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# A team of researchers has been able to successfully

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A team of researchers has been able to successfully  [#permalink]

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14 May 2018, 22:23
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A team of researchers has been able to successfully study the highly complex molecular structure of mitoribosomes, which are the ribosomes of mitochondria. Ribosomes are found in the cells of all living organisms, and they serve as a primary location for biological protein synthesis, but certain organisms such as fungi, plants, animals, and humans contain much more complex ribosomes than bacteria do. In organisms with complex cells, ribosomes can also be divided into two types: those in the cytosol -- which comprises the majority of the cell -- and those found in the mitochondria or "power houses" of cells. Mitochondria are found only in eukaryotes. Every ribosome consists of two subunits. The smaller subunit uses transfer ribonucleic acids to decode the genetic code, which is stored in the DNA, it receives in the form of messenger ribonucleic acids, while the larger subunit joins the amino acids delivered by the transfer ribonucleic acids together like a string of pearls.

Since they are found only in small amounts and are difficult to isolate, mitochondrial ribosomes or mitoribosomes are particularly difficult to study. But because of the recent technical advances in cryo-electron microscopy and the development of direct electron detection cameras that can correct for specimen motion during the exposure, it recently became possible to capture images of biomolecules at a resolution high enough to capture the details, especially those of the peptidyl transferase centre (PTC).

This research is of special importance to producing the right kind of antibiotics for humans. PTC is where the amino acid building blocks are combined, leading to protein synthesis. As per the researchers, this process of synthesizing proteins is medically relevant as the tunnel through which the proteins pass, after being synthesized, is a target for specific antibiotics. The antibiotic blocks the tunnel, preventing the proteins that have just been synthesized from leaving the tunnel. However, for an antibiotic to be used in humans, it must not attack human ribosomes and should inhibit protein synthesis only in the ribosomes of bacteria. The problem arises since mitochondrial ribosomes resemble those of bacteria, which is why certain antibiotics also interfere with mitoribosomes, possibly leading to serious side effects. The findings of the research will make it possible in the future to design antibiotics that inhibit only bacterial and not mitochondrial ribosomes, the one basic requirement for using them in clinical applications.

1. The author is primarily concerned with
A. To encapsulate the significance of a key medical research
B. To evaluate the achievements and failure of a study undertaken to understand the workings of antibiotics on humans
C. To educate the reader about the functions of certain parts and how certain antibiotics can be harmful to these parts
D. To discuss the relevance of a research while setting the context for it
E. To describe a key medical finding while discussing some of the key problems faced by the pharmaceutical companies

The first paragraph talks about an achievement and sets the context for the same. The second paragraph explains how this achievement was made possible. The last paragraph deals with the relevance of the achievement and use of antibiotics on humans. The correct answer must incorporate all these points.

To encapsulate the significance of a key medical research

Incorrect: Partial scope

Although this is the scope of the final paragraph, this choice does not capture the essence of the first two paragraphs.

B
To evaluate the achievements and failure of a study undertaken to understand the workings of antibiotics on humans

Incorrect: Out Of Context

There is no mention of any kind of failure of the research. Secondly, this choice does not even talk about the context of the first paragraph.

C
To educate the reader about the functions of certain parts and how certain antibiotics can be harmful to these parts

Incorrect: Irrelevant

Although this choice describes the details mentioned in two out of the three paragraphs of the passage, it fails to present the broader picture or reason for which the author presents the details; for instance, the talk about the effect of the antibiotics is to discuss the relevance of the findings of the research and not just educate the readers about the harmful effects of the antibiotics.

To discuss the relevance of a research while setting the context for it

Correct

This choice matches the main point we came up with earlier. The first two paragraphs set the context for the research by educating the reader about the medical terms involved and how the study was able to reach its findings, while the last paragraphs discusses the significance of the findings of the research.

E
To describe a key medical finding while discussing some of the key problems faced by the pharmaceutical companies

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does more than just “describe” a finding of the research. He/she sets the context for the research in the first two paragraphs and discusses the relevance of the research in the last paragraph. This choice fails to capture the breadth of the work done by the author in the passage. Plus, there is no mention of the problems faced by the pharmaceutical companies.

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
A. The same antibiotic will have different reactions on humans and animals.
B. The pharmaceutical companies that have been producing antibiotics that inadvertently harm people by blocking the release of the proteins will gain significant monetary benefit from producing antibiotics that do not attack the human body in such a way.
C. The quantity of a specific kind of ribosomes was partly responsible for the limited success in studying them.
D. Without the latest technical advances in cryo-electron microscopy, it would not have been possible to study mitoribosomes at all.
E. Mitoribosomes are the only kind of ribosomes that are adversely affected by antibiotics.

The same antibiotic will have different reactions on humans and animals.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

There is no information given in the passage about the comparative action of any antibiotic on humans and animals.

B
The pharmaceutical companies that have been producing antibiotics that inadvertently harm people by blocking the release of the proteins will gain significant monetary benefit from producing antibiotics that do not attack the human body in such a way.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

To begin with, there is no mention of any pharmaceutical companies. Yes, the author talks about how the research could lead to the development of better (less harmful) antibiotics but there is no information given in the passage to support that such companies will gain significantly in monetary terms by developing them.

The quantity of a specific kind of ribosomes was partly responsible for the limited success in studying them.

Correct

This choice is a combination of a couple of statements from the passage. The author tells us that mitoribosomes are ribosomes of a specific kind (first paragraph) and that they are particularly difficult to study because they are found only in small amounts and are difficult to isolate (second paragraph). Hence, one can infer the information given in this choice.

D
Without the latest technical advances in cryo- electron microscopy, it would not have been possible to study mitoribosomes at all.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

All the author tells us is how this advancement enabled the researcher to capture certain details for the first time. However, it gives us no ground to infer that the study of mitoribosomes itself would have been impossible or that before the study, there was no information available on them.

E
Mitoribosomes are the only kind of ribosomes that are adversely affected by antibiotics.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

There is no information given in the passage to conclude that the antibiotics do not have any adverse effect on other kinds of ribosomes.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?
A. The attack on human ribosomes by certain antibiotics could prove fatal.
B. Ribosomes are solely responsible for producing protein in the body.
C. Ribosomes are defenseless against the attack launched by certain antibiotics on them.
D. All living organisms have ribosomes that can be divided into two types.
E. Ribosomes in humans are not as simple as the ones found in bacteria.

The attack on human ribosomes by certain antibiotics could prove fatal.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author states that such attacks could have serious side effects, but nowhere does he/she say that these effects could be lethal.

B
Ribosomes are solely responsible for producing protein in the body.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

In the first paragraph, it is stated that ribosomes are primarily and not solely responsible for protein synthesis.

C
Ribosomes are defenseless against the attack launched by certain antibiotics on them.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

How ribosomes react when they are attacked by antibiotics is not given in the passage; hence, this choice is not supported by the given information.

D
All living organisms have ribosomes that can be divided in to two types.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

In the first paragraph, we are told that all living organisms have ribosomes but only the ribosomes in complex celled organisms can be divided into two types.

Ribosomes in humans are not as simple as the ones found in bacteria.

Correct

This information is stated in the first paragraph. Please refer to the following extract below:

… certain organisms such as fungi, plants, animals and humans, contain much more complex ribosomes than bacteria.

4. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the first paragraph?
A. To discuss the overall functioning of the human body
B. To explain the scope of relevance of the mentioned research
C. To give details about two unrelated concepts
D. To mention an achievement while setting the context for it

we know that the first paragraph mentions an achievement and sets the context for the same.

To discuss the overall functioning of the human body

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author does mention the functions of ribosomes and mitochondria, but this information is not given from the viewpoint of discussing the overall functioning of the human body. It’s given from the point of view of setting the context for the research mentioned in the passage.

B
To explain the scope of relevance of the mentioned research

Incorrect: Irrelevant

Any discussion on the relevance of the research is found in the third final paragraph, not in the first one.

C
To give details about two unrelated concepts

Incorrect: Irrelevant

All the pieces of information given in the first paragraph about ribosomes and mitochondria are related to one another.

To mention an achievement while setting the context for it

Correct

This choice matches the function we came up with in the passage analysis. The discussion on ribosomes and mitochondria is related to the discussion the author wants to hold for the achievement of the researchers. Hence, the author sets context for it by educating the reader about ribosomes and mitochondria.

E

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The paragraph does provide information about ribosomes but never focuses on mitoribosomes in terms of sharing details on them. Also, whatever the details are, they are meant as part of a discussion in which they set context for the mentioned medical research.

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A team of researchers has been able to successfully  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2018, 09:47
6
1. The author is primarily concerned with

The first paragraph talks about an achievement and sets the context for the same. The second paragraph explains how this achievement was made possible. The last paragraph deals with the relevance of the achievement and use of antibiotics on humans. The correct answer must incorporate all these points.

A. To encapsulate the significance of a key medical research

Incorrect: Partial scope

Although this is the scope of the final paragraph, this choice does not capture the essence of the first two paragraphs.

B. To evaluate the achievements and failure of a study undertaken to understand the workings of antibiotics on humans

Incorrect: Out Of Context

There is no mention of any kind of failure of the research. Secondly, this choice does not even talk about the context of the first paragraph.

C. To educate the reader about the functions of certain parts and how certain antibiotics can be harmful to these parts

Incorrect: Irrelevant

Although this choice describes the details mentioned in two out of the three paragraphs of the passage, it fails to present the broader picture or reason for which the author presents the details; for instance, the talk about the effect of the antibiotics is to discuss the relevance of the findings of the research and not just educate the readers about the harmful effects of the antibiotics.

D. To discuss the relevance of a research while setting the context for it

Correct

This choice matches the main point we came up with earlier. The first two paragraphs set the context for the research by educating the reader about the medical terms involved and how the study was able to reach its findings, while the last paragraphs discuss the significance of the findings of the research.

E. To describe a key medical finding while discussing some of the key problems faced by the pharmaceutical companies

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does more than just “describe” a finding of the research. He/she sets the context for the research in the first two paragraphs and discusses the relevance of the research in the last paragraph. This choice fails to capture the breadth of the work done by the author in the passage. Plus, there is no mention of the problems faced by the pharmaceutical companies.[/spoiler]

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A. The same antibiotic will have different reactions on humans and animals.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

There is no information given in the passage about the comparative action of any antibiotic on humans and animals.

B. The pharmaceutical companies that have been producing antibiotics that inadvertently harm people by blocking the release of the proteins will gain significant monetary benefit from producing antibiotics that do not attack the human body in such a way.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

To begin with, there is no mention of any pharmaceutical companies. Yes, the author talks about how the research could lead to the development of better (less harmful) antibiotics but there is no information given in the passage to support that such companies will gain significantly in monetary terms by developing them.

C. The quantity of a specific kind of ribosomes was partly responsible for the limited success in studying them.

Correct

This choice is a combination of a couple of statements from the passage. The author tells us that mitoribosomes are ribosomes of a specific kind (first paragraph) and that they are particularly difficult to study because they are found only in small amounts and are difficult to isolate (second paragraph). Hence, one can infer the information given in this choice.

D. Without the latest technical advances in cryo- electron microscopy, it would not have been possible to study mitoribosomes at all.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

All the author tells us is how this advancement enabled the researcher to capture certain details for the first time. However, it gives us no ground to infer that the study of mitoribosomes itself would have been impossible or that before the study, there was no information available on them.

E. Mitoribosomes are the only kind of ribosomes that are adversely affected by antibiotics.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

There is no information given in the passage to conclude that the antibiotics do not have any adverse effect on other kinds of ribosomes.[/spoiler]

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

A. The attack on human ribosomes by certain antibiotics could prove fatal.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author states that such attacks could have serious side effects, but nowhere does he/she say that these effects could be lethal.

B. Ribosomes are solely responsible for producing protein in the body.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

In the first paragraph, it is stated that ribosomes are primarily and not solely responsible for protein synthesis.

C. Ribosomes are defenseless against the attack launched by certain antibiotics on them.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

How ribosomes react when they are attacked by antibiotics is not given in the passage; hence, this choice is not supported by the given information.

D. All living organisms have ribosomes that can be divided in to two types.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

In the first paragraph, we are told that all living organisms have ribosomes but only the ribosomes in complex celled organisms can be divided into two types.

E. Ribosomes in humans are not as simple as the ones found in bacteria.

Correct

This information is stated in the first paragraph. Please refer to the following extract below:

… certain organisms such as fungi, plants, animals and humans, contain much more complex ribosomes than bacteria.[/spoiler]

4. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the first paragraph?

we know that the first paragraph mentions an achievement and sets the context for the same.

A. To discuss the overall functioning of the human body

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author does mention the functions of ribosomes and mitochondria, but this information is not given from the viewpoint of discussing the overall functioning of the human body. It’s given from the point of view of setting the context for the research mentioned in the passage.

B. To explain the scope of relevance of the mentioned research

Incorrect: Irrelevant

Any discussion on the relevance of the research is found in the third final paragraph, not in the first one.

C. To give details about two unrelated concepts

Incorrect: Irrelevant

All the pieces of information given in the first paragraph about ribosomes and mitochondria are related to one another.

D. To mention an achievement while setting the context for it

Correct

The discussion on ribosomes and mitochondria is related to the discussion the author wants to hold for the achievement of the researchers. Hence, the author sets context for it by educating the reader about ribosomes and mitochondria.

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The paragraph does provide information about ribosomes but never focuses on mitoribosomes in terms of sharing details on them. Also, whatever the details are, they are meant as part of a discussion in which they set context for the mentioned medical research.
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Re: A team of researchers has been able to successfully  [#permalink]

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19 May 2018, 21:40
Hi Experts,
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Re: A team of researchers has been able to successfully  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2018, 09:38
Joined: 19 Jul 2018
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Re: A team of researchers has been able to successfully  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2018, 09:47
The key between (D) and (E) is in the wording. (E) says "provide information about ribosomes" - which is true, although it doesn't actually give a whole lot of information about ribosomes, which makes it immediately suspect. The second half - "particularly about mitoribosomes" - is demonstrably untrue. While mitoribosomes are mentioned in the first sentence, no other information is given about them for the rest of the paragraph. For something to be a main purpose of a paragraph, it needs to be mentioned more than just in passing.

(D) is one of those answers that is correct but incredibly vague. The "achievement" in question is the fact that researchers have been able to examine the structure of mitoribosomes, and the "context" is about what ribosomes are in general and what the general role of ribosomes is within the cell.
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Re: A team of researchers has been able to successfully  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2018, 10:04
workout wrote:
1. The author is primarily concerned with

The first paragraph talks about an achievement and sets the context for the same. The second paragraph explains how this achievement was made possible. The last paragraph deals with the relevance of the achievement and use of antibiotics on humans. The correct answer must incorporate all these points.

A. To encapsulate the significance of a key medical research

Incorrect: Partial scope

Although this is the scope of the final paragraph, this choice does not capture the essence of the first two paragraphs.

B. To evaluate the achievements and failure of a study undertaken to understand the workings of antibiotics on humans

Incorrect: Out Of Context

There is no mention of any kind of failure of the research. Secondly, this choice does not even talk about the context of the first paragraph.

C. To educate the reader about the functions of certain parts and how certain antibiotics can be harmful to these parts

Incorrect: Irrelevant

Although this choice describes the details mentioned in two out of the three paragraphs of the passage, it fails to present the broader picture or reason for which the author presents the details; for instance, the talk about the effect of the antibiotics is to discuss the relevance of the findings of the research and not just educate the readers about the harmful effects of the antibiotics.

D. To discuss the relevance of a research while setting the context for it

Correct

This choice matches the main point we came up with earlier. The first two paragraphs set the context for the research by educating the reader about the medical terms involved and how the study was able to reach its findings, while the last paragraphs discuss the significance of the findings of the research.

E. To describe a key medical finding while discussing some of the key problems faced by the pharmaceutical companies

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does more than just “describe” a finding of the research. He/she sets the context for the research in the first two paragraphs and discusses the relevance of the research in the last paragraph. This choice fails to capture the breadth of the work done by the author in the passage. Plus, there is no mention of the problems faced by the pharmaceutical companies.[/spoiler]

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A. The same antibiotic will have different reactions on humans and animals.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

There is no information given in the passage about the comparative action of any antibiotic on humans and animals.

B. The pharmaceutical companies that have been producing antibiotics that inadvertently harm people by blocking the release of the proteins will gain significant monetary benefit from producing antibiotics that do not attack the human body in such a way.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

To begin with, there is no mention of any pharmaceutical companies. Yes, the author talks about how the research could lead to the development of better (less harmful) antibiotics but there is no information given in the passage to support that such companies will gain significantly in monetary terms by developing them.

C. The quantity of a specific kind of ribosomes was partly responsible for the limited success in studying them.

Correct

This choice is a combination of a couple of statements from the passage. The author tells us that mitoribosomes are ribosomes of a specific kind (first paragraph) and that they are particularly difficult to study because they are found only in small amounts and are difficult to isolate (second paragraph). Hence, one can infer the information given in this choice.

D. Without the latest technical advances in cryo- electron microscopy, it would not have been possible to study mitoribosomes at all.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

All the author tells us is how this advancement enabled the researcher to capture certain details for the first time. However, it gives us no ground to infer that the study of mitoribosomes itself would have been impossible or that before the study, there was no information available on them.

E. Mitoribosomes are the only kind of ribosomes that are adversely affected by antibiotics.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

There is no information given in the passage to conclude that the antibiotics do not have any adverse effect on other kinds of ribosomes.[/spoiler]

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

A. The attack on human ribosomes by certain antibiotics could prove fatal.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author states that such attacks could have serious side effects, but nowhere does he/she say that these effects could be lethal.

B. Ribosomes are solely responsible for producing protein in the body.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

In the first paragraph, it is stated that ribosomes are primarily and not solely responsible for protein synthesis.

C. Ribosomes are defenseless against the attack launched by certain antibiotics on them.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

How ribosomes react when they are attacked by antibiotics is not given in the passage; hence, this choice is not supported by the given information.

D. All living organisms have ribosomes that can be divided in to two types.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

In the first paragraph, we are told that all living organisms have ribosomes but only the ribosomes in complex celled organisms can be divided into two types.

E. Ribosomes in humans are not as simple as the ones found in bacteria.

Correct

This information is stated in the first paragraph. Please refer to the following extract below:

… certain organisms such as fungi, plants, animals and humans, contain much more complex ribosomes than bacteria.[/spoiler]

4. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the first paragraph?

we know that the first paragraph mentions an achievement and sets the context for the same.

A. To discuss the overall functioning of the human body

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author does mention the functions of ribosomes and mitochondria, but this information is not given from the viewpoint of discussing the overall functioning of the human body. It’s given from the point of view of setting the context for the research mentioned in the passage.

B. To explain the scope of relevance of the mentioned research

Incorrect: Irrelevant

Any discussion on the relevance of the research is found in the third final paragraph, not in the first one.

C. To give details about two unrelated concepts

Incorrect: Irrelevant

All the pieces of information given in the first paragraph about ribosomes and mitochondria are related to one another.

D. To mention an achievement while setting the context for it

Correct

The discussion on ribosomes and mitochondria is related to the discussion the author wants to hold for the achievement of the researchers. Hence, the author sets context for it by educating the reader about ribosomes and mitochondria.

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The paragraph does provide information about ribosomes but never focuses on mitoribosomes in terms of sharing details on them. Also, whatever the details are, they are meant as part of a discussion in which they set context for the mentioned medical research.

Thanks
Intern
Joined: 14 Oct 2018
Posts: 15
Re: A team of researchers has been able to successfully  [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2018, 00:16
Very Good Passage! Thank you very much!

Is there more passages like this where you explain deeply the passage ( In the spoiler part ) like you did in this passage? Skywalker18
Verbal Forum Moderator
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2301
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
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WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
Re: A team of researchers has been able to successfully  [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2018, 01:14
1
danielgold20 wrote:
Very Good Passage! Thank you very much!

Is there more passages like this where you explain deeply the passage ( In the spoiler part ) like you did in this passage? Skywalker18

Hi danielgold20,
Yes, I have posted other passages that include the OEs(Original Explanations) in the spoiler.
_________________
When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
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Re: A team of researchers has been able to successfully  [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2018, 07:42
Can someone tell me what's the ideal time for short and long passages ?
Re: A team of researchers has been able to successfully   [#permalink] 23 Oct 2018, 07:42
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