Last visit was: 03 Aug 2024, 07:10 It is currently 03 Aug 2024, 07:10
Toolkit
GMAT Club Daily Prep
Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History
Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

# According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second

SORT BY:
Tags:
Show Tags
Hide Tags
Intern
Joined: 14 Oct 2006
Posts: 18
Own Kudos [?]: 163 [80]
Given Kudos: 0
Location: Boston
Manager
Joined: 27 Jul 2011
Posts: 119
Own Kudos [?]: 1043 [23]
Given Kudos: 103
Senior Manager
Joined: 15 Sep 2011
Posts: 256
Own Kudos [?]: 1380 [7]
Given Kudos: 46
Location: United States
WE:Corporate Finance (Manufacturing)
General Discussion
Director
Joined: 21 Mar 2006
Posts: 639
Own Kudos [?]: 135 [6]
Given Kudos: 0
Location: Bangalore
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
6
Kudos
It has to be a A since all the options are marked A!
Ok, now for the reasoning
B, D and E are not parallel
C has the ambigous 'their'
Current Student
Joined: 14 Jul 2013
Posts: 272
Own Kudos [?]: 431 [4]
Given Kudos: 131
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
2
Kudos
2
Bookmarks
mymba99 wrote:
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second most serious threat, after
habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of
biologically diverse ecosystems.

A. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the
maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
B. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and for
maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems
C. threat, after losing their habitat, to native species of plants and animals and
also to maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
D. threat to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically
diverse ecosystems, after habitat loss
E. threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining
biologically diverse ecosystems, after losing their habitat

Meaning
Some botanists believe invasive plants are second most serious threat to native species of plants and animals and also to the biologically diverse eco-system.
Habitat loss is the topmost threat( according to the botanists who believe invasive plants are second most serious threat)

Error Analysis

According to some botanists
invasive plants are the second most serious threat" S- Invasive plants verb- "are.."
-after habitat loss,--prepositional phrase,
to "native species....." and to"maintain biologically....".........To X and To Y. Parallel

No Error

POE
A. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the
maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems- Correct Choice
B. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and for
maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems- To"X" and For"Y" not parallel
C. threat, after losing their habitat, to native species of plants and animals and
also to maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems-To "X" and "Also to Y" not parallel
D. threat to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically
diverse ecosystems, after habitat loss- Same error as B
E. threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining
biologically diverse ecosystems, after losing their habitat- To "X" and As well as"Y" Not parallel.
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Status: enjoying
Posts: 5264
Own Kudos [?]: 42149 [0]
Given Kudos: 422
Location: India
WE:Education (Education)
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
Top Contributor
The phrase - after habitat loss- contained inside a couple of commas seems to be a non-essential modifier, which seems to be wrong. If that phrase is removed, the fact that they are the second most serious threat has no meaning. The OA seems dubious as per structural norms.

Originally posted by daagh on 11 Jun 2017, 03:20.
Last edited by daagh on 06 Sep 2019, 02:50, edited 1 time in total.
Director
Joined: 26 Oct 2016
Posts: 506
Own Kudos [?]: 3412 [2]
Given Kudos: 877
Location: United States
Schools: HBS '19
GMAT 1: 770 Q51 V44
GPA: 4
WE:Education (Education)
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
1
Bookmarks
B and D: the second most serious threat...FOR maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems
Here, threat FOR is unidiomatic.
The correct idiom is X is a threat TO Y.
Eliminate B and D.

C: invasive species are the second most serious threat, after losing their habitat
Here, "their" seems to refer to "invasive species", implying that INVASIVE SPECIES are losing their habitat.
The intended meaning is that NATIVE SPECIES lose their habitat.
Eliminate C.

E: maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after losing their habitat
Here, "their" seems to refer "diverse ecosystems", implying that "DIVERSE ECOSYSTEMS" are losing their habitat.
The intended meaning is that NATIVE SPECIES lose their habitat.
Eliminate E.
Manager
Joined: 21 Jul 2015
Posts: 185
Own Kudos [?]: 66 [0]
Given Kudos: 489
GMAT 1: 730 Q50 V38
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
Hi Experts / GMATNinja / chetan2u / sayantanc2k / anairamitch1804,

Can you please tell the function of the prep. phrase "after habitat loss" in this question? Is is acting as a verb modifier or the noun modifier? Thanks!
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 4448
Own Kudos [?]: 31400 [1]
Given Kudos: 648
GMAT Date: 08-19-2020
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
1
Bookmarks
sdlife wrote:
Hi Experts / GMATNinja / chetan2u / sayantanc2k / anairamitch1804,

Can you please tell the function of the prep. phrase "after habitat loss" in this question? Is is acting as a verb modifier or the noun modifier? Thanks!

Hello sdlife,

Prepositional phrases modify either a noun or an action in a sentence.

In this official sentence, the prepositional phrase after habitat loss modifies the action are. It intends to say that after habitat loss, invasive plants are the next biggest threat.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Senior Manager
Joined: 22 Nov 2018
Posts: 430
Own Kudos [?]: 497 [0]
Given Kudos: 292
Location: India
GMAT 1: 640 Q45 V35
GMAT 2: 740 Q49 V41
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
generis - Could you help me on this. Stuck between A and B.

Is threat to native species and for maintaining" not parallel?
Senior SC Moderator
Joined: 22 May 2016
Posts: 5325
Own Kudos [?]: 35828 [4]
Given Kudos: 9464
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
2
Kudos
2
Bookmarks
winskc wrote:
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second most serious threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems.

A. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
B. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems
Arvind42 wrote:
generis - Could you help me on this. Stuck between A and B.

Is threat to native species and for maintaining" not parallel?

Before we consider parallelism, we should eliminate (B) because it is not idiomatic.
The correct idiom in this context is X is a threat TO something, not X is a threat FOR something.

• idiom: threat TO not threat for

Two examples of questions that test "threat" are below the spoiler.
Spoiler alert: if you click on the linked official questions, you will probably know the answer based on this post. HERE, #1
HERE, #2

(B) is incorrect because threat for is not idiomatic.

• parallelism
I am not sure I understand what you are asking. I think your question might be, "Irrespective of idiom, are the noun phrase native species of plants and animals and the gerund phrase maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems parallel?"

It's a good question. I see a lot of confusion about gerunds, nouns, and parallelism.
Rather than just say "No, option B is not parallel because XYZ," instead I'll use some examples so that perhaps a little bit of understandable confusion gets cleared up.

Rather than analyze (B) separately, we can compare (A) and (B).
Option A uses two noun phrases:
native species of plants and animals and
the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems

Option B, by contrast, uses a noun phrase (native species . . . ) and a gerund phrase (maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems).
-- If a dedicated noun exists, GMAC prefers that noun to an ___ING noun (a gerund, a verbING noun).
-- The dedicated noun is maintenance (in option A). The ___ING noun is maintaining (in B).

On the GMAT, for example, the voters' approval is better than the voters' approving.

In OG 2020 SC # 835, the official explanation mentions the preference. Spoiler alert: 1 answer of 5 revealed.
D) In experimenting designed to provide information ultimately proving useful to XYZ . . .
OE: The use of the [verbING] verbal noun experimenting is less idiomatic than experiments.

In SC #842 of the same book, a noun and a gerund are deemed "not parallel" in three answers. Spoiler alert: those three are revealed.
[A chemist presented the results of his experiments] in his book, "Essay on Heat and Light,"

B) a critique of all chemistry following R.B. and also his envisioning of a
OE: Critique and his envisioning are not parallel
C) a critique of all chemistry after R.B. and envisioning as well as
OE: The two descriptors [critique and envisioning] are not parallel
D) critiquing all chemistry from R.B. forward and also a vision of
OE: The two descriptors [critiquing and vision] are not parallel

The OE for SC # 895, option (D) explains that a gerund and noun are not parallel. Spoiler alert: 1 answer of 5 revealed.
OE for option (D): This [option's] use of the gerund vaccinating (followed by of) would normally be preceded by the [if the word were supposed to be a noun], but [using THE] would make the phrase awkward. It would be preferable to use vaccination, which is parallel to extermination.
In other words, even if vaccinating were a complex gerund preceded by THE, and even though complex gerunds may be parallel with action nouns such as extermination, the dedicated noun form vaccination is preferred.

Finally, see OG VR 2020 #304. In that question, 2 of 5 options were not parallel because a list of four items included three noun phrases and an __ING noun. (The OE writer calls it a participle.) Spoiler alert - 2 answers revealed.
Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

B. the collapse of the currency system, and failing
D. the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing

OE for both B and D: The list of three effects is not parallel since the first three items are noun phrases but the fourth is the participle failing.

I tracked down these examples because there are occasions in which a complex gerund can be parallel with an action noun, as is the case in
Spoiler alert: if you click on the link the answer to an official question is revealed. this question, here.

True, species is not an action noun. I am seeing quite a bit of confusion about gerunds and parallelism, though.
I think the best way to understand how SC works is to study official examples. So I found some.

No. Answer B is not parallel.

I hope that helps.

P.S. Arvind42 - At times the only kind of noun that exists for that word is an ING noun. Words such as running, writing, or painting (i.e. a picture that you hang on a wall) ARE the only nouns. In those cases, parallelism is not an issue. Beneath the spoiler is a question in which one noun ending in _ING is parallel to two other nouns that do not end in _ING because the _ING noun does not have any other form. Spoiler alert - clicking on the link gives the answer to a question.
In this official question, here, cultivation, harvesting, and exploitation are parallel. There is no such noun as harvestation or harvestature..
Current Student
Joined: 24 Jan 2017
Posts: 145
Own Kudos [?]: 46 [0]
Given Kudos: 1120
Location: Brazil
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Strategy
Schools: Fuqua '24 (A)
GPA: 3.2
WE:Consulting (Health Care)
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
winskc wrote:
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second most serious threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems.

A. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
B. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems
C. threat, after losing their habitat, to native species of plants and animals and also to maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
D. threat to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after habitat loss
E. threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after losing their habitat

BrightOutlookJenn GMATNinja DmitryFarber VeritasKarishma About (E), there is a lack of parallelism, right? I mean, "...threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems..." tks!
Tutor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 15181
Own Kudos [?]: 67087 [2]
Given Kudos: 436
Location: Pune, India
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
2
Kudos
Will2020 wrote:
winskc wrote:
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second most serious threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems.

A. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
B. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems
C. threat, after losing their habitat, to native species of plants and animals and also to maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
D. threat to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after habitat loss
E. threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after losing their habitat

BrightOutlookJenn GMATNinja DmitryFarber VeritasKarishma About (E), there is a lack of parallelism, right? I mean, "...threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems..." tks!

Yes, you should use noun form "maintenance" since "native species" is a noun.
Current Student
Joined: 24 Jan 2017
Posts: 145
Own Kudos [?]: 46 [0]
Given Kudos: 1120
Location: Brazil
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Strategy
Schools: Fuqua '24 (A)
GPA: 3.2
WE:Consulting (Health Care)
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
Will2020 wrote:
winskc wrote:
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second most serious threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems.

A. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
B. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems
C. threat, after losing their habitat, to native species of plants and animals and also to maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
D. threat to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after habitat loss
E. threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after losing their habitat

BrightOutlookJenn GMATNinja DmitryFarber VeritasKarishma About (E), there is a lack of parallelism, right? I mean, "...threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems..." tks!

Yes, you should use noun form "maintenance" since "native species" is a noun.

Hi VeritasKarishma! What is the issue in (E) regarding the modifier "after losing their habitat"? Tks!
Tutor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 15181
Own Kudos [?]: 67087 [2]
Given Kudos: 436
Location: Pune, India
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
2
Kudos
Will2020 wrote:
Hi VeritasKarishma! What is the issue in (E) regarding the modifier "after losing their habitat"? Tks!

'Habitat loss' is the first threat and 'invasive plants' the second.

So the sentence should read "...invasive plants are the second most serious threat, after habitat loss,..." to show that the first one is habitat loss. This relation is lost if "after habitat loss" comes later.
Also, it needs to be in noun form "habitat loss" to maintain parallelism.
Manager
Joined: 22 Aug 2010
Posts: 53
Own Kudos [?]: 130 [1]
Given Kudos: 331
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
1
Kudos
Question appeared in GMAT Prep
Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 94776
Own Kudos [?]: 646266 [0]
Given Kudos: 86843
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
sm1510 wrote:
Question appeared in GMAT Prep

_______________________
Intern
Joined: 24 Jun 2021
Posts: 20
Own Kudos [?]: 1 [0]
Given Kudos: 302
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second most serious threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems.

Test Points: Parallelism

A. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
B. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems ("to native species of...” is a preposition phrase, but "for maintaining...“ is a verb phrase. Hence, the overall stucture does not comply with parallelism)
C. threat, after losing their habitat, to native species of plants and animals and also to maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems (”after losing...“ distorts the original meaning)
D. threat to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after habitat loss ("to native species of...” is a preposition phrase, but "for maintaining...“ is a verb phrase. Hence, the overall stucture does not comply with parallelism.)
E. threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after losing their habitat. (same logic as B)
Experts' Global Representative
Joined: 10 Jul 2017
Posts: 5128
Own Kudos [?]: 4696 [1]
Given Kudos: 38
Location: India
GMAT Date: 11-01-2019
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
1
Bookmarks
Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
winskc wrote:
According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second most serious threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems.

A. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
B. threat, after habitat loss, to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems
C. threat, after losing their habitat, to native species of plants and animals and also to maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems
D. threat to native species of plants and animals and for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after habitat loss
E. threat to native species of plants and animals as well as to maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems, after losing their habitat

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of this sentence is that invasive plants are the second most serious threat to native species of plants and animals and are the second most serious threat to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems.

Concepts tested here: Meaning + Comparisons

• Comparisons can only be made between similar things.

A: Correct. This answer choice uses the phrase "to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems", conveying the intended meaning - that invasive plants are the second most serious threat to native species of plants and animals and are also the second most serious threat to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems. Further, Option A correctly compares the noun phrase "invasive" plants with the noun phrase "habitat loss". Additionally, Option A is free of any awkwardness or redundancy.

B: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems"; the construction of this phrase illogically implies that invasive plants are the second most serious threat to native species of plants and animals because they maintain biologically diverse ecosystems; the intended meaning is that invasive plants are the second most serious threat to native species of plants and animals and are also the second most serious threat to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems.

C: This answer choice incorrectly compares the noun phrase "invasive plants" to the verb phrase "losing their habitat"; remember, comparisons can only be made between similar things. Further, Option C uses the needlessly wordy phrase "and also", leading to awkwardness and redundancy.

D: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "for maintaining biologically diverse ecosystems"; the construction of this phrase illogically implies that invasive plants are the second most serious threat to native species of plants and animals because they maintain biologically diverse ecosystems; the intended meaning is that invasive plants are the second most serious threat to native species of plants and animals and are also the second most serious threat to the maintenance of biologically diverse ecosystems.

E: This answer choice incorrectly compares the noun phrase "invasive plants" to the verb phrase "losing their habitat"; remember, comparisons can only be made between similar things. Further, Option E uses the needlessly wordy phrase "as well as", leading to awkwardness and redundancy.

Hence, A is the best answer choice.

All the best!
Experts' Global Team
Re: According to some botanists, invasive plants are the second [#permalink]
Moderators:
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
6999 posts
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
236 posts