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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
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Explanation


1. With which of the following statements about the coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?

Explanation

The author of the passage discusses the coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies. To determine which statement the author would most likely agree with, let's analyze the information provided in the passage:

-Passiflora vines have developed various defenses against Heliconius butterflies, including changes in leaf shape and the development of egg-mimicry.
-Heliconius butterflies have also evolved to recognize Passiflora characteristics, including leaf chemistry, in locating host plants.
-The coevolutionary relationship includes a dynamic process where Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies continually influence each other's evolution.
-Given this information, the most likely statement that the author would agree with is:

Answer option (E) aligns with the idea that coevolution is an ongoing process, with both species adapting and evolving in response to each other's strategies. The passage does not provide information to support the other statements (A, B, C, or D), so they cannot be inferred from the information presented in the passage.

Answer: E
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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
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Explanation


2. Which of the following best describes the function of the third paragraph of the passage?

Explanation

A. This option is not accurate because the third paragraph does not directly answer a question posed at the beginning of the passage. Instead, it provides additional information and examples related to the coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies.

B. This option is not correct because the third paragraph does not summarize the examples given in the passage. Instead, it introduces a new and specific example of an adaptation (egg-mimicry) within the coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies.

C. This option is the most accurate description of the function of the third paragraph. The paragraph introduces the concept of "egg-mimicry" as an additional example of adaptation in Passiflora vines, which directly illustrates the ongoing coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies.

D. This option is not relevant to the content of the third paragraph. The paragraph does not describe any research project or outline steps taken in research. It focuses on presenting an adaptation in Passiflora vines.

E. This option is not supported by the content of the third paragraph. The paragraph does not propose or suggest further research. Instead, it provides a specific example of adaptation within the coevolutionary relationship already discussed in the passage.

In summary, the third paragraph's primary function is to provide an additional example of an adaptation (egg-mimicry) that indicates the coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies. Option C accurately describes the purpose of this paragraph in the passage.

Answer: C
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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
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Explanation


3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Explanation

A. This option is not the primary purpose of the passage. While the passage mentions that Heliconius butterflies lay their eggs on Passiflora vines, the main focus is not on explaining why they do so. Instead, the passage explores the broader coevolutionary relationship between these butterflies and Passiflora vines.

B. This option is not the primary purpose of the passage either. While the passage does touch on how Heliconius butterflies use factors like leaf shape to select host plants, it does not extensively describe the manner in which they distinguish Passiflora vines from other plants. The primary focus is on the coevolutionary dynamics between the two species.

C. This is the correct answer. The passage is primarily focused on exploring various aspects of the coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies. It discusses how their interactions have led to the evolution of specific traits and adaptations in both species.

D. This option is not the primary purpose of the passage. While the passage does use the relationship between Heliconius butterflies and Passiflora vines as an example of coevolution, it does not aim to provide an overview of coevolutionary relationships in general. The main focus is on the specific interaction between these two species.

E. This option is not the primary purpose of the passage. The passage does discuss how Passiflora vines have developed defenses against Heliconius butterflies, but it does not make an argument that only the adapted species of vines survive. Instead, it focuses on illustrating the ongoing coevolutionary dynamics between the two species.

In summary, the primary purpose of the passage is to explore various aspects of the coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies, making option C the correct answer.

Answer: C
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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
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Explanation


4. Passiflora leaf chemistry is mentioned in the passage as a characteristic that

Explanation

The passage mentions Passiflora leaf chemistry in the context of the coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies. Let's analyze each answer option to determine the role of Passiflora leaf chemistry as described in the passage:

A. This option is not accurate. The passage does not state that Passiflora leaf chemistry deters Heliconius butterflies from laying eggs on Passiflora vines. In fact, it mentions that variations in leaf shape (not chemistry) have not been sufficient to deter the butterflies.

B. The passage does not provide information about when Passiflora leaf chemistry developed in relation to coevolution. It discusses the development of various adaptations in Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies but does not specify the timing of the changes in leaf chemistry.

C. This option is not entirely accurate. The passage mentions that Passiflora vines have developed various defenses against Heliconius butterflies, but it does not specifically attribute the success of these defenses to leaf chemistry. The passage focuses more on the recent discovery of "egg-mimicry" as an effective deterrent.

D. The passage does not suggest that Passiflora leaf chemistry is likely to change over time in response to habitat changes. It primarily discusses how Passiflora vines have evolved adaptations to Heliconius parasitism.

E. This is the correct answer. The passage mentions that Heliconius butterflies have developed the ability to recognize Passiflora characteristics, including leaf chemistry, in locating Passiflora vines. Therefore, Passiflora leaf chemistry is mentioned as a characteristic that helps Heliconius butterflies locate Passiflora vines. So, the correct answer is option E.

Answer: E
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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of coevolution: investigating interactions between organisms in nature and analyzing how interacting pairs of organisms influence one another as they evolve. One of the most remarkable coevolutionary interactions is between various species of i butterflies and various species of Passiflora vines. 

The first 2 sentences is about introducing the topic: the coevolution is a hot area for investigation.
The the entire page is talking about one amazing example of this coevolution - butterflies and PV. How they develop new feature because of another's evolution.

C. explore aspects of the coevolutionary relationship between Passiflora vines and Heliconius butterflies

D. give an overview of coevolutionary relationships in plants and animals, using the relationship between Heliconius butterflies and Passiflora vines as an example
If the purpose is to give a overview of the coevolutionary relationship. Most likely the paragraph is like below:
- What is coevolutionary relationship: type 1, type 2, type 3. Heliconius butterflies and Passiflora vines as an example, sometimes type 1, sometimes type 2, sometime type 3. However, in this article, the major discussion is one developing new features to anti another.
- Plus article does not mention plant and animal
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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
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­Bunuel

This is not a sub-500 passage but at least 555-605. 

My humble suggestion is to change the tag accordingly.

regards
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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
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carcass wrote:
­Bunuel

This is not a sub-500 passage but at least 555-605. 

My humble suggestion is to change the tag accordingly.

regards

­The difficulty level of a question on the site, after sufficient attempts, is determined automatically based on various parameters collected from users' attempts via timer, such as the percentage of correct answers and the time taken to answer the question. So, this is a sub-500 level question based on our statistics.
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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
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­Yes. I know. The same is on the GRE prep club. 

I pointed out this because I had it in my verbal exam just in the middle  so I assumed that.

No problem whatsoever, sir.

Many Thanks 
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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
Hi experts
KarishmaB MartyTargetTestPrep Please explain the Q1.
I can not figure out how to be sure about option E i.e. dynamic process will further produce variations as it is not clearly mentioned or implied anywhere.
I chose B because the last paragraph indicates that Passiflora has started "egg mimicry" and that can imply that eventually Heliconius would be deterred from laying eggs which consequently reduce the population of Heliconius in the future.

Please let me know where I am going wrong.
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Re: A major focus of modern evolutionary ecology is the study of [#permalink]
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