Author 
Message 
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 7934
Location: Pune, India

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
23 Sep 2013, 19:47
1
This post received KUDOS
Expert's post
1
This post was BOOKMARKED
email2vm wrote: Bunuel wrote: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5?A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 Notice that \(43^{86}=(40+3)^{86}\). Now, if we expand this expression, all terms but the last one will have 40 as multiple and thus will be divisible by 5. The last term will be \(3^{86}\). So we should find the remainder when \(3^{86}\) is divided by 5. Next, \(3^{86}=9^{43}\). 9 in odd power has units digit of 9 hence yields the remainder of 4 upon division by 5 (9 in even power has units digit of 1 hence yields the remainder of 1 upon division by 5). Answer: E. Similar questions to practice: when5125isdividedby13theremainderobtainedis130220.htmlwhatistheremainderof126493.htmlwhatistheremainderwhen323232isdividedby100316.htmlwhatistheremainderwhen182210isdividedby99724.htmlHope it helps. Hi Brunel, Please help me solve when I choose (452)^86....i am not able to solve this way. Either way works. \((452)^{86}\) when expanded will have 45 in all terms except the last term \((2)^{86}\). The last term of \(2^{86}\) will be 4 (since 2 has a cyclicity of 4 so 2^86 has the same last digit as 2^2 = 4) Also, the first term will be \(45^{86}\) which will end with 5. All other terms will end with 0 since they have a 5 as well as a 2. So adding all last terms, last term of \((452)^{86} = ...5 + ...0 + ...0 + ...0 + ....+ ...0 + ...4\) Last term obtained is 9 which gives 4 as remainder when divided by 5.
_________________
Karishma Veritas Prep  GMAT Instructor My Blog
Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199
Veritas Prep Reviews



Manager
Joined: 10 Sep 2013
Posts: 80
Concentration: Sustainability, International Business

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
23 Sep 2013, 20:37
I did: (43)*(43^85) since 43^85 is divisible by 5, So left with 43 Where did I go wrong here?
_________________
Kudos if I helped



Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 43789

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
23 Sep 2013, 22:13



Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 7934
Location: Pune, India

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
23 Sep 2013, 22:53
igotthis wrote: I did: (43)*(43^85) since 43^85 is divisible by 5, So left with 43 Where did I go wrong here? The base needs to end in a 5 to make the number divisible by 5. The multiple of 5 in the POWER has no relevance. \((...5)^{anything}\) always ends in a 5. \((Anything)^{...5}\) doesn't necessarily end in a 5. e.g. \(3^5 = 3*3*3*3*3 = 243\)
_________________
Karishma Veritas Prep  GMAT Instructor My Blog
Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199
Veritas Prep Reviews



MBA Section Director
Status: Back to work...
Affiliations: GMAT Club
Joined: 21 Feb 2012
Posts: 5034
Location: India
City: Pune
GPA: 3.4
WE: Business Development (Manufacturing)

Re: What is the remainder when 43^{86} is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
23 Sep 2013, 23:14
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote: Alterego wrote: What is the remainder when \(43^{86}\) is divided by 5? A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 3 E) 4 Please provide a detail explanation on how you achieved the correct answer. Thanks First check out the post on binomial on this link: http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/05 ... ekinyou/Now the question will take you 15 secs. \(43^{86} = (40 + 3)^{86}\) Since 40 is completely divisible by 5, you only have to think about \(3^{86}\) \(3^{86} = 9^{43} = (10  1)^{43}\) Again, 10 is completely divisible by 5 so we only need to worry about (1). The remainder will be \((1)^{43} = 1\) which means the remainder is 5  1 = 4 If you are uncomfortable with negative remainders, check this post: http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/05 ... emainders/This is nice and fantastic way to simplify the question, though new to me. Initially I approached this question in traditional fashion. What is the remainder when \(43^{86}\) is divided by 5? Rule : The expression \(\frac{A * B * C}{M}\) will give the same remainder as \(\frac{Ar * Br * Cr}{M}\) where Ar, Br, Cr are the remainders of A, B, C when divided by 'M' individually.
So The remainder of \(\frac{43^{86}}{5}\) will be the same as that of \(\frac{3^{86}}{5}\) Remainder of \(\frac{3^1}{5}\) = 3 Remainder of \(\frac{3^2}{5}\) = 4 Remainder of \(\frac{3^3}{5}\) = 2 Remainder of \(\frac{3^4}{5}\) = 1 Remainder of \(\frac{3^5}{5}\) = 3 The remainder pattern will repeat from 1 i.e. 34213421......so on So the the remainder of \(\frac{3^{86}}{5}\) will be 4.
_________________
Chances of Getting Admitted After an Interview [Data Crunch]
Must Read Forum Topics Before You Kick Off Your MBA Application
New GMAT Club Decision Tracker  Real Time Decision Updates



Manager
Joined: 10 Sep 2013
Posts: 80
Concentration: Sustainability, International Business

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
24 Sep 2013, 00:09
email2vm wrote: Bunuel wrote: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5?A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 Notice that \(43^{86}=(40+3)^{86}\). Now, if we expand this expression, all terms but the last one will have 40 as multiple and thus will be divisible by 5. The last term will be \(3^{86}\). So we should find the remainder when \(3^{86}\) is divided by 5. Next, \(3^{86}=9^{43}\). 9 in odd power has units digit of 9 hence yields the remainder of 4 upon division by 5 (9 in even power has units digit of 1 hence yields the remainder of 1 upon division by 5). Answer: E. Similar questions to practice: when5125isdividedby13theremainderobtainedis130220.htmlwhatistheremainderof126493.htmlwhatistheremainderwhen323232isdividedby100316.htmlwhatistheremainderwhen182210isdividedby99724.htmlHope it helps. Hi Brunel, Please help me solve when I choose (452)^86....i am not able to solve this way. Sure you can. 45 leaves no remainder after division by 5. so now you just have to find the remainder when (2)^86/5 Since 86 is even, the answer will be positive. 2 has a cyclicality of 4 (i.e 2,4,8,6..2,4,6,8). so 86/4 has a remainder of 2. Since (2)^2 = 4. The number ends in 4. and the remainder when 4/5 is 4!
_________________
Kudos if I helped



Manager
Joined: 10 Sep 2013
Posts: 80
Concentration: Sustainability, International Business

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
24 Sep 2013, 08:58
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote: igotthis wrote: I did: (43)*(43^85) since 43^85 is divisible by 5, So left with 43 Where did I go wrong here? The base needs to end in a 5 to make the number divisible by 5. The multiple of 5 in the POWER has no relevance. \((...5)^{anything}\) always ends in a 5. \((Anything)^{...5}\) doesn't necessarily end in a 5. e.g. \(3^5 = 3*3*3*3*3 = 243\) I understand that. But I calculated that using cyclicality. (43^85).. 1) Found the cyclicality of 3 (3,9,7,1) = 4 2) Divide the power by the cyclicality, so 85/4.. remainder is 1. 3) So the last digit of (43^85) ends in 3^1 = 3 aha! Now I get it 3/5 leaves a remainder of 3. BUT this method does not work since the other 43 is left out and creates a mess. I'll stick with the method of (43)^86 leaves the same remainder of (3)^86 i.e 4. Thanks Brunel and Karishma!!
_________________
Kudos if I helped



Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 7934
Location: Pune, India

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
24 Sep 2013, 20:37
igotthis wrote: VeritasPrepKarishma wrote: igotthis wrote: I did: (43)*(43^85) since 43^85 is divisible by 5, So left with 43 Where did I go wrong here? The base needs to end in a 5 to make the number divisible by 5. The multiple of 5 in the POWER has no relevance. \((...5)^{anything}\) always ends in a 5. \((Anything)^{...5}\) doesn't necessarily end in a 5. e.g. \(3^5 = 3*3*3*3*3 = 243\) I understand that. But I calculated that using cyclicality. (43^85).. 1) Found the cyclicality of 3 (3,9,7,1) = 4 2) Divide the power by the cyclicality, so 85/4.. remainder is 1. 3) So the last digit of (43^85) ends in 3^1 = 3 aha! Now I get it 3/5 leaves a remainder of 3. BUT this method does not work since the other 43 is left out and creates a mess. It does work. \(43^{85}\) ends in a 3. You have a 43 outside. You get 43*(..........3) The last digit here will be product of the last digits 3*3 = 9 When you divide it by 5, the remainder will be 4. The only thing is, you dont need to take a 43 out. What did you achieve by doing that? Using cyclicity, \(43^{86}\), divide 86 by 4 to get 2. So last digit of \(43^{86}\) ends in 3^2 = 9. When you divide it by 5, the remainder will be 4.
_________________
Karishma Veritas Prep  GMAT Instructor My Blog
Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199
Veritas Prep Reviews



Director
Joined: 10 Mar 2013
Posts: 584
Location: Germany
Concentration: Finance, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.88
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
25 Oct 2015, 03:10
Bunuel wrote: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5?A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 Notice that \(43^{86}=(40+3)^{86}\). Now, if we expand this expression, all terms but the last one will have 40 as multiple and thus will be divisible by 5. The last term will be \(3^{86}\). So we should find the remainder when \(3^{86}\) is divided by 5. Next, \(3^{86}=9^{43}\). 9 in odd power has units digit of 9 hence yields the remainder of 4 upon division by 5 (9 in even power has units digit of 1 hence yields the remainder of 1 upon division by 5). Answer: E. Similar questions to practice: when5125isdividedby13theremainderobtainedis130220.htmlwhatistheremainderof126493.htmlwhatistheremainderwhen323232isdividedby100316.htmlwhatistheremainderwhen182210isdividedby99724.htmlHope it helps. Hi Bunuel, can we use cyclicity approach finding the remainder ONLY when dividing by 2, 5, or 10. Or this is a general approach unregarded how large is the divisor ? In other word could we have used the same approach if a divisor were 26 ? Thanks in advance !
_________________
When you’re up, your friends know who you are. When you’re down, you know who your friends are.
Share some Kudos, if my posts help you. Thank you !
800Score ONLY QUANT CAT1 51, CAT2 50, CAT3 50 GMAT PREP 670 MGMAT CAT 630 KAPLAN CAT 660



Intern
Joined: 27 Oct 2015
Posts: 16

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
08 Mar 2016, 03:58
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote: idreesma wrote: i did it the following way (just making sure that its not by luck that i got the right answer)
43^86 /5 ==> since we are looking for a remainder that is 40+3 ... 3^86 [3 repeats in the following manner 3^1=3, 3^2=9, 3^3=7, 3^4=1 [only unit digits]
86/4 ==> Remainder is 2 .. which means that unit digit is going to be 9 (9/5 ==> gives a remainder of 4 as E) Your logic worked because we are discussing divisibility by 5 here. The last digit decides the remainder when a number is divided by 5. Remainder when ****7 is divided by 5 will always be 2. Remainder when *****4 is divided by 5 will always be 4. This is so because every number that ends in 0 or 5 is divisible by 5 and only numbers ending in 0 or 5 are divisible by 5. Last digit works only for 2 and 5. If you consider divisibility by say 3 or 7 etc last digit logic doesn't work so be careful. Dear Karishma, Please could you just quickly look through on this: "Second, you have to know that when it comes to these kinds of questions, the only digit that matters is the UNITS DIGIT of the number." So is it wrong OR is it true only for 2 and 5? Can we use cyclicity approach finding the remainder ONLY when dividing by 2, 5, or 10? Does the last digit work ONLY for 2 and 5? If it's so, I prefer to use ONE general method in order not to mess everything up and to avoid mistakes, what do you think about it, am I right? [Since 40 is completely divisible by 5, you only have to think about 3^86; 3^86=9^43=(10−1)^43AND as in your post "A Tricky Question on Negative Remainders" Question: What is the remainder when 3^(7^11) is divided by 5? (here, 3 is raised to the power (7^11)) 7^(11) = (8 – 1)^(11)]  Could I also ask you what the remainder is if for example 3^77/5? I tried to solve it this way: 3^1*3^76 / 5 = 3*(3^2)^38 / 5 = 3*9^38 / 5 = 3*(101)^38 / 5 > 1^38 = +1*3 = 3 – REMAINDER. Is my answer correct?  Is it possible to solve this question by defining the last digit: As we know 3 has a cyclicity of 4 values in succession: 3 9 7 1 3 9 7 1 3 etc By applying this method we need 77/4 = 1 – remainder, 1 more than 4, which is 3>13( 5*2)=3 – ANSWER Thank you! Wishing u all the best



Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 7934
Location: Pune, India

What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
08 Mar 2016, 23:31
The concept of cyclicity and units digit is useful while dealing with remainders only when the divisor is 5 or 2 or their product 10 (actually if the divisor is 2, all you need to think of is evenodd). The reason for that is that we have base 10 number system and 10 has only two prime factors 2 and 5. For more on this, check: http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2015/12 ... questions/http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2015/12 ... nspart2/studentsensual wrote: "Second, you have to know that when it comes to these kinds of questions, the only digit that matters is the UNITS DIGIT of the number." So is it wrong OR is it true only for 2 and 5? Can we use cyclicity approach finding the remainder ONLY when dividing by 2, 5, or 10? Does the last digit work ONLY for 2 and 5? If it's so, I prefer to use ONE general method in order not to mess everything up and to avoid mistakes, what do you think about it, am I right? [Since 40 is completely divisible by 5, you only have to think about 3^86; 3^86=9^43=(10−1)^43 AND as in your post "A Tricky Question on Negative Remainders" Question: What is the remainder when 3^(7^11) is divided by 5? (here, 3 is raised to the power (7^11)) 7^(11) = (8 – 1)^(11)]
The one general method would be binomial theorem which is applicable for all divisors. But note that if you can use cyclicity in the question (if divisor is 2, 5 or 10), the solution becomes much simpler if you use cyclicity. Quote:  Could I also ask you what the remainder is if for example 3^77/5? I tried to solve it this way: 3^1*3^76 / 5 = 3*(3^2)^38 / 5 = 3*9^38 / 5 = 3*(101)^38 / 5 > 1^38 = +1*3 = 3 – REMAINDER. Is my answer correct?  Is it possible to solve this question by defining the last digit: As we know 3 has a cyclicity of 4 values in succession: 3 9 7 1 3 9 7 1 3 etc By applying this method we need 77/4 = 1 – remainder, 1 more than 4, which is 3>13(5*2)=3 – ANSWER
Thank you! Wishing u all the best Both methods are correct. You can use binomial theorem as done in method 1 for any divisor.
_________________
Karishma Veritas Prep  GMAT Instructor My Blog
Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199
Veritas Prep Reviews



Intern
Joined: 27 Oct 2015
Posts: 16

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
09 Mar 2016, 21:51
Ms Karishma, Thank you for your instant reply



Retired Moderator
Joined: 12 Aug 2015
Posts: 2414
GRE 1: 323 Q169 V154

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
17 Mar 2016, 04:56
Nice Question Here the key is to remember that we the remainder when any integer is divided by 5 is the same as when the unit digit of the integer is divided by 5 hence as the unit digit of 43^86 is 9 (as cyclicity of 3 is 4) hence Remainder => remainder when 9/5 => 4 hence => E
_________________
Getting into HOLLYWOOD with an MBA Stone Cold's Mock Tests for GMATQuant(700+)



Senior Manager
Joined: 13 Oct 2016
Posts: 367
GPA: 3.98

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
02 Dec 2016, 03:06
Alterego wrote: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5?
A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 Quick method. \(43 = 3 (mod_5)\) and we got: \(\frac{3^{86}}{5}\) \(5\) is prime and \(GCD (3, 5) = 1\) hence \(3^4 = 1 (mod_5)\) \(\frac{(3^4)^{28}*3^2}{5}= \frac{1*9}{5}= 4 (mod_5)\) Our remainder is \(4\).



Board of Directors
Status: QA & VA Forum Moderator
Joined: 11 Jun 2011
Posts: 3326
Location: India
GPA: 3.5
WE: Business Development (Commercial Banking)

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
30 Dec 2016, 10:15
Alterego wrote: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5?
A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 \(\frac{43}{5}\) = \(Remainer\) \(3\) We know, \(\frac{3^4}{5}\) = \(Remainer\) \(1\) Now, \(3^{86} = 3^{84}*3^2\) \(\frac{3^2}{5}\) = \(Remainer\) \(4\) Hence, the correct answer will be (E) 4
_________________
Thanks and Regards
Abhishek....
PLEASE FOLLOW THE RULES FOR POSTING IN QA AND VA FORUM AND USE SEARCH FUNCTION BEFORE POSTING NEW QUESTIONS
How to use Search Function in GMAT Club  Rules for Posting in QA forum  Writing Mathematical Formulas Rules for Posting in VA forum  Request Expert's Reply ( VA Forum Only )



Manager
Joined: 09 Aug 2016
Posts: 69

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
14 Jan 2017, 08:53
Bunuel wrote: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4
Notice that \(43^{86}=(40+3)^{86}\). Now, if we expand this expression, all terms but the last one will have 40 as multiple a V.Good explanation as always but I would like to add some explanation for the above statement: Expanding (40+3) ^ 86 means simply that you do (40+3) (40+3) (40+3) ...etc 86 times. Simply if you do all the multiplication you will end up with terms that are mul(40) apart from one which will be mul(3)... perhaps this doesn't make sense much but check the following example: E.g. (40+3)^2 = (40+3)*(40+3) = 40*40 + 40*3 + 3*40 + 3*3 .... Indeed all the terms of this equation are multiples of 40 apart from the last term 3*3 This approach applies to any powers as for example (40+3)^3 and so on.



Manager
Status: Preparing for GMAT!!
Joined: 11 Oct 2015
Posts: 140
Location: India
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, International Business
GMAT 1: 660 Q47 V34 GMAT 2: 700 Q48 V38
GPA: 3.1
WE: General Management (Entertainment and Sports)

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
14 Jan 2017, 13:03
Alterego wrote: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5?
A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 Unit digits repeat after every 4th power. => 43^86=43^(84+2) =>3^2/5=R(4) E. Sent from my SMG935F using GMAT Club Forum mobile app
_________________
Yours, Siva Rama Krishna Meka



NonHuman User
Joined: 09 Sep 2013
Posts: 13847

Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5? [#permalink]
Show Tags
08 Feb 2018, 19:51
Hello from the GMAT Club BumpBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up  doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
_________________
GMAT Books  GMAT Club Tests  Best Prices on GMAT Courses  GMAT Mobile App  Math Resources  Verbal Resources




Re: What is the remainder when 43^86 is divided by 5?
[#permalink]
08 Feb 2018, 19:51



Go to page
Previous
1 2
[ 38 posts ]



