GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 16 Oct 2019, 07:30

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to expl

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 4100
GPA: 3.39
Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to expl  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 12 Sep 2019, 05:43
2
5
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 401 sessions

23% (03:33) correct 77% (03:14) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 412 sessions

72% (00:45) correct 28% (00:59) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 413 sessions

65% (01:17) correct 35% (01:28) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 387 sessions

92% (00:59) correct 8% (01:16) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 383 sessions

91% (00:52) correct 9% (01:27) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 381 sessions

83% (00:53) correct 17% (00:55) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 7
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 368 sessions

80% (00:43) correct 20% (00:53) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 15, Date : 08-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to explore, trade with, and colonize large portions of the world brought tremendous economic wealth and vast geographic influence, the enormous success of European maritime ventures during the age of exploration also engendered a litany of unintended consequences for most of the nations with which Europe interacted. Due to their incredible military force, religious zeal, and uncompromising goal of profit, Europeans often imposed their traditions, values, and customs on the people with whom they traded. They frequently acted without regard to the long-term welfare of others as their principal concern was short-term economic gain. Since many nations that traded with Europe placed high value on their historical customs, some natives became deeply disconcerted by the changes that occurred as a result of European power. These factors, coupled with perennial domestic political instability, caused numerous countries to grow increasingly resistant to European influence.

One potent example of this ideological shift can be seen in the actions of the Tokugawa government of Japan. In its Seclusion Edict of 1636, the government attempted to extricate cultural interactions with Europe from the intimate fabric of Japanese society. The Edict attempted to accomplish this by focusing on three areas. First, it sought to curb cultural exchange by eliminating people bringing European ideas into Japan. The Edict stated, "Japanese ships shall by no means be sent abroad….All Japanese residing abroad shall be put to death when they return home." Second, the Edict focused on limiting trade. Articles 11 through 17 of the Edict imposed stringent regulations on trade and commerce. Third, the government banned Christianity, which it saw as an import from Europe that challenged the long-established and well-enshrined religious traditions of Japan. The government went to considerable lengths to protect its culture. Article eight of the Edict stated, "Even ships shall not be left untouched in the matter of exterminating Christians."

With the example of Japan and the examples of other countries that chose a different response to European influence, it is perhaps not too far of a stretch to conclude that Japan made the right decision in pursuing a path of relative isolationism. As history unfolded during the next 400 years, in general, countries that embraced European hegemony, whether by choice or by force, tended to suffer from pernicious wealth inequality, perennial political instability, and protracted underdevelopment.

1. It can best be inferred from the passage that in 1636, the Japanese government:

A) Saw its citizens living abroad as potential threats
B) Considered all foreign religions a danger
C) Disagreed with the European philosophy that trade brought wealth
D) Foresaw the economic dangers of European trade and imperialism
E) Believed that ideas coming into Japan via foreign interactions provided no positive impact to Japanese society


2. Which of the following best characterizes the most significant motivation for Europe's behavior with Japan during the 17th century?

A) Religious zeal
B) Long-term political concerns
C) Short-term economic self-interest
D) Cultural imperialism
E) Territorial aggrandizemen


3. The author most likely included the quotation from Article Eight of the Edict at the end of the second paragraph to:

A) Highlight the venomous anger many Japanese leaders felt toward the importation of foreign religions
B) Emphasize the determination of the Japanese government to protect itself from foreign influences it saw as damaging
C) Illustrate how pervasive foreign religious influence had become in Japanese society
D) Emphasize that European economic influence offered no justification for the Edict and the government relied instead on foreign religious influence to justify the Edict
E) Provide an example of Japan's effort to curb cultural and economic exchange


4. Based upon the passage, the author would likely agree most strongly with which of the following statements:

A) European decisions made during the 16th and 17th centuries in dealing with Japan represent an aberration from the typical pattern of European decisions
B) Japanese rulers who responded with ferocity to European influence bear part of the responsibility for the caustic European-Japanese relationship that ensued
C) With the hindsight of history, Japan likely made the appropriate decision in extricating itself from European influence
D) European religious and cultural values conflicted with European economic behavior toward Japan
E) The width and breadth of Japan's cultural fabric suffered from its seclusionist policies


5. According to the passage, which of the following constituted the biggest reason for the Seclusion Edict of 1636?

A) Japanese economic potential would be hampered in the long-term
B) European trade amounted to a disproportionate transfer of wealth
C) With growing European influence, the potential for European military action against the Japanese government became too large
D) Traditional Japanese culture and way of life were threatened by European influence
E) Japanese rulers feared the arrival of additional traders and cultural imperialists


6. According to the passage, the Japanese government took all of the following actions in an attempt to protect Japanese culture and way of life EXCEPT:

A) Prohibit Japanese from visiting other countries, even to see family
B) Execute Japanese citizens who settled in other countries but later decided to return to Japan
C) Heavily regulate foreign economic trade
D) Destroy all remnants of Christianity
E) Prohibit criticism of the feudal shogun system of government


7. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

A) Explain the actions of the Tokugawa government of Japan
B) Compare the results of countries that pursued protectionism with those that pursued globalization
C) Explore the consequences of some European trade and exploration along with analyzing a country’s response to it
D) Argue for the success of European trade as a means to create wealth and exert influence
E) Elucidate the root of frustration with European imperialism



Source: Platinum GMAT
Difficulty Level: 600

_________________

Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 07 Feb 2017, 22:31.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 12 Sep 2019, 05:43, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (522).
Most Helpful Community Reply
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 4100
GPA: 3.39
Re: Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to expl  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 09 Feb 2019, 23:22
3
Official Explanation


1. It can best be inferred from the passage that in 1636, the Japanese government:

Explanation

A. This matches a sentence from the second paragraph: "The Edict stated, 'Japanese ships shall by no means be sent abroad….All Japanese residing abroad shall be put to death when they return home.'" If those living abroad were put to death upon returning, it is safe to conclude that the government saw these individuals as threats.

B. The passage states that actions were taken against Christianity (not all religions): "Third, the government banned Christianity"

C. The passage makes no mention of Japanese economic philosophy

D. The passage makes no mention that Japan foresaw the dangers of trade with Europe. Further, the reasons given for Japan's actions are cultural not economic.

E. The phrase "provided no positive impact" is a strong statement. Although the article is clear that Japan felt that the European influence damaged its culture, this is not enough evidence to claim that absolutely nothing positive came from European "ideas".

Answer: A


2. Which of the following best characterizes the most significant motivation for Europe's behavior with Japan during the 17th century?

Explanation

The section of the passage that is most of interest is: "Due to their incredible military force, religious zeal, and uncompromising goal of profit, Europeans often imposed their traditions, values, and customs on the people with whom they traded. They frequently acted without regard to the long-term welfare of others as their principal concern was short-term economic gain."

A. Although the passage mentions European "religious zeal," the passage states that the "principal concern was short-term economic gain". Further, the passage devotes almost no attention to elucidating the details of proselytizing efforts.

B. The passage explicitly contradicts this, stating that Europe "frequently acted without regard to the long-term welfare of others".

C. This matches the passage, which states: Europe's "principal concern was short-term economic gain".

D. This was the result of Europe's behavior, not the motivation for the behavior. Further, the passage states that the "principal concern was short-term economic gain".

E. The passage makes no mention of Europe's attempt to take over Japan's land.

Answer: C


3. The author most likely included the quotation from Article Eight of the Edict at the end of the second paragraph to:

Explanation

In order to understand why the quotation was used, it is essential to examine the broader context.

Context: "Third, the government banned Christianity, which it saw as an import from Europe that challenged the long-established and well-enshrined religious traditions of Japan. The government went to considerable lengths to protect its culture."

Immediately before the quote, the author states that Japan "went to considerable lengths to protect its culture." The author proceeds to include the quote in order to provide evidence of the lengths to which Japan went. In other words, the quote serves as evidence of the determination of the Japanese government to root out cultural influences.

A. The article provides no evidence that the Japanese government hated foreign religions (strictly speaking). Instead, the article focuses on the government's dislike of the weakening of Japanese culture at the hands of these religions.

B. Since the "government went to considerable lengths to protect its culture", the quote shows the government's determination.

C. The government's decision to destroy ships associated in any way with Christianity does not mean that Christianity deeply infiltrated the society (ships would have been the first things to have been influenced). Rather, it shows how thorough Japan was in extricating Christianity.

D. European economic influence clearly provided a justification for the Edict as "Articles 11 through 17 of the Edict imposed stringent regulations on trade and commerce"

E. Although there is no doubt that this is an example of Japan's effort to curb cultural exchange, the quote does not deal with efforts to curb economic exchange. Further, the passage already provided multiple other examples of Japan's effort to curb cultural exchange (see earlier: "First, it sought to curb cultural exchange by eliminating people bringing European ideas into Japan.")

Answer: B


4. Based upon the passage, the author would likely agree most strongly with which of the following statements:

Explanation

The correct answer cannot contradict any part of the author's views. An answer that has a text to support it but is later contradicted in the passage cannot be the correct answer. Further, the author summarizes his views in the last paragraph.

A. The first half of the first paragraph and the opening sentence of the second paragraph explicitly contradict this, noting that "numerous countries" resented Europe's imperialism.

B. The passage does not deal with who is to blame for caustic relations, but rather Japan's response and its ramifications.

C. This is the author's summary toward the end of the passage: "it is perhaps not too far of a stretch to conclude that Japan made the right decision in pursuing a path of relative isolationism."

D. The author makes little differentiation between the religious, cultural, and economic values Europe espoused: "Due to their incredible military force, religious zeal, and uncompromising goal of profit, Europeans often imposed their traditions, values, and customs on the people with whom they traded."

E. The author never discusses the cultural ramifications of Japan's policies. The closest the author comes to this is simply to state that Japan likely made the correct decision in implementing seclusionist policies (which would imply that Japan's culture did not suffer severely).

Answer: C


5. According to the passage, which of the following constituted the biggest reason for the Seclusion Edict of 1636?

Explanation

The two texts of interest from the passage are:

(1) "In its Seclusion Edict of 1636, the government attempted to extricate cultural interactions with Europe from the intimate fabric of Japanese society." (2) "Since many nations that traded with Europe placed high value on their historical customs, some natives became deeply disconcerted by the changes that occurred as a result of European power."

A. There is no mention of Japan's self-awareness regarding the long-term economic consequences of European actions.

B. There is no mention of Japan's self-awareness regarding the disproportionate transfer of wealth.

C. There is no mention of Japan's self-awareness regarding the potential for European military action if Europe were allowed to strengthen its presence in Japan.

D. This description of Japan's motivation and reason for the Edict matches the above two texts of interest.

E. There is no mention of Japan's self-awareness regarding the possibility for additional traders or cultural imperialists arriving.

Answer: D


6. According to the passage, the Japanese government took all of the following actions in an attempt to protect Japanese culture and way of life EXCEPT:

Explanation

A. The Japanese government took this action: "Japanese ships shall by no means be sent abroad"

B. The Japanese government took this action: "All Japanese residing abroad shall be put to death when they return home."

C. The Japanese government took this action: "the Edict focused on limiting trade. Articles 11 through 17 of the Edict imposed stringent regulations on trade and commerce."

D. The Japanese government took this action: "Even ships shall not be left untouched in the matter of exterminating Christians."

E. The passage makes no mention of the feudal shogun system.

Answer: E


7. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

Explanation

In order to understand the purpose of a passage, we must examine the logical flow of the passage and the conclusion of the passage.

Logical Flow:

1st Paragraph--Introduce an issue: European cultural and economic imperialism along with its consequences.
2nd Paragraph--Discuss one example of a response to European cultural imperialism.
3rd Paragraph--Conclude by largely vindicating Japan's actions.

Conclusion:

"Japan made the right decision in pursuing a path of relative isolationism.... countries that embraced European hegemony, whether by choice or by force, tended to suffer from pernicious wealth inequality, perennial political instability, and protracted underdevelopment."

A. The actions of the Tokugawa government of Japan simply serve to make a larger point and it is this larger point that is the primary purpose of the passage.

B. There are no countries mentioned that pursued globalization and the only reference to globalization is implicit and small at the end (this reference simply serves to advance the argument that Japan made the correct choice in pursuing isolationism).

C. This encapsulates the elements & logical flow in the article along with the conclusion.

D. The bulk of the article focuses on Japan's response and there is no mention of the extent to which trade with Japan created wealth.

E. The bulk of the article focuses on Japan's response to European imperialism--not the roots of frustration with imperialism.

Answer: C


Hope it helps
_________________
General Discussion
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 16 Jan 2018
Posts: 9
Re: Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to expl  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 May 2018, 08:43
Ques1.
Can anyone explain why we chose A instead of E ?
Why ruled out E ?
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 4100
GPA: 3.39
Re: Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to expl  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 May 2018, 11:23
narayandutta wrote:
Ques1.
Can anyone explain why we chose A instead of E ?
Why ruled out E ?


Question 1

Correct Answer: A

A. This matches a sentence from the second paragraph: "The Edict stated, 'Japanese ships shall by no means be sent abroad….All Japanese residing abroad shall be put to death when they return home.'" If those living abroad were put to death upon returning, it is safe to conclude that the government saw these individuals as threats.

B. The passage states that actions were taken against Christianity (not all religions): "Third, the government banned Christianity"

C. The passage makes no mention of Japanese economic philosophy

D. The passage makes no mention that Japan foresaw the dangers of trade with Europe. Further, the reasons given for Japan's actions are cultural not economic.

E. The phrase "provided no positive impact" is a strong statement. Although the article is clear that Japan felt that the European influence damaged its culture, this is not enough evidence to claim that absolutely nothing positive came from European "ideas".

Hope It Helps
_________________
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 10 Jul 2017
Posts: 6
Re: Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to expl  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 May 2018, 07:32
Can anyone explain the reason as to why B is the correct answer for question number 3
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 4100
GPA: 3.39
Re: Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to expl  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 May 2018, 10:54
sharathshaddy wrote:
Can anyone explain the reason as to why B is the correct answer for question number 3


Correct Answer: B

Explanation

In order to understand why the quotation was used, it is essential to examine the broader context.

Context: "Third, the government banned Christianity, which it saw as an import from Europe that challenged the long-established and well-enshrined religious traditions of Japan. The government went to considerable lengths to protect its culture."

Immediately before the quote, the author states that Japan "went to considerable lengths to protect its culture." The author proceeds to include the quote in order to provide evidence of the lengths to which Japan went. In other words, the quote serves as evidence of the determination of the Japanese government to root out cultural influences.

A. The article provides no evidence that the Japanese government hated foreign religions (strictly speaking). Instead, the article focuses on the government's dislike of the weakening of Japanese culture at the hands of these religions.

B. Since the "government went to considerable lengths to protect its culture", the quote shows the government's determination.

C. The government's decision to destroy ships associated in any way with Christianity does not mean that Christianity deeply infiltrated the society (ships would have been the first things to have been influenced). Rather, it shows how thorough Japan was in extricating Christianity.

D. European economic influence clearly provided a justification for the Edict as "Articles 11 through 17 of the Edict imposed stringent regulations on trade and commerce"

E. Although there is no doubt that this is an example of Japan's effort to curb cultural exchange, the quote does not deal with efforts to curb economic exchange. Further, the passage already provided multiple other examples of Japan's effort to curb cultural exchange (see earlier: "First, it sought to curb cultural exchange by eliminating people bringing European ideas into Japan.")

How helpful was this explanation?
_________________
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to expl   [#permalink] 22 May 2018, 10:54
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to expl

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne