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1) Advertiser: The revenue that newspapers and magazines

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Director
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18 Jul 2008, 20:15
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1) Advertiser: The revenue that newspapers and magazines earn by publishing advertisements allows publishers to keep the prices per copy of their publications much lower than would otherwise be possible. Therefore, consumers benefit economically from advertising.
Consumer: But who pays for the advertising that pays for low-priced newspapers and magazines? We consumers do, because advertisers pass along advertising costs to us through the higher prices they charge for their products.
Which of the following best describes how the consumer counters the advertisers argument?

A. By alleging something that, if true, would weaken the plausibility of the advertisers conclusion

B. By questioning the truth of the purportedly factual statement on which the advertisers conclusion is based

C. By offering an interpretation of the advertisers opening statement that, if accurate, shows that there is an implicit contradiction in it

D. By pointing out that the advertisers point of view is biased

E. By arguing that the advertiser too narrowly restricts the discussion to the effects of advertising that are economic

---------------------------------------
2) Mr. Lawson: We should adopt a national family policy that includes legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-sponsored day care. Such laws would decrease the stress levels of employees who have responsibility for small children. Thus, such laws would lead to happier, better-adjusted families.
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above?

A. An employees high stress level can be a cause of unhappiness and poor adjustment for his or her family.

B. People who have responsibility for small children and who work outside the home have higher stress levels than those who do not.

C. The goal of a national family policy is to lower the stress levels of parents.

D. Any national family policy that is adopted would include legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-sponsored day care.

E. Most children who have been cared for in daycare centers are happy and well adjusted.

-------------------------------------
3) Lark Manufacturing Company initiated a voluntary Quality Circles program for machine operators. Independent surveys of employee attitudes indicated that the machine operators participating in the program were less satisfied with their work situations after two years of the programs existence than they were at the programs start. Obviously, any workers who participate in a Quality Circles program will, as a result, become less satisfied with their jobs.
Each of the following, if true, would weaken the conclusion drawn above EXCEPT:

A. The second survey occurred during a period of recession when rumors of cutbacks and layoffs at Lark Manufacturing were plentiful.

B. The surveys also showed that those Lark machine operators who neither participated in Quality Circles nor knew anyone who did so reported the same degree of lessened satisfaction with their work situations as did the Lark machine operators who participated in Quality Circles.

C. While participating in Quality Circles at Lark Manufacturing, machine operators exhibited two of the primary indicators of improved job satisfaction: increased productivity and decreased absenteeism.

D. Several workers at Lark Manufacturing who had participated in Quality Circles while employed at other companies reported that, while participating in Quality Circles in their previous companies, their work satisfaction had increased.

E. The machine operators who participated in Quality Circles reported that, when the program started, they felt that participation might improve their work situations.

----------------------------------------------
4) Blood banks will shortly start to screen all donors for NANB hepatitis. Although the new screening tests are estimated to disqualify up to 5 percent of all prospective blood donors, they will still miss two-thirds of donors carrying NANB hepatitis. Therefore, about 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANB-contaminated blood.

Q. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

A. Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, carry other infections for which reliable screening tests are routinely performed.

B. Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, develop the disease themselves at any point.

C. The estimate of the number of donors who would be disqualified by tests for NANB hepatitis is an underestimate.

D. The incidence of NANB hepatitis is lower among the potential blood donors than it is in the population at large.

E. The donors who will still supply NANB-contaminated blood will donate blood at the average frequency for all donors.

-------------------------------------
5) Blood banks will shortly start to screen all donors for NANB hepatitis. Although the new screening tests are estimated to disqualify up to 5 percent of all prospective blood donors, they will still miss two-thirds of donors carrying NANB hepatitis. Therefore, about 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANB-contaminated blood.

Q. Which of the following inferences about the consequences of instituting the new tests is best supported by the passage above?

A. The incidence of new cases of NANB hepatitis is likely to go up by 10 percent.

B. Donations made by patients specifically for their own use are likely to become less frequent.

C. The demand for blood from blood banks is likely to fluctuate more strongly.

D. The blood supplies available from blood banks are likely to go down.

E. The number of prospective first-time donors is likely to go up by 5 percent

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Director
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18 Jul 2008, 21:05
abhijit_sen wrote:
1) Advertiser: The revenue that newspapers and magazines earn by publishing advertisements allows publishers to keep the prices per copy of their publications much lower than would otherwise be possible. Therefore, consumers benefit economically from advertising.
Consumer: But who pays for the advertising that pays for low-priced newspapers and magazines? We consumers do, because advertisers pass along advertising costs to us through the higher prices they charge for their products.
Which of the following best describes how the consumer counters the advertisers argument?

A. By alleging something that, if true, would weaken the plausibility of the advertisers conclusion

Hold on to this

B. By questioning the truth of the purportedly factual statement on which the advertisers conclusion is based

Advertiser conclusion is based on "revenue that newspapers and magazines earn by publishing advertisements allows publishers to keep the prices per copy". Consumer is not quesitoning that.

C. By offering an interpretation of the advertisers opening statement that, if accurate, shows that there is an implicit contradiction in it

Consumer is not interpreting naything out of the advertisers staements. Consumer is weakening the argumnt by his own view.

D. By pointing out that the advertisers point of view is biased

Advertiser is not showing any biasing.

E. By arguing that the advertiser too narrowly restricts the discussion to the effects of advertising that are economic

"too narrowly" strong word avoid it (and also its not true).

IMO A

---------------------------------------
2) Mr. Lawson: We should adopt a national family policy that includes legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-sponsored day care. Such laws would decrease the stress levels of employees who have responsibility for small children. Thus, such laws would lead to happier, better-adjusted families.
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above?

Conclusion: Employes will be happy an dless stressful if employer give them time off. So that they can take care of small children.

A. An employees high stress level can be a cause of unhappiness and poor adjustment for his or her family.

B. People who have responsibility for small children and who work outside the home have higher stress levels than those who do not.

CORRECT

C. The goal of a national family policy is to lower the stress levels of parents.

D. Any national family policy that is adopted would include legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-sponsored day care.

E. Most children who have been cared for in daycare centers are happy and well adjusted.

-------------------------------------
3) Lark Manufacturing Company initiated a voluntary Quality Circles program for machine operators. Independent surveys of employee attitudes indicated that the machine operators participating in the program were less satisfied with their work situations after two years of the programs existence than they were at the programs start. Obviously, any workers who participate in a Quality Circles program will, as a result, become less satisfied with their jobs.
Each of the following, if true, would weaken the conclusion drawn above EXCEPT:

P: the machine operators participating in the program were less satisfied with their work situations after two years of the programs existence than they were at the programs start

C: any workers who participate in a Quality Circles program will, as a result, become less satisfied with their jobs

We have to find out WHY/IF ONLY the machine operators participating in the program were unsatisfied. Could there be any other reason.

A. The second survey occurred during a period of recession when rumors of cutbacks and layoffs at Lark Manufacturing were plentiful.

B. The surveys also showed that those Lark machine operators who neither participated in Quality Circles nor knew anyone who did so reported the same degree of lessened satisfaction with their work situations as did the Lark machine operators who participated in Quality Circles.

CORRECT. It was not only the machine operators participating in the program but ALL the employes we less satisfied during last 2 year. hence there must be some other reason than "the program".

C. While participating in Quality Circles at Lark Manufacturing, machine operators exhibited two of the primary indicators of improved job satisfaction: increased productivity and decreased absenteeism.

D. Several workers at Lark Manufacturing who had participated in Quality Circles while employed at other companies reported that, while participating in Quality Circles in their previous companies, their work satisfaction had increased.

E. The machine operators who participated in Quality Circles reported that, when the program started, they felt that participation might improve their work situations.

----------------------------------------------
4) Blood banks will shortly start to screen all donors for NANB hepatitis. Although the new screening tests are estimated to disqualify up to 5 percent of all prospective blood donors, they will still miss two-thirds of donors carrying NANB hepatitis. Therefore, about 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANB-contaminated blood.

2/3 of contaminated donors contributes to 10% of total blood donors.

Q. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

A. Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, carry other infections for which reliable screening tests are routinely performed.

B. Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, develop the disease themselves at any point.

C. The estimate of the number of donors who would be disqualified by tests for NANB hepatitis is an underestimate.

CORRECT

D. The incidence of NANB hepatitis is lower among the potential blood donors than it is in the population at large.

E. The donors who will still supply NANB-contaminated blood will donate blood at the average frequency for all donors.

-------------------------------------
5) Blood banks will shortly start to screen all donors for NANB hepatitis. Although the new screening tests are estimated to disqualify up to 5 percent of all prospective blood donors, they will still miss two-thirds of donors carrying NANB hepatitis. Therefore, about 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANB-contaminated blood.

Q. Which of the following inferences about the consequences of instituting the new tests is best supported by the passage above?

A. The incidence of new cases of NANB hepatitis is likely to go up by 10 percent.

We dont know what it was before so can't comment.

B. Donations made by patients specifically for their own use are likely to become less frequent.

out of scope

C. The demand for blood from blood banks is likely to fluctuate more strongly.

Out of scope. we dont know any thing about demand. we can only comment on supply

D. The blood supplies available from blood banks are likely to go down.

Probably. If they are introducing this one new condition then the supply will probably go down.

IMO D

E. The number of prospective first-time donors is likely to go up by 5 percent

Out of Scope

This was a long one ... thank god I am done

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Director
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19 Jul 2008, 20:02
Can you please post the OA for these?

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Director
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19 Jul 2008, 20:21
OAs are A, A, E, A, D.

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20 Jul 2008, 12:09
1) Advertiser: The revenue that newspapers and magazines earn by publishing advertisements allows publishers to keep the prices per copy of their publications much lower than would otherwise be possible. Therefore, consumers benefit economically from advertising.
Consumer: But who pays for the advertising that pays for low-priced newspapers and magazines? [b]We consumers do, because advertisers pass along advertising costs to us through the higher prices they charge for their products.[/b]
Which of the following best describes how the consumer counters the advertisers argument?

A. By alleging something that, if true, would weaken the plausibility of the advertisers conclusion

B. By questioning the truth of the purportedly factual statement on which the advertisers conclusion is based

He is not Questioning any facts

C. By offering an interpretation of the advertisers opening statement that, if accurate, shows that there is an implicit contradiction in it

Opening statement has nothing to do with the reasoning of C and also there is no implicit contradiction. If there is any contradiction , it is clear.

D. By pointing out that the advertisers point of view is biased

There is no bias

E. By arguing that the advertiser too narrowly restricts the discussion to the effects of advertising that are economic

C does not restrict. He actually expands the discussion by brining in a new angle.

If we look at the conclusions of both the advertiser and the consumer, it is clear that consumer is attacking advertisers claim that consumers are benefiting economically, based on his reasoning that sellers add advertising costs to sale price

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20 Jul 2008, 12:14
2) Mr. Lawson: We should adopt a national family policy that includes legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-sponsored day care. Such laws would decrease the stress levels of employees who have responsibility for small children. Thus, such laws would lead to happier, better-adjusted families.
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above?

A. An employees high stress level can be a cause of unhappiness and poor adjustment for his or her family.

B. People who have responsibility for small children and who work outside the home have higher stress levels than those who do not.

C. The goal of a national family policy is to lower the stress levels of parents.

D. Any national family policy that is adopted would include legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-sponsored day care.

E. Most children who have been cared for in daycare centers are happy and well adjusted.

From stimulus

Laws -> Decrease stress levels for employees with SC

Laws -> Happier and adjusted family lives

If we look at B, B brings in unrelated people who are at home taking care of children

A says

High Stress levels -> Unhappiness and poor adjustment in family

Put all three cause and effects together and the final cause and effect of

Laws -> Happier and adjusted family lives

Would make sense only if

Laws -> Decrease stress levels for employees with SC

&

High Stress levels -> Unhappiness and poor adjustment in family

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20 Jul 2008, 12:21
3) Lark Manufacturing Company initiated a voluntary Quality Circles program for machine operators. Independent surveys of employee attitudes indicated that the machine operators participating in the program were less satisfied with their work situations after two years of the programs existence than they were at the programs start. Obviously, any workers who participate in a Quality Circles program will, as a result, become less satisfied with their jobs.
Each of the following, if true, would weaken the conclusion drawn above EXCEPT:

Except Q. So start looking for the opposite and apply POE

A. The second survey occurred during a period of recession when rumors of cutbacks and layoffs at Lark Manufacturing were plentiful.

Recession cause dissatisfaction NOT QCP. Weakens. OUT

B. The surveys also showed that those Lark machine operators who neither participated in Quality Circles nor knew anyone who did so reported the same degree of lessened satisfaction with their work situations as did the Lark machine operators who participated in Quality Circles.

QCP was clearly not the one that affected every one. There is some thing else that affected every one. Weakens. OUT

C. While participating in Quality Circles at Lark Manufacturing, machine operators exhibited two of the primary indicators of improved job satisfaction: increased productivity and decreased absenteeism.

Conclusion says QCP resulted in dissatisfaction. C weakens it by saying that employees had improved job satisfaction. Weakens . OUT

D. Several workers at Lark Manufacturing who had participated in Quality Circles while employed at other companies reported that, while participating in Quality Circles in their previous companies, their work satisfaction had increased.

Again if QCP had a good impact in the past on the same employees, it is possible that some thing else is causing the dissatisfaction. Weakens OUT

E. The machine operators who participated in Quality Circles reported that, when the program started, they felt that participation might improve their work situations.

Has no relation to the conclusion that QCP caused dissatisfaction

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20 Jul 2008, 12:28
5) Blood banks will shortly start to screen all donors for NANB hepatitis. Although the new screening tests are estimated to disqualify up to 5 percent of all prospective blood donors, they will still miss two-thirds of donors carrying NANB hepatitis. Therefore, about 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANB-contaminated blood.

Q. Which of the following inferences about the consequences of instituting the new tests is best supported by the passage above?

For example

T= Total number of donors =100

D= Donors who are disqualified =5%=5

M= Donors who will be missed = 2/3 ( H); H is people with NANB

M is also 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANB-contaminated blood.= 10

H=15

Now people who will contribute =95. Ideally it should have been 85.

This is all we could gather.

A. The incidence of new cases of NANB hepatitis is likely to go up by 10 percent.

From the above info gathered, I do not see anything that talks about incidence of new NANB H cases

B. Donations made by patients specifically for their own use are likely to become less frequent.

Out of scope

C. The demand for blood from blood banks is likely to fluctuate more strongly.

Out of scope as it goes beyond and need an assumption of how demand for blood varies.

D. The blood supplies available from blood banks are likely to go down.

Clear from our information above. Drops from 100 to 95

E. The number of prospective first-time donors is likely to go up by 5 percent

Narrows the scope.

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20 Jul 2008, 12:34
4) Blood banks will shortly start to screen all donors for NANB hepatitis. Although the new screening tests are estimated to disqualify up to 5 percent of all prospective blood donors, they will still miss two-thirds of donors carrying NANB hepatitis. Therefore, about 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANB-contaminated blood.

Q. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

A. Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, carry other infections for which reliable screening tests are routinely performed.

B. Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, develop the disease themselves at any point.

C. The estimate of the number of donors who would be disqualified by tests for NANB hepatitis is an underestimate.

D. The incidence of NANB hepatitis is lower among the potential blood donors than it is in the population at large.

E. The donors who will still supply NANB-contaminated blood will donate blood at the average frequency for all donors.

I chose C, but Now I can see why its wrong. C is actually the inference, I should stop panicking with assumption Q's

For example

T= Total number of donors =100

D= Donors who are disqualified =5%=5

M= Donors who will be missed = 2/3 ( H); H is people with NANB

M is also 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANB-contaminated blood.= 10

H=15

Now people who will contribute =95. Ideally it should have been 85.

This is all we could gather.

Conclusion is that 95 donors will donate blood in the end. Negate A, which would mean that Donors carrying NANB hepatitis, in a large percentage of cases, carry other infections for which reliable screening tests are routinely performed. So if they have other infections and result in positive tests, those 10 members who got away with the NANB H test will be filtered out. Conclusion is that we will have less than 95 donors donating blood now. Conclusion falls apart and hence we need A.

B D &E clearly have nothing to do with the conclusion.

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16 Aug 2008, 03:20
I don't understand why the OA for 4 is A. How detection of other diseases can affect the conclusion? Can you post the OE please. Thanks
_________________

If You're Not Living On The Edge, You're Taking Up Too Much Space

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Re: CRs (Please post with complete explanations)   [#permalink] 16 Aug 2008, 03:20
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