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Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2015, 07:33
Just a correction if i may add: In this entire CR, i think we perhaps did not notice that the Question as tagged (Strengthen) is actually an inference/must be true type.
CR types, recognition matter to the extent that since it is an inference Question, any information outside the passage can be rejected. Hence options B,C,D & E all are either too extreme or outside the given information.
:)

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2016, 11:26
It is interesting to use timeline to solve such problems.
Only answer A strengthen
B is weaken and E is irrelevant
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2016, 10:11
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
enigma123 wrote:
Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient Asia about sixty million years ago. Not until about ten million years later did species of whales develop specialized kidneys enabling them to drink salt water. Although fossil evidence shows that some early whale species that lacked such kidneys sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans, these species must have had to return frequently to freshwater rivers to drink. Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information given?

A. Fossils of whale species dating from between sixty million and fifty million years ago will not be found on continents that were at the time separated from ancient Asia by wide expanses of ocean.
B. Among whale fossils that date from later than about fifty million years ago, none are fossils of whale species that drank only fresh water.
C. Fossils of whale species that drank fresh water will not be found in close proximity to fossils of whale species that drank salt water.
D. The earliest whales that drank salt water differed from fresh-water-drinking whales only in their possession of specialized kidneys.
E. Between sixty million and fifty million years ago, the freshwater lakes and rivers in which whales originated were gradually invaded by salt water.

Guys - any idea what the answer will be?


Quote:
My take:

Whales originated >>-where->> in ancient Asia about sixty (60 million years ago)
species of whales (Asia/which continent dont know) develop spl salt water kidneys (50 million years ago).
Although fossil evidence >>says>>> (species - kidneys) sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans (not of Asia as Asia has fresh water), these species must have had to return (return means they travelled back) to drink.

means, kidney -minus whales of salt water (not Asia) went to freshwater (in Asia) ..this is saying that it did cross..

Why A is correct>??


I am uncertain how you arrived at the conclusions above.

Here is the explanation:
- 60 million yrs ago, whales originated in freshwater (which means lakes and rivers) of Asia
- Special kidneys that allowed whales to drink salt water evolved 50 million yrs ago.
- Sometimes whales without special kidneys swam into saltwater but they had to return frequently to freshwater.

Think about your geography - Continents are separated by huge saltwater oceans. A continent has lakes and rivers (freshwater) within it. The rivers connect to the ocean. If you want to travel from Asia to North America by water, you will need to go through the huge ocean between them.
60 million years ago, whales originated in Asia's freshwater so they were in the continent of Asia. They did not have special kidneys so they could not travel across the ocean. Even if they did enter the ocean, they needed to return back to the freshwater of Asia. Point is, they couldn't swim far from Asia. Till 50 million yrs ago, special kidneys did not develop. So for the 10 million yrs from 60 million to 50 million yrs ago, whales couldn't leave the coast of Asia and swim far. So they couldn't reach the continents far from Asia separated by saltwater oceans.

Answer (A)



Hi! Thanks for this great explanation. I was completely stuck with this question but your explanation really helped, however i still feel little uncomfortable with the question stem. I think it is a type of question in which we have to mark an answer choice that strongly supports(not strengthen) by the argument. So generally we do not add up our own information, in fact we find out the support from the argument itself (with no our own assumptions). After reading your explanation i finally understood the question but i felt that its more of strengthening question. Because argument nowhere says that fossils WILL NOT be found. There can be many reason for the fossils to reach there or in fact anywhere. The only information we have about fossils are that they indicate that those fishes lacked such specialized kidneys.
Since you know more about the question-types, do u think that word 'support' in the question stem justifies the question..or they should have used word 'strengthen'
Thanks

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2016, 23:14
I think ,we are only interested abt whales between 60 MN and 50 MN.
All options other than A seem to be irrelevant to me :shock:

earnit wrote:
Just a correction if i may add: In this entire CR, i think we perhaps did not notice that the Question as tagged (Strengthen) is actually an inference/must be true type.
CR types, recognition matter to the extent that since it is an inference Question, any information outside the passage can be rejected. Hence options B,C,D & E all are either too extreme or outside the given information.
:)

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2016, 01:12
ashutoshsh wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
enigma123 wrote:
Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient Asia about sixty million years ago. Not until about ten million years later did species of whales develop specialized kidneys enabling them to drink salt water. Although fossil evidence shows that some early whale species that lacked such kidneys sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans, these species must have had to return frequently to freshwater rivers to drink. Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information given?

A. Fossils of whale species dating from between sixty million and fifty million years ago will not be found on continents that were at the time separated from ancient Asia by wide expanses of ocean.
B. Among whale fossils that date from later than about fifty million years ago, none are fossils of whale species that drank only fresh water.
C. Fossils of whale species that drank fresh water will not be found in close proximity to fossils of whale species that drank salt water.
D. The earliest whales that drank salt water differed from fresh-water-drinking whales only in their possession of specialized kidneys.
E. Between sixty million and fifty million years ago, the freshwater lakes and rivers in which whales originated were gradually invaded by salt water.

Guys - any idea what the answer will be?


Quote:
My take:

Whales originated >>-where->> in ancient Asia about sixty (60 million years ago)
species of whales (Asia/which continent dont know) develop spl salt water kidneys (50 million years ago).
Although fossil evidence >>says>>> (species - kidneys) sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans (not of Asia as Asia has fresh water), these species must have had to return (return means they travelled back) to drink.

means, kidney -minus whales of salt water (not Asia) went to freshwater (in Asia) ..this is saying that it did cross..

Why A is correct>??


I am uncertain how you arrived at the conclusions above.

Here is the explanation:
- 60 million yrs ago, whales originated in freshwater (which means lakes and rivers) of Asia
- Special kidneys that allowed whales to drink salt water evolved 50 million yrs ago.
- Sometimes whales without special kidneys swam into saltwater but they had to return frequently to freshwater.

Think about your geography - Continents are separated by huge saltwater oceans. A continent has lakes and rivers (freshwater) within it. The rivers connect to the ocean. If you want to travel from Asia to North America by water, you will need to go through the huge ocean between them.
60 million years ago, whales originated in Asia's freshwater so they were in the continent of Asia. They did not have special kidneys so they could not travel across the ocean. Even if they did enter the ocean, they needed to return back to the freshwater of Asia. Point is, they couldn't swim far from Asia. Till 50 million yrs ago, special kidneys did not develop. So for the 10 million yrs from 60 million to 50 million yrs ago, whales couldn't leave the coast of Asia and swim far. So they couldn't reach the continents far from Asia separated by saltwater oceans.

Answer (A)



Hi! Thanks for this great explanation. I was completely stuck with this question but your explanation really helped, however i still feel little uncomfortable with the question stem. I think it is a type of question in which we have to mark an answer choice that strongly supports(not strengthen) by the argument. So generally we do not add up our own information, in fact we find out the support from the argument itself (with no our own assumptions). After reading your explanation i finally understood the question but i felt that its more of strengthening question. Because argument nowhere says that fossils WILL NOT be found. There can be many reason for the fossils to reach there or in fact anywhere. The only information we have about fossils are that they indicate that those fishes lacked such specialized kidneys.
Since you know more about the question-types, do u think that word 'support' in the question stem justifies the question..or they should have used word 'strengthen'
Thanks


The question stem is:
"Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information given?"

So you need to find the option that is supported BY the argument. The argument supports one option. Hence, that option would be the inference.

The word "support" could indicate either strengthen or inference question type. If the argument supports the option, you are looking for an inference. If you need the option to support the argument, you are looking for a strengthener.
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jan 2017, 14:11
According to PowerScore CR Bible question properties, this question should be categorized and handled as a "Must be True" question.

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2017, 01:15
paddy41 wrote:
According to PowerScore CR Bible question properties, this question should be categorized and handled as a "Must be True" question.


True. 'Inference' and 'must be true' are same question categories.

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2017, 20:05
Can anyone provide a detail solution to this question.
Thanks

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2017, 18:06
arorag wrote:
Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient Asia about sixty million years ago. Not until about ten million years later did species of whales develop specialized kidneys enabling them to drink salt water. Although fossil evidence shows that some early whale species that lacked such kidneys sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans, these species must have had to return frequently to freshwater rivers to drink.

Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information given?

(A) Fossils of whale species dating from between sixty million and fifty million years ago will not be found on continents that were at the time separated from ancient Asia by wide expanses of ocean.

(B) Among whale fossils that date from later than about fifty million years ago, none are fossils of whale species that drank only fresh water.

(C) Fossils of whale species that drank fresh water will not be found in close proximity to fossils of whale species that drank salt water.

(D) The earliest whales that drank salt water differed from fresh-water-drinking whales only in their possession of specialized kidneys.

(E) Between sixty million and fifty million years ago, the freshwater lakes and rivers in which whales originated were gradually invaded by salt water.


A) Correct. The capacity to swim in salt water for long periods of time did not emerge until circa 50 million years ago. So we would not expect to find whales outside of their natural habitat, across saltwater oceans.

B) "None" is a strong word. Perhaps one such fossil was found.

C) Not necessarily true--we have no basis to make that conclusion.

D) Likewise. We have no basis to make this conclusion.

E) This choice is perhaps true in the real world sense, but the stimulus does not make such a claim.

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2 [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2017, 12:01
arorag wrote:
Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient Asia about sixty million years ago. Not until about ten million years later did species of whales develop specialized kidneys enabling them to drink salt water. Although fossil evidence shows that some early whale species that lacked such kidneys sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans, these species must have had to return frequently to freshwater rivers to drink.

Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information given?

(A) Fossils of whale species dating from between sixty million and fifty million years ago will not be found on continents that were at the time separated from ancient Asia by wide expanses of ocean.

(B) Among whale fossils that date from later than about fifty million years ago, none are fossils of whale species that drank only fresh water.

(C) Fossils of whale species that drank fresh water will not be found in close proximity to fossils of whale species that drank salt water.

(D) The earliest whales that drank salt water differed from fresh-water-drinking whales only in their possession of specialized kidneys.

(E) Between sixty million and fifty million years ago, the freshwater lakes and rivers in which whales originated were gradually invaded by salt water.


The reason option A is supported is because if it were true that whales had to constantly return to freshwater lakes then it is unlikely that they would live on continents that are far aware from a freshwater source which is basically what A is saying

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient - 2   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2017, 12:01

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