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When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of S

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2013, 12:53
2. In using the word "understandable" (line 14), the author most clearly conveys

A sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union.
B concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable
C ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920's.
D appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920's toward unions.
E regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers.

Can someone please explain the OA for this question. In my opinion the answer should've been C or E. But the OA is D.
How can understandable convey appreciation of the attitude of many black workers...

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2013, 08:17
StrivingTurtle wrote:
2. In using the word "understandable" (line 14), the author most clearly conveys

A sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union.
B concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable
C ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920's.
D appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920's toward unions.
E regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers.

Can someone please explain the OA for this question. In my opinion the answer should've been C or E. But the OA is D.
How can understandable convey appreciation of the attitude of many black workers...



I also wonder how the word "appreciation" in option D is correct use. It conveys the idea of "deplorable""

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2013, 00:01
StrivingTurtle wrote:
2. In using the word "understandable" (line 14), the author most clearly conveys

A sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union.
B concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable
C ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920's.
D appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920's toward unions.
E regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers.

Can someone please explain the OA for this question. In my opinion the answer should've been C or E. But the OA is D.
How can understandable convey appreciation of the attitude of many black workers...


Hi Turtle, Let me see if I can help....

Here is the whole sentence:

The first was Black workers' understandable( 15) skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership.

This sentence is talking about black workers were SKEPTICAL of the unions because of HISTORIC reasons. And our author is saying that is UNDERSTANDABLE.

So... Answer D, is in my eyes correct. Because it says that the author APPRECIATES (another word for UNDERSTANDS) the attitude of black workers.


The question is a tricky one, because this sentence is saying something very differnt to the section preceeding it, which talks about the fight for recognition, and the attitudes of the unions and employers. We need to ignore this and just focus on the specific section in hand...

Hope that helps...

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2013, 00:40
hmm.. I see the connection now.

Honestly, If I get something like this in the real exam, I am sure I will fumble.

I would always think of appreciate as "to praise" or something of that sort with positive connotations. It is hard to make this connection, especially when you don't have a of contextual support. (read: when the sentence is short such as the one mentioned in the answer choice!!)

Thanks Plumber !!

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2013, 11:40
D
E
b
b
c
c

I hope to see the OA's soon
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When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood [#permalink]

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When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, he began a ten-year battle to win recognition from the Pullman Company, the largest private employer of Black people in the United States and the company that controlled the railroad industry’s sleeping car and parlor service. In 1935 the Brotherhood became the first Black union recognized by a major corporation. Randolph’s efforts in the battle helped transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and toward themselves as an identifiable group; eventually, Randolph helped to weaken organized labor’s antagonism toward Black workers.

In the Pullman contest Randolph faced formidable obstacles. The first was Black workers’ understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership. An additional obstacle was the union that Pullman itself had formed, which weakened support among Black workers for an independent entity.
The Brotherhood possessed a number of advantages, however, including Randolph’s own tactical abilities. In 1928 he took the bold step of threatening a strike against Pullman. Such a threat, on a national scale, under Black leadership, helped replace the stereotype of the Black worker as servant with the image of the Black worker as wage earner. In addition, the porters’ very isolation aided the Brotherhood. Porters were scattered throughout the country, sleeping in dormitories in Black communities; their segregated life protected the union’s internal communications from interception. That the porters were a homogeneous group working for a single employer with single labor policy, thus sharing the same grievances from city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well. But it was only in the early 1930’s that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions with company money eventually allowed the Brotherhood to become recognized as the porters’ representative.

Not content with this triumph, Randolph brought the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor, where it became the equal of the Federation’s 105 other unions. He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood would be in a better position to exert pressure on member unions that practiced race restrictions. Such restrictions were eventually found unconstitutional in 1944.

1. According to the passage, by 1935 the skepticism of Black workers toward unions was
(A) unchanged except among Black employees of railroad-related industries
(B) reinforced by the actions of the Pullman Company’s union
(C) mitigated by the efforts of Randolph
(D) weakened by the opening up of many unions to Black workers
(E) largely alleviated because of the policies of the American Federation of Labor

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


2. The passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters to the Pullman Company’s own union?
(A) Few porters ever joined this union.
(B) Some porters supported this union before 1935.
(C) Porters, more than other Pullman employees, enthusiastically supported this union.
(D) The porters’ response was most positive after 1935.
(E) The porters’ response was unaffected by the general skepticism of Black workers concerning unions.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

3. The passage suggests that in the 1920’s a company in the United States was able to
(A) use its own funds to set up a union
(B) require its employees to join the company’s own union
(C) develop a single labor policy for all its employees with little employee dissent
(D) pressure its employees to contribute money to maintain the company’s own union
(E) use its resources to prevent the passage of federal legislation that would have facilitated the formation of independent unions

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

4. The passage supplies information concerning which of the following matters related to Randolph?
(A) The steps he took to initiate the founding of the Brotherhood
(B) His motivation for bringing the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor
(C) The influence he had on the passage of legislation overturning race restrictions in 1944
(D) The influence he had on the passage of legislation to bar companies from financing their own unions
(E) The success he and the Brotherhood had in influencing the policies of the other unions in the American Federation of Labor

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of S [#permalink]

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2015, 20:37
Hi,

Can someone please explain 2nd question?

My initial pick as answer is 'D' and the reasoning behind that was this phrase in the sentence. "That the porters were a homogeneous group working for a single employer with single labor policy, thus sharing the same grievances from city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well. .

However, the answer seems to 'B'. What am i missing here?

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2015, 23:45
jayanthjanardhan wrote:
Hi,

Can someone please explain 2nd question?

My initial pick as answer is 'D' and the reasoning behind that was this phrase in the sentence. "That the porters were a homogeneous group working for a single employer with single labor policy, thus sharing the same grievances from city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well. .

However, the answer seems to 'B'. What am i missing here?



The passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters to the Pullman Company’s own union?

The Question is asking about the Response of the Porters "Pullman Company`s own Union (not the Union started by Philip Randolph").

The answer to this is from the Second Para(highlighted).

Quote:
In the Pullman contest Randolph faced formidable obstacles. The first was Black workers’ understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership. An additional obstacle was the union that Pullman itself had formed, which weakened support among Black workers for an independent entity



Do let me know if you need further explanation on this. I must say this is a awesome passage.

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2015, 03:46
This was a fairly simple passage in my opinion. Took me 4:39 minutes,

C
B
A
B

Only doubtful question was number 2, D was also appealing...

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2015, 09:17
I think the better answer to 2nd question would be option A. The passage suggests that the black workers were not very enthusiastic about the Pullman's own union. Please explain what I am missing here.

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2015, 19:13
noTh1ng wrote:
This was a fairly simple passage in my opinion. Took me 4:39 minutes,

C
B
A
B

Only doubtful question was number 2, D was also appealing...


noTh1ng, thats wonderful, how did you manage to solve this in 4:39 minutes ? Is it just for answering the questions alone or including reading the passage as well ?

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2015, 11:09
Passage 2 talks about 2 things : One about generic information about unions (where barred black members were barred from membership) and Second about the Pullman's own union ( which weakened the support among black workers for an independent entity) before 1935. This may be (one of the reasons) because of the support of some porters to this union (as mentioned in option B).

The idea is about the weakening in the support rather than the numbers joining the union.

Hope this helps.
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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of S [#permalink]

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Paragraph 1 - Randolph's leadership in Pullman Co , largest co of US employing Black labors , named Brotherhood..... , helped transformation of the attitude of the blacks towards them.

Paragraph 2 - Obstacles faced in the process - (a) Blacks skepticism towards Unionism (b) support for independent identity

Paragraph 3 - Breakthrough strike against Pullman Co attracted porters for the common cause which also affected them.

Paragraph 4 - Randolph brought it to other 105 unions to exert pressure against unions practicing Race restrictions. Finally such restrictions were declared unconstitutional.


1. In using the word “understandable” (line 14), the author most clearly conveys


Go through the passage - " In the Pullman contest Randolph faced formidable obstacles. The first was Black workers' understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership. "

The following line talks about an obstacle and the reason for the skepticism , since it barred membership of Black workers.

(A) sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union

Not relevant

(B) concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable

Possible
(C) ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920’s

Not true since the black workers are doubtful ( according to the passage ) about the formation of an Union for the black , since they were barred from membership in such Unions.

(D) appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920’s toward unions

The passage doesn't mention it , rather they were skeptical.

(E) regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers

There isn't any evidence of regretting in the passage .

Hence (B) is the best option.

2. The passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters to the Pullman Company’s own union?


Check the passage -

" In 1928 he took the bold step of threatening a strike against Pullman."

" In addition, the porters' very isolation aided the Brotherhood. Porters were scattered throughout the country, sleeping in dormitories in Black communities; their segregated life protected the union's internal communications from interception. That the porters were a homogeneous group working for a single employer with a single labor policy, thus sharing the same grievances from city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well. "



(A) Few porters ever joined this union.

The passage talks about the support of the porters against the practices of the employers and it is well expected that many joined the Union.

Further the author states -

"........eventually allowed the Brotherhood to become recognized as the porters' representative. "

Which clearly contradicts , hence this option can be negated.

(B) Some porters supported this union before 1935.

Nothing is explicitly stated in this regard , however the author mentions that Randolph took a bold step to strike against Pullman in 1928 which gained support of the porters as well later on.

So , this option might be possible - Let's keep it for now and check the other options as well to determine the best one.

(C) Porters, more than other Pullman employees, enthusiastically supported this union.

Porters supported the Union but the author didn't mention who supported more. This can be rejected straightaway.

The author simply mentions -

"But it was only in the early 1930's that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions with company money eventually allowed the Brotherhood to become recognized as the porters' representative. "

This statement can not be used to prove that the porters supported more since it was caused by Federal Legislation.

(D) The porters’ response was most positive after 1935.

Porters response were positive after the first strike by Randolph against Pullman against Pullman Co in 1928.

(E) The porters’ response was unaffected by the general skepticism of Black workers concerning unions.

Not at all true the author mentions obstacles which Randolph faced in the following lines -

"In the Pullman contest Randolph faced formidable obstacles. The first was Black workers' understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership."[/i]

Hence B seems to be better than the other available options...
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New post 26 May 2016, 09:37
Could someone please tell me why in question 2 the correct answer is not option C? I find both C and D good candidates.

2. In using the word "understandable" (line 14), the author most clearly conveys:

C) ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920's.
D) appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920's toward unions.

Thank you.

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

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The author isn't expressing ambivalence toward unions. Rather, he or she is describing the skepticism of black workers. It's a common trap for the GMAT to give an answer that describes the opinion of someone other than the person we're talking about.
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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2016, 02:42
DmitryFarber wrote:
The author isn't expressing ambivalence toward unions. Rather, he or she is describing the skepticism of black workers. It's a common trap for the GMAT to give an answer that describes the opinion of someone other than the person we're talking about.


I would like to hear detail explanation on #5.
Everyone is using "in the early 1930's that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions with company money" is the evidence. However, doesnt "that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions with companey money" mean it was already prohibited in 1930, meaning they were not able to establish union with theirown?

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New post 30 Jul 2016, 01:38
pininfarina, watch out for the time frame. The question asks about the 1920's, but the legislation wasn't passed until the early 1930's. This allows us to know for sure that the practice of creating unions with company money was still legal throughout the 1920's.
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New post 31 Jul 2016, 08:19
Thanks DmitryFarber,
Actually, I first thought so...but doesn't the present participle "prohibiting" mean it was already prohibiting in the early 1930?
So I thought this sentence wouldn't be a ground for what was happening in 1920's.
(I can see that the legislation allowed for the first time the Brotherhood to become recognized as the porters' representative , but I still don't understand, from the grammer perspective, that the prohibition began in 1930.)

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2016, 08:36
The passage states that it was only in the early 1930's that this legislation allowed the Brotherhood to become recognized. We don't know exactly when the legislation passed, but it seems most likely that it was passed in the the early 1930's (sometime between 1930 and 1934). I suppose it is theoretically possible that the legislation was passed earlier, but there's no indication of that, nor any reason to suspect that the legislation was passed long before it went into effect.

Also, don't read too much into the present participle. It simply serves as a modifier. If the sentence said "legislation that prohibited," the meaning would be the same.
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