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# Which of the following best completes the passage below? One

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Which of the following best completes the passage below? One [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2007, 18:09
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Which of the following best completes the passage below?

One tax-reform proposal that has gained increasing support in recent years is the flat tax, which would impose a uniform tax rate on incomes at every level. Opponents of the flat tax say that a progressive tax system, which levies a higher rate of taxes on higher-income taxpayers, is fairer, placing the greater burden on those better able to bear it. However, the present crazy quilt of tax deductions, exemptions, credits, and loopholes benefits primarily the high-income taxpayer, who is consequently able to reduce his or her effective tax rate, often to a level below that paid by the lower-income taxpayer. Therefore, ______

(A) higher-income taxpayers are likely to lend their support to the flat-tax proposal now being considered by Congress
(B) a flat-tax system that allowed no deductions or exemptions would substantially increase actual government revenues
(C) the lower-income taxpayer might well be penalized by the institution of a flat-tax system in this country
(D) the progressive nature of our present tax system is more illusory than real
(E) the flat tax would actually be fairer to the lower-income taxpayer than any progressive tax system could be

If A, then B.
If B, then C.
If C, then D.
If all of the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true?
(A) If D, then A.
(B) If not B, then not C.
(C) If not D, then not A.
(D) If D, then E.
(E) If not A, then not D.

As one who has always believed that truth is our nation’s surest weapon in the propaganda war against our foes, I am distressed by reports of “disinformation” campaigns by American intelligence agents in Western Europe. In a disinformation campaign, untruths are disseminated through gullible local journalists in order to damage the interests of our enemies and protect our own. Those who defend this practice say that lying is necessary to counter Soviet disinformation campaigns aimed at damaging America’s political interests. These apologists contend that one must fight fire with fire. I would point out to the apologists that the fire department finds water more effective.
10. The author of the passage above bases his conclusion on which of the following?
(A) A circular definition of “disinformation”
(B) An example of the ineffectiveness of lying as a weapon in the propaganda war
(C) An analogy between truth and water
(D) An appeal to the authority of the fire department
(E) An attack on the character of American intelligence agents in Western Europe
11. The author’s main point is that
(A) although disinformation campaigns may be effective, they are unacceptable on ethical grounds
(B) America’s moral standing in the world depends on its adherence to the truth
(C) the temporary political gains produced by disinformation campaigns generally give way to long-term losses
(D) Soviet disinformation campaigns have done little to damage America’s standing in Europe
(E) disinformation campaigns do not effectively serve the political interests of the United States
12. Are you still reading the other newspaper in town? Did you know that the Daily Bugle is owned by an out-of-town business syndicate that couldn’t care less about the people of Gotham City? Read the Daily Clarion, the only real voice of the people of Gotham City!
Which of the following most directly refutes the argument raised in the advertisement above?
(A) Over half of the advertising revenues of the Daily Clarion come from firms whose headquarters are located outside of Gotham City.
(B) The Daily Clarion usually devotes more of its pages to out-of-town news than does the Daily Bugle.
(C) Nearly 40 percent of the readers of the Daily Clarion reside outside the limits of Gotham City.
(D) The editor-in-chief and all the other members of the editorial staff of the Daily Bugle have lived and worked in Gotham City for ten years or more.
(E) The Daily Bugle has been published in Gotham City for a longer time than has the Daily Clarion.

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19 Jun 2007, 18:39
chika,

what were the sources of these questions? i am just interested if the second question would appear on the gmat. the other two seem kind of tough )

but here is my take on the second question:

A- I think a common mistake here is to flip the causality. I am not sure of the
fancy terminology or if i am correct... but if you go down the line A essentially brings about D; by saying if D then A you are saying D brings about A. WRONG

B- incorrect use of contrapositve

C- this looks tempting, this in effect uses the contrapositve correctly i think. this gets my vote. if not d then not c. >> if not c then not b >> if not b then not a

D- this is obviously outside of the scope of a deductive inference.

E- incorrect use of the contrapositve

first q:

A- is out, clearly the rich won't want to support a flat tax system
B- this could make sense, but what if the flat tax rate is lower?
C-perhaps, but the agrument seems to allude to the fact that flat tax is fairer for everyone
D- this is my choice
E-this seems like the choice to make, but what if the tax rate is higher? then it is worse for the poor

for question 3:
A- I think he gives a clear example of disinformation
B- the author didn't give an example of it being ineffective
C- the author made the analogy, and the point that he/she is trying to make is that truth is better- correct choice
D- this is just silly
E- there was no attack on american intelligence agenciey

11:
A- i say A.
B+C seem out of scope
D- no mention to this fact
E- this would be my second choice

12:
B- this makes sense to me

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20 Jun 2007, 10:48
since there seems to be no other takers, what are the OAs?

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20 Jun 2007, 11:21
chika77 wrote:
Which of the following best completes the passage below?

One tax-reform proposal that has gained increasing support in recent years is the flat tax, which would impose a uniform tax rate on incomes at every level. Opponents of the flat tax say that a progressive tax system, which levies a higher rate of taxes on higher-income taxpayers, is fairer, placing the greater burden on those better able to bear it. However, the present crazy quilt of tax deductions, exemptions, credits, and loopholes benefits primarily the high-income taxpayer, who is consequently able to reduce his or her effective tax rate, often to a level below that paid by the lower-income taxpayer. Therefore, ______

(A) higher-income taxpayers are likely to lend their support to the flat-tax proposal now being considered by Congress
(B) a flat-tax system that allowed no deductions or exemptions would substantially increase actual government revenues <-- CORRECT
(C) the lower-income taxpayer might well be penalized by the institution of a flat-tax system in this country
(D) the progressive nature of our present tax system is more illusory than real
(E) the flat tax would actually be fairer to the lower-income taxpayer than any progressive tax system could be

If A, then B.
If B, then C.
If C, then D.
If all of the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true?
(A) If D, then A.
(B) If not B, then not C. <-- CORRECT
(C) If not D, then not A.
(D) If D, then E.
(E) If not A, then not D.

As one who has always believed that truth is our nation’s surest weapon in the propaganda war against our foes, I am distressed by reports of “disinformation” campaigns by American intelligence agents in Western Europe. In a disinformation campaign, untruths are disseminated through gullible local journalists in order to damage the interests of our enemies and protect our own. Those who defend this practice say that lying is necessary to counter Soviet disinformation campaigns aimed at damaging America’s political interests. These apologists contend that one must fight fire with fire. I would point out to the apologists that the fire department finds water more effective.

10. The author of the passage above bases his conclusion on which of the following?
(A) A circular definition of “disinformation”
(B) An example of the ineffectiveness of lying as a weapon in the propaganda war
(C) An analogy between truth and water <-- CORRECT
(D) An appeal to the authority of the fire department
(E) An attack on the character of American intelligence agents in Western Europe

11. The author’s main point is that

(B) America’s moral standing in the world depends on its adherence to the truth
(C) the temporary political gains produced by disinformation campaigns generally give way to long-term losses

B & C both seem like good choices, but during the test, I would go with B.

12. Are you still reading the other newspaper in town? Did you know that the Daily Bugle is owned by an out-of-town business syndicate that couldn’t care less about the people of Gotham City? Read the Daily Clarion, the only real voice of the people of Gotham City!
Which of the following most directly refutes the argument raised in the advertisement above?
(A) Over half of the advertising revenues of the Daily Clarion come from firms whose headquarters are located outside of Gotham City.
(B) The Daily Clarion usually devotes more of its pages to out-of-town news than does the Daily Bugle. <-- CORRECT
(C) Nearly 40 percent of the readers of the Daily Clarion reside outside the limits of Gotham City.
(D) The editor-in-chief and all the other members of the editorial staff of the Daily Bugle have lived and worked in Gotham City for ten years or more.
(E) The Daily Bugle has been published in Gotham City for a longer time than has the Daily Clarion.

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20 Jun 2007, 21:10
what is the OA chika? gmatclub posting etiquette says post the OA in two days... especially since no one is biting

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21 Jun 2007, 10:59
chika77 wrote:
If A, then B.
If B, then C.
If C, then D.
If all of the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true?
(A) If D, then A.
(B) If not B, then not C.
(C) If not D, then not A.
(D) If D, then E.
(E) If not A, then not D.

I'll go with (C) for this one......Think of it as

If A, then B.
If B, then C.
If C, then D.

It doesn't say "only then"......B,C,D and be because of other reasons as well

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21 Jun 2007, 12:26
Here are my answers with few explanations.
Waiting eagerly for OAs

[quote="chika77"]Which of the following best completes the passage below?

One tax-reform proposal that has gained increasing support in recent years is the flat tax, which would impose a uniform tax rate on incomes at every level. Opponents of the flat tax say that a progressive tax system, which levies a higher rate of taxes on higher-income taxpayers, is fairer, placing the greater burden on those better able to bear it. However, the present crazy quilt of tax deductions, exemptions, credits, and loopholes benefits primarily the high-income taxpayer, who is consequently able to reduce his or her effective tax rate, often to a level below that paid by the lower-income taxpayer. Therefore, ______

(A) higher-income taxpayers are likely to lend their support to the flat-tax proposal now being considered by Congress
No they will not. They are already paying lower taxes.
(B) a flat-tax system that allowed no deductions or exemptions would substantially increase actual government revenues
It will bring in the lost revenue due to high income ppl not paying enough but "Substantially?. I am not sure.
(C) the lower-income taxpayer might well be penalized by the institution of a flat-tax system in this country
This is true. The new tax will average out amongst all taxpayers and hence lower income tax pple will pay more "Average" tax
(D) the progressive nature of our present tax system is more illusory than real
Not related to argument
(E) the flat tax would actually be fairer to the lower-income taxpayer than any progressive tax system could be
Contrary to Argument

If A, then B.
If B, then C.
If C, then D.
If all of the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true?
(A) If D, then A.
(B) If not B, then not C.
(C) If not D, then not A.
(D) If D, then E.
(E) If not A, then not D.

Undoubtedly C

As one who has always believed that truth is our nation’s surest weapon in the propaganda war against our foes, I am distressed by reports of “disinformation” campaigns by American intelligence agents in Western Europe. In a disinformation campaign, untruths are disseminated through gullible local journalists in order to damage the interests of our enemies and protect our own. Those who defend this practice say that lying is necessary to counter Soviet disinformation campaigns aimed at damaging America’s political interests. These apologists contend that one must fight fire with fire. I would point out to the apologists that the fire department finds water more effective.
10. The author of the passage above bases his conclusion on which of the following?
(A) A circular definition of “disinformation”
(B) An example of the ineffectiveness of lying as a weapon in the propaganda war
He never tried to prove lying as ineffective.
(C) An analogy between truth and water
True
(D) An appeal to the authority of the fire department
Not related to argument
(E) An attack on the character of American intelligence agents in Western Europe
It was not the basis

11. The author’s main point is that
(A) although disinformation campaigns may be effective, they are unacceptable on ethical grounds
(B) America’s moral standing in the world depends on its adherence to the truth
(C) the temporary political gains produced by disinformation campaigns generally give way to long-term losses
(D) Soviet disinformation campaigns have done little to damage America’s standing in Europe
(E) disinformation campaigns do not effectively serve the political interests of the United States
12. Are you still reading the other newspaper in town? Did you know that the Daily Bugle is owned by an out-of-town business syndicate that couldn’t care less about the people of Gotham City? Read the Daily Clarion, the only real voice of the people of Gotham City!
Which of the following most directly refutes the argument raised in the advertisement above?
(A) Over half of the advertising revenues of the Daily Clarion come from firms whose headquarters are located outside of Gotham City.
(B) The Daily Clarion usually devotes more of its pages to out-of-town news than does the Daily Bugle.
(C) Nearly 40 percent of the readers of the Daily Clarion reside outside the limits of Gotham City.
(D) The editor-in-chief and all the other members of the editorial staff of the Daily Bugle have lived and worked in Gotham City for ten years or more.
(E) The Daily Bugle has been published in Gotham City for a longer time than has the Daily Clarion.

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21 Jun 2007, 14:05

chika77 wrote:
Which of the following best completes the passage below?

One tax-reform proposal that has gained increasing support in recent years is the flat tax, which would impose a uniform tax rate on incomes at every level. Opponents of the flat tax say that a progressive tax system, which levies a higher rate of taxes on higher-income taxpayers, is fairer, placing the greater burden on those better able to bear it. However, the present crazy quilt of tax deductions, exemptions, credits, and loopholes benefits primarily the high-income taxpayer, who is consequently able to reduce his or her effective tax rate, often to a level below that paid by the lower-income taxpayer. Therefore, ______

(A) higher-income taxpayers are likely to lend their support to the flat-tax proposal now being considered by Congress
(B) a flat-tax system that allowed no deductions or exemptions would substantially increase actual government revenues
(C) the lower-income taxpayer might well be penalized by the institution of a flat-tax system in this country
(D) the progressive nature of our present tax system is more illusory than real
(E) the flat tax would actually be fairer to the lower-income taxpayer than any progressive tax system could be

In the current system of deductions and exemptions, higher-income taxpayer often pays less tax rate then the lower-income taxpayer. Thus, current system is not fair and making it flat tax system without any exemption would make fairer to the lower-income taxpayer then it currently is. Answer E!

If A, then B.
If B, then C.
If C, then D.
If all of the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true?
(A) If D, then A.
(B) If not B, then not C.
(C) If not D, then not A. - Correct
(D) If D, then E.
(E) If not A, then not D.

As one who has always believed that truth is our nation’s surest weapon in the propaganda war against our foes, I am distressed by reports of “disinformation” campaigns by American intelligence agents in Western Europe. In a disinformation campaign, untruths are disseminated through gullible local journalists in order to damage the interests of our enemies and protect our own. Those who defend this practice say that lying is necessary to counter Soviet disinformation campaigns aimed at damaging America’s political interests. These apologists contend that one must fight fire with fire. I would point out to the apologists that the fire department finds water more effective.
10. The author of the passage above bases his conclusion on which of the following?
(A) A circular definition of “disinformation” - nope
(B) An example of the ineffectiveness of lying as a weapon in the propaganda war - author has not given any such example.
(C) An analogy between truth and water - I would choose C.
(D) An appeal to the authority of the fire department - again no such mention in the passage.
(E) An attack on the character of American intelligence agents in Western Europe - nope
11. The author’s main point is that
(A) although disinformation campaigns may be effective, they are unacceptable on ethical grounds - there is not question raised about ethics of such practice.
(B) America’s moral standing in the world depends on its adherence to the truth auther believes that adherence to the truth is the best weapon for his country, but he has never indicated that america's moral standing in the world depends on it.
(C) the temporary political gains produced by disinformation campaigns generally give way to long-term losses again no such comparison in the passage.
(D) Soviet disinformation campaigns have done little to damage America’s standing in Europe we don't know that.
(E) disinformation campaigns do not effectively serve the political interests of the United States - defenders of this campaign say that it is necessary for America's political interest. But auther refutes it with an example of fire and water. I would choose E.
12. Are you still reading the other newspaper in town? Did you know that the Daily Bugle is owned by an out-of-town business syndicate that couldn’t care less about the people of Gotham City? Read the Daily Clarion, the only real voice of the people of Gotham City!
Which of the following most directly refutes the argument raised in the advertisement above?
(A) Over half of the advertising revenues of the Daily Clarion come from firms whose headquarters are located outside of Gotham City.
(B) The Daily Clarion usually devotes more of its pages to out-of-town news than does the Daily Bugle.
(C) Nearly 40 percent of the readers of the Daily Clarion reside outside the limits of Gotham City.
(D) The editor-in-chief and all the other members of the editorial staff of the Daily Bugle have lived and worked in Gotham City for ten years or more. - I am split between C and D, but will choose D here.
(E) The Daily Bugle has been published in Gotham City for a longer time than has the Daily Clarion.

Last edited by ankita on 21 Jun 2007, 14:36, edited 1 time in total.

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21 Jun 2007, 14:31
wow so hard to sift through all of this.

DCCEB

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21 Jun 2007, 14:41
k i'l l post some explanations since i have the time.

1) D. Answer choice (C) is incorrect because you cant assume they'll be penalized. The argument focuses more on the progressive tax system, and says that it is misleading. You have no information supporting whether the flat tax system is more or less fair. Answer choice (D) is relevant to the passage because the author is attacking the progressive tax system.

2) Definitely C. If D didn't happen, then you know that A didnt happen, because if A happened, D would have. Ugh. =P This seems like a weird problem.

3) I think we all agree that it's C. Water is the opposite of fire, and truth is the opposite of "disinformation".

4) E. This one comes down to answer choices (B) or (E). The others are definitely unsupported by the passage. I chose (E) because you can't assume that America's moral standing in the WORLD depends on adherence to the truth. The passage only talks about Western Europe, so anything talking about the entire world is out of scope.

5) I choose B. The Clarion claims that it cares more about the people, but it reports less relevant stuff than the Daily Bugle does. D is wrong because the workers are irrelevant. The argument only uses the owners' disinterest as an argument.

Let's get some OA's.

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21 Jun 2007, 15:55
plaguerabbit wrote:
5) I choose B. The Clarion claims that it cares more about the people, but it reports less relevant stuff than the Daily Bugle does. D is wrong because the workers are irrelevant. The argument only uses the owners' disinterest as an argument.

After reading your explanation, I think B is the right choice. Thanks!

Ankita

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23 Jun 2007, 09:44
lets get some OA's in the house yo! i want to know who is correct; we've got different answers going on for question 11

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23 Jun 2007, 10:00
D C C E D

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01 Aug 2007, 21:00
Hi..hope this helps! I came across this thread and have the correct OA's:

chika77 wrote:
Which of the following best completes the passage below?

One tax-reform proposal that has gained increasing support in recent years is the flat tax, which would impose a uniform tax rate on incomes at every level. Opponents of the flat tax say that a progressive tax system, which levies a higher rate of taxes on higher-income taxpayers, is fairer, placing the greater burden on those better able to bear it. However, the present crazy quilt of tax deductions, exemptions, credits, and loopholes benefits primarily the high-income taxpayer, who is consequently able to reduce his or her effective tax rate, often to a level below that paid by the lower-income taxpayer. Therefore, ______

(A) higher-income taxpayers are likely to lend their support to the flat-tax proposal now being considered by Congress
(B) a flat-tax system that allowed no deductions or exemptions would substantially increase actual government revenues
(C) the lower-income taxpayer might well be penalized by the institution of a flat-tax system in this country
(D) the progressive nature of our present tax system is more illusory than real
(E) the flat tax would actually be fairer to the lower-income taxpayer than any progressive tax system could be

If A, then B.
If B, then C.
If C, then D.
If all of the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true?
(A) If D, then A.
(B) If not B, then not C.
(C) If not D, then not A.
(D) If D, then E.
(E) If not A, then not D.

As one who has always believed that truth is our nation’s surest weapon in the propaganda war against our foes, I am distressed by reports of “disinformation” campaigns by American intelligence agents in Western Europe. In a disinformation campaign, untruths are disseminated through gullible local journalists in order to damage the interests of our enemies and protect our own. Those who defend this practice say that lying is necessary to counter Soviet disinformation campaigns aimed at damaging America’s political interests. These apologists contend that one must fight fire with fire. I would point out to the apologists that the fire department finds water more effective.
10. The author of the passage above bases his conclusion on which of the following?
(A) A circular definition of “disinformation”
(B) An example of the ineffectiveness of lying as a weapon in the propaganda war
(C) An analogy between truth and water
(D) An appeal to the authority of the fire department
(E) An attack on the character of American intelligence agents in Western Europe

11. The author’s main point is that
(A) although disinformation campaigns may be effective, they are unacceptable on ethical grounds
(B) America’s moral standing in the world depends on its adherence to the truth
(C) the temporary political gains produced by disinformation campaigns generally give way to long-term losses
(D) Soviet disinformation campaigns have done little to damage America’s standing in Europe
(E) disinformation campaigns do not effectively serve the political interests of the United States

12. Are you still reading the other newspaper in town? Did you know that the Daily Bugle is owned by an out-of-town business syndicate that couldn’t care less about the people of Gotham City? Read the Daily Clarion, the only real voice of the people of Gotham City!
Which of the following most directly refutes the argument raised in the advertisement above?
(A) Over half of the advertising revenues of the Daily Clarion come from firms whose headquarters are located outside of Gotham City.
(B) The Daily Clarion usually devotes more of its pages to out-of-town news than does the Daily Bugle.
(C) Nearly 40 percent of the readers of the Daily Clarion reside outside the limits of Gotham City.
(D) The editor-in-chief and all the other members of the editorial staff of the Daily Bugle have lived and worked in Gotham City for ten years or more.
(E) The Daily Bugle has been published in Gotham City for a longer time than has the Daily Clarion.

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01 Aug 2007, 21:11
I think most of these Q's are in OG 10th Edition!

FP

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01 Aug 2007, 21:11
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