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Advocates of human therapeutic cloning believe the practice could prov

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Advocates of human therapeutic cloning believe the practice could prov  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Aug 2016, 00:12
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81% (03:06) correct 19% (01:55) wrong

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Advocates of human therapeutic cloning believe the practice could provide genetically identical cells for regenerative medicine, and tissues and organs for transplantation. Such cells, tissues and organs would neither trigger an immune response nor require the use of immunosuppressive drugs. Both basic research and therapeutic development for serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes, as well as improvements in burn treatment and reconstructive and cosmetic surgery, are areas that might benefit from such new technology. Trying to find compatible donors is difficult and can take a long time, but with therapeutic cloning, the speed of this process would increase and compatibility would not be an issue.

Proponents of another form of human cloning – human reproductive cloning – claim it would also produce benefits, but in a much different way and for a different population. Severino Antinori and Panay Zavos hope to create a fertility treatment that allows parents who are both infertile to have children with at least some of their DNA in their offspring. Some scientists, including Dr. Richard Seed, suggest that human cloning might obviate the human aging process. Dr. Preston Estep has suggested the term "replacement cloning" to describe the generation of a clone of a previously living person, and "persistence cloning" to describe the production of a cloned body for the purpose of obviating aging, although he maintains that such procedures currently should be considered science fiction and current cloning techniques risk producing a prematurely aged child.

All human cloning raises serious implications of a socio-ethical nature, particularly concerning the high expectations that could be placed on cloned individuals of the type suggested by Dr. Estep. Expectations that the cloned individuals act identically to the human they were cloned from could greatly infringe on the right to self-determination (the right to decide who and what they want to be). Even with fertility applications of human cloning – thought by most to be less controversial – ethical issues remain that have not been addressed. For example, a female DNA donor would be the clone's genetic twin, rather than the mother, complicating the genetic and social relationships between mother and child as well as the relationships between other family members and the clone. Before human cloning can move forward, it is important that these many ethical issues be addressed.


The primary purpose of this passage is to ________________

a> highlight the ethical issues relating to human cloning
b> provide an overview of the possible benefits of human cloning
c> argue that human cloning has certain risks
d> discuss the possible uses and dangers of human cloning
e> compare two different types of human cloning




The author uses the bolded example in the last paragraph in order to:

A) suggest that human cloning should not move forward
B) highlight the particularly serious ethical concerns relating to fertility applications
C) argue that reproductive cloning carries more ethical concerns than other types of cloning
D) question the motivations and ethics of Dr. Estep
E) emphasize the scientific dangers of even the safest form of cloning



According to the passage, each of the following describes a scenario in which a person created from replacement cloning might struggle with self-determination EXCEPT:

A) That person chooses a particular job because he is told to do so by the person from whom he was cloned.
B) That person attends a certain university because it is the same university once attended by the person from whom he was cloned.
C) That person joins a certain political party because it is the same party that the person from whom he was cloned once belonged.
D) That person chooses to live in the same place as the person from whom he was cloned once lived.
E) That person chooses to dress in a particular way because that is how the person from whom he was cloned once dressed.




My question:
At the end of the passage, author confirms that though there are benefits associated with human cloning, but we first need to address ethical issues.
So why not option A?

The correct answer is D. How "Dangers" be called as Risk or ethical issues?

Originally posted by email2vm on 12 Apr 2016, 05:57.
Last edited by JarvisR on 18 Aug 2016, 00:12, edited 1 time in total.
Formatted the passage and added additional questions
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Re: Advocates of human therapeutic cloning believe the practice could prov  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2016, 06:29
email2vm wrote:

The primary purpose of this passage is to ________________

a> highlight the ethical issues relating to human cloning
b> provide an overview of the possible benefits of human cloning
c> argue that human cloning has certain risks
d> discuss the possible uses and dangers of human cloning
e> compare two different types of human cloning


My question:
At the end of the passage, author confirms that though there are benefits associated with human cloning, but we first need to address ethical issues.
So why not option A?

The correct answer is D. How "Dangers" be called as Risk or ethical issues?


Hi,

The primary purpose must always cover the scope of the entire passage.

A, B and C convey only the benefits or dangers of cloning, covering only a part of the entire passage.
E can be eliminated because the entire passage is not intended to compare two types of cloning.

D is the correct answer.
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Re: Advocates of human therapeutic cloning believe the practice could prov  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2018, 20:17
2
For Question 3
Solution: A

Explanation: In the third paragraph you learn that: “Expectations that the cloned individuals act identically to the human they were cloned from could greatly infringe on the right to self-determination” So any action where the cloned individual is behaving like the person he was cloned from would meet the conditions in this problem. The trick is that the question refers to “replacement cloning” in which the cloned individual is made from a DECEASED person. Therefore answer choice (A) would be impossible and is thus the correct answer.

For Question 2
olution: A

Explanation: This difficult “function” question hinges on how the author has used that specific example. In the end of the passage, you learn that the author believes human cloning should not move forward until ethical issues have been addressed. The example is used before the last sentence to show that EVEN fertility applications, which are considered by most to be far less controversial, have important ethical issues. From this, you can infer that the author has used the example to (A), “suggest that human cloning should not move forward.” (B) is tricky but incorrect – he is not using it to highlight the particularly serious ethical concerns of fertility applications. It is used to show that fertility applications, which are NOT as serious as other applications, have not yet been addressed from an ethical standpoint. For (C), the author is not using the statement to compare reproductive cloning to other types, and (D) and (E) are clearly unrelated to the final portion of the passage. Answer is (A).

For Question 1
Solution: D

Explanation: The key on this primary purpose question, as with most, is to get the scope correct. (A) is too narrow in scope as this passage does not just discuss the ethical issues. A large part of the passage is about the different types of cloning and their possible benefits. (B) is also too narrow in scope – benefits are just one part of the passage. The ethical issues and dangers are equally important. For (C) the term argue is too strong and this passage is again not just about the risks. (D) is perfect in scope and content – it is about both the possible uses and the risks/ethical issues relating to cloning. For (E), it is not a compare and contrast passage – the two types are not contrasted except in subtle ways.
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Re: Advocates of human therapeutic cloning believe the practice could prov  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 10:58
globaldesi wrote:
For Question 3
Solution: A

Explanation: In the third paragraph you learn that: “Expectations that the cloned individuals act identically to the human they were cloned from could greatly infringe on the right to self-determination” So any action where the cloned individual is behaving like the person he was cloned from would meet the conditions in this problem. The trick is that the question refers to “replacement cloning” in which the cloned individual is made from a DECEASED person. Therefore answer choice (A) would be impossible and is thus the correct answer.

For Question 2
olution: A

Explanation: This difficult “function” question hinges on how the author has used that specific example. In the end of the passage, you learn that the author believes human cloning should not move forward until ethical issues have been addressed. The example is used before the last sentence to show that EVEN fertility applications, which are considered by most to be far less controversial, have important ethical issues. From this, you can infer that the author has used the example to (A), “suggest that human cloning should not move forward.” (B) is tricky but incorrect – he is not using it to highlight the particularly serious ethical concerns of fertility applications. It is used to show that fertility applications, which are NOT as serious as other applications, have not yet been addressed from an ethical standpoint. For (C), the author is not using the statement to compare reproductive cloning to other types, and (D) and (E) are clearly unrelated to the final portion of the passage. Answer is (A).

For Question 1
Solution: D

Explanation: The key on this primary purpose question, as with most, is to get the scope correct. (A) is too narrow in scope as this passage does not just discuss the ethical issues. A large part of the passage is about the different types of cloning and their possible benefits. (B) is also too narrow in scope – benefits are just one part of the passage. The ethical issues and dangers are equally important. For (C) the term argue is too strong and this passage is again not just about the risks. (D) is perfect in scope and content – it is about both the possible uses and the risks/ethical issues relating to cloning. For (E), it is not a compare and contrast passage – the two types are not contrasted except in subtle ways.



You are saying that author suggest that human cloning should not move forward.” , but how can we say that , yes author says that ethical issues need to be taken care , but that doesnt mean he/she is against it ......so answer should be B .......
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Advocates of human therapeutic cloning believe the practice could prov  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 11:29
globaldesi

Q2 : Answer should be B
Acc to passage : "Before human cloning can move forward, it is important that these many ethical issues be addressed. " : This suggests that if issues are solved than human cloning can move forward. But according to option A)
A) suggest that human cloning should not move forward : Strong wording.


Q3 : Can anyone please explain in detail. All choices are looking similar.
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Advocates of human therapeutic cloning believe the practice could prov &nbs [#permalink] 09 Oct 2018, 11:29
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