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# According to legend, Aesculapius bore two daughters, Panacea and Hyege

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According to legend, Aesculapius bore two daughters, Panacea and Hyege  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2019, 02:41
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 465, Date: 21-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

According to legend, Aesculapius bore two daughters, Panacea and Hyegeia, who gave rise to dynasties of healers and hygienists. The schism remains today, in clinical training and in practice; and because of the imperative nature of medical care and the subtlety of health care, the former has tended to dominate. Preventive medicine has as its primary objective the maintenance and promotion of health. It accomplishes this by controlling or manipulating environmental factors that affect health and disease. For example, in Califorina presently there is serious suffering and substantial economic loss because of the failure to introduce controlled fluoridation of public water supplies. Additionally, preventive medicine applies prophylacitc measures against disease by such actions as immunization and specific nutritional measures. Third, it attempts to motivate people to adopt healthful life-styles through education.

For the most part, curative medicine has as its primary objective the removal of disease from the patient. It provides diagnostic techniques to identify the presence and nature of the disease process. While these may be applied on a mass basis in an attempt to "screen" out persons with preclinical disease, they are usually applied after the patient appears with a complaint. Second, it applies treatment to the sick patient. In every case, this is, or should be, individualized according to the particular need of each patient. Third, it utilizes rehabilitation methodologies to return the treated patient to the best possible level of functioning.

While it is true that both preventive medicine and curative medicine require cadres of similarly trained personnel such as planners, administrators, and educators, the underlying delivery systems depend on quite distinctive professional personnel. The requirements for curative medicine call for clinically trained individuals who deal with patients on a one-to-one basis and whose training is based primarily on an understanding of the biological, pathological, and psychological processes that determine an individual's health and disease status. The locus for this training is the laboratory and clinic. Preventive medicine, on the other hand, calls for a very broad of professional personnel, few of whom require clinical expertise. Since their actions apply either to environmental situations or to population groups, their training takes place in a different type of laboratory or in a community not necessarily associated with the clinical locus.

The economic differences between preventive medicine and curative medicine have been extesively descussed, perhaps most convincingly by Winslow in the monograph. The Cost of Sickness and the Price of Health_. The sickness is almost always a negative, nonproductive and harmful state. All resources expended to deal with sickness are therefore fundamentally economically unproductive. Health, on the other hand, has a very high value in our culture. To the extent that healthy members of the population are replaced by sick members, the economy is doubly burdened. Neveretheless, the per capita cost of preventive measures for specific diseases is generally far lower than the per capita cost of curative medicine applied to treatment of the same disease. Prominent examples are dental caries, poliomyelitis and phenylketonuria.

There is an imperative need to provide care for the sick person within a single medical care system, but there is no overriding reason why a linkage is necessary between the two components of a health care system, prevention and treatment. A natioanl health and medical care program composed of semiautonomous systems for personal health care and medical care would have the advantage of clarifying objectives and strategies and of permitting a more equitable division of resources between prevention and cure.

Spoiler: :: OA
B

1. The author’s primary concern is to

(A) refute a counterargument
(B) draw a distinction
(C) discuss a dilemma
(D) isolate causes
(E) describe new research

Spoiler: :: OA
E

2. The author mentions which of the following as differences between curative and preventive medicine?

I. Curative medicine is aimed primarily at people who are already ill, whereas preventive medicine is aimed at healthy people.
II. Curative medicine is focused on an individual patient, whereas preventive medicine is applied to larger populations.
III. The per capita cost of curative medicine is generally much higher than the per capita cost of preventive medicine.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

Spoiler: :: OA
B

3. It can be inferred that the author regards a program of controlled fluoridation of public water supplies as

(A) an unnecessary government program that wastes economic resources
(B) a potentially valuable strategy of preventive medicine
(C) a government policy that has relatively little effect on the health of a population
(D) an important element of curative medicine
(E) an experimental program the health value of which has not been proved

Spoiler: :: OA
A

4. Which of the following best explains the author’s use of the phrase “doubly burdened” (Highlighted)?

(A) A person who is ill not only does not contribute to production; treatment consumes economic resources.
(B) The per capita cost of preventive measures is only one-half of the per capita cost of treatment.
(C) The division between preventive medicine and curative medicine requires duplication of administrative expenses.
(D) The individual who is ill must be rehabilitated after the cure has been successful.
(E) The person who is ill uses economic resources that could be used to finance prevention rather than treatment programs

Spoiler: :: OA
C

5. It can be inferred that the author regards Winslow’s monograph (Text in Red) as

(A) ill-conceived
(B) incomplete
(C) authoritative
(D) well organized
(E) highly original

Spoiler: :: OA
D

6. The author cites dental caries, poliomyelitis, and phenylketonuria in order to prove that

(A) some diseases can be treated by preventive medicine
(B) some diseases have serious consequences if not treated
(C) preventive medicine need not be linked to treatment
(D) the cost of preventing some diseases is less than the cost for treatment
(E) less money is allocated to prevention of some diseases than to treating them

Spoiler: :: OA
A

7. The main reason the author advocates separating authority for preventive medicine from that for curative medicine is

(A) the urgency of treatment encourages administrators to devote more resources to treatment than to prevention
(B) the cost of treating a disease is often much greater than the cost of programs to prevent the disease
(C) the professionals who administer preventive health care programs must be more highly trained than ordinary doctors
(D) curative medicine deals primarily with individuals who are ill, whereas preventive medicine is applied to healthy people
(E) preventive medicine is a relatively recent development, whereas curative medicine has a long history

Source: Master GMAT
Difficulty Level: 650

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Re: According to legend, Aesculapius bore two daughters, Panacea and Hyege  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2019, 03:20
Can someone explain me Q5? i thought it was well organised
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Re: According to legend, Aesculapius bore two daughters, Panacea and Hyege  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2019, 05:52
Changrayy wrote:
Can someone explain me Q5? i thought it was well organised

Official Explanation

5. It can be inferred that the author regards Winslow’s monograph (Text in Red) as

Difficulty Level: Hard

Explanation

This is an attitude, or tone, question. Two clues support answer choice (C). First, the author refers to the monograph and then continues to make points made by Winslow. This indicates that the author agrees with Winslow. Second the author refers to the analysis by Winslow as “convincing.”

(A) and (B) can be eliminated because of the negative connotations associated with both terms.

(D) can be eliminated because style is not relevant to the point under discussion.

Finally, (E) is the second best answer. We eliminate (E) because the author states that the economics of prevention have been widely discussed, indicating that the uniqueness of Winslow’s contribution is not necessarily originality. Further, the reference to the persuasiveness of Winslow’s analysis makes (C) a better descriptive phrase to apply to the author’s attitude than (E).

Hope it helps
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Re: According to legend, Aesculapius bore two daughters, Panacea and Hyege  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2019, 00:41
Could you please shed light on Q- 7 and Q-5?
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Re: According to legend, Aesculapius bore two daughters, Panacea and Hyege  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2019, 02:57
Rashigarg7 wrote:
Could you please shed light on Q- 7 and Q-5?

https://gmatclub.com/forum/according-to ... l#p2410365

Official Explanation

7. The main reason the author advocates separating authority for preventive medicine from that for curative medicine is

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This is a question about the logical structure of the argument. The author mentions several differences between preventive and curative medicines: cost, personnel, and persons addressed. But these differences are not compelling reasons for creating a division of authority. The need to separate authority for the two strategies is discussed in the first and last paragraphs. The value of the division will be to clarify objectives and redress the inequitable division of resources. These are problems, so says the first paragraph, because “the imperative nature of medical care” will allow it to dominate health care. In other words, the urgency of treatment attracts attention. This is the explanation provided in (A).

And for this reason it is not cost, (B); personnel, (C); or persons addressed, (D), which is the important difference.

Finally, (E) is directly contradicted by the opening sentences of the passage.

Hope it helps
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Re: According to legend, Aesculapius bore two daughters, Panacea and Hyege   [#permalink] 25 Nov 2019, 02:57