to extend life expectancy. This answer fails to make a connection between the proposed law and extending life expectancy.

C. Although the percent of the state population that smokes will affect the extent of the impact made by the law, it does not support the merits of the law in and of itself. In other words, the argument is not based upon the number or percent of the population that smokes (and by corollary the number and percent of the population affected by second-hand smoke). Rather, the argument is based upon a connection between removing second-hand smoke inhalation via legislation and lengthening life span. This answer provides no direct evidence to strengthen the link between removing second-hand smoke via legislation and lengthening lifespan.

D. The evidence that passing a similar law reduced cancer rates supports the legislators' case that banning smoking in many places will promote "length of lifespan" (i.e., with people dying of cancer less, they live longer).

E. The number of smokers in a nearby state does not influence whether banning second-hand smoke in the state in question will affect life expectancy. The large number of smokers up-stream will hurt air quality and length of life downstream (weakling the legislators' argument if it effected it at all). Fundamentally, this answer is wrong because it fails to strengthen the connection between removing second-hand smoke via legislation and lengthening life-expectancy.

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Re: Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2015, 10:20
Recently I have come across such questions, where the suitable answer choice is the similar option that has worked in a different sample space.
Another example:
following-a-state-wide-boom-in-voter-registration-and-partic-155470.html

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Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2015, 17:17
Agree with OA : D

C) The state whose legislators are proposing the tough smoking legislation has a relatively high percent of its population that smoke.

    makes sense, but it does not cover the main impact of the law, main concern was for "population affected by second-hand smoke" ,
    1) what is they have "relatively high percent of its population that smoke" but they smoke in their own home/confined area, they never smoke in public ? how would that help rest of population from 2nd hand smoke.
    2) if you are thinking that "passing a similar law will reduce cancer rates " as people who are smoking will reduce smoking, that's leap in faith (as its banned in public places only :wink: ).


D) Another state that enacted a similar law a decade ago saw a statistically significant drop in lung-cancer rates among non-smokers.
    this fits properly, in past similar law helped lung-cancer rates among non-smokers.

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