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Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from groun

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Re: Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from groun  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2019, 20:53
sayan640 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
Nunuboy1994 wrote:
The only thing I don't understand about question 3 is that is says "skeptics" rather than "scientists." I narrowed down question 3 to B and D however I felt that skeptics could have referred to a different group of people? Or I suppose with question 3 it would be better to eliminate B because that statement is not necessarily supported by the passage? It doesn't say anywhere that scientists are challenging the lack of fossil lungs.

sananoor wrote:
Can anyone explain that why the answer of question 3 is D..why not A?

Quote:
3) Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as
an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced
that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?
A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.
B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs’ lungs.
C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.
D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.
E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx

The passage states that "some scientists remain unconvinced." In other words, some scientists are skeptical. Thus, those scientists are the skeptics.

The author presents three arguments made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs:

    1) Theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds.
    2) The fused clavicles (the “wishbone”) of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods.
    3) The complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs.

Choice (D) specifically refers to the second item in the list.

Choice (B) is not an argument made by the skeptics. Rather, it is a statement made by the author to show that #3 in the list cannot be supported or falsified at the moment.

As for choice (A), notice the word "after". There ARE certainly theropod fossils dating from after the time of the Archaeopteryx. The passage tells us that 150 million-year-old Archaeopteryx fossils have been found and that 115 million-year-old theropod fossils have been found. The problem, according to the skeptics, is that there are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period BEFORE the time of the Archaeopteryx.

Choice (D) is the best answer.


Hi GMATNinja VeritasKarishma jennpt



Also Is option A incorrect because it is a wrong statement and certainly not an argument put forward by skeptics ?
It says that 'There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx."
This is a wrong statement as we know from the passage that there are indeed theropod dinosaur fossils which are 115 years old and 150 years old.


Option A is wrong because the critics' argument is that there are no known theropod fossils from BEFORE the time of Archaeopteryx.

"theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx."

The passage tells us that theropods appeared late (115 million years ago) while bird appeared earlier (150 million years ago). So birds could not have evolved from theropods. But now, theropods dating 150 million years ago have been found. Anyway, no fossils found doesn't mean no fossils exist.
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Re: Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from groun  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2019, 21:26
VeritasKarishma wrote:
sayan640 wrote:

Hi GMATNinja VeritasKarishma jennpt



Also Is option A incorrect because it is a wrong statement and certainly not an argument put forward by skeptics ?
It says that 'There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx."
This is a wrong statement as we know from the passage that there are indeed theropod dinosaur fossils which are 115 years old and 150 years old.


Option A is wrong because the critics' argument is that there are no known theropod fossils from BEFORE the time of Archaeopteryx.

"theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx."

The passage tells us that theropods appeared late (115 million years ago) while bird appeared earlier (150 million years ago). So birds could not have evolved from theropods. But now, theropods dating 150 million years ago have been found. Anyway, no fossils found doesn't mean no fossils exist.


Hi VeritasKarishma

Thanks for clearing my doubt. I dint understand the significance of your last sentence " Anyway, no fossils found doesn't mean no fossils exist."
My reasoning is as follows ; Please correct me if it's wrong.....

Option A is wrong because the critics' argument is that "there are no known theropod fossils from BEFORE the time of Archaeopteryx" whereas option A says "There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period AFTER the time of Archaeopteryx."
What option A says is neither correct factually ( As we have found theropod dinosaur fossils which are 115 years old and 150 years old ) nor is it the argument put forward by the critics.

That's why option A is incorrect.
Please let me know whether my understanding is correct or not.
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Re: Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from groun  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2019, 03:06
sayan640 wrote:
VeritasKarishma wrote:
sayan640 wrote:

Hi GMATNinja VeritasKarishma jennpt



Also Is option A incorrect because it is a wrong statement and certainly not an argument put forward by skeptics ?
It says that 'There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx."
This is a wrong statement as we know from the passage that there are indeed theropod dinosaur fossils which are 115 years old and 150 years old.


Option A is wrong because the critics' argument is that there are no known theropod fossils from BEFORE the time of Archaeopteryx.

"theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx."

The passage tells us that theropods appeared late (115 million years ago) while bird appeared earlier (150 million years ago). So birds could not have evolved from theropods. But now, theropods dating 150 million years ago have been found. Anyway, no fossils found doesn't mean no fossils exist.


Hi VeritasKarishma

Thanks for clearing my doubt. I dint understand the significance of your last sentence " Anyway, no fossils found doesn't mean no fossils exist."
My reasoning is as follows ; Please correct me if it's wrong.....

Option A is wrong because the critics' argument is that "there are no known theropod fossils from BEFORE the time of Archaeopteryx" whereas option A says "There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period AFTER the time of Archaeopteryx."
What option A says is neither correct factually ( As we have found theropod dinosaur fossils which are 115 years old and 150 years old ) nor is it the argument put forward by the critics.

That's why option A is incorrect.
Please let me know whether my understanding is correct or not.
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja


"No fossils found doesn't mean no fossils exist" means that just because something hasn't been found, you cannot say it doesn't exist. It is not valid reasoning. Just because a theropod fossil older than 150 million years hasn't been found doesn't mean that there were no theropods in that time. Perhaps the fossil hasn't been discovered yet.

Anyway, your logic is correct.
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Re: Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from groun  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2020, 00:44
though we can read the passage easily, question 3 is hard. information in choice D is consistent but far from the information in the passage. so high level of inference is required. a saver is POE. using POE, we can eliminate many answer choices. try to realize at least one wrong word to eliminate a choice.
when one remaining choice is left, and when we do not have any reason to eliminate the choice, reread the passage and make inference. only now can we realize the correct answer choice.

correct answer choice has no reason to be eliminated and require a time consuming inference. try to realize a choice having no reason to be eliminate and make inference for this answer choice. take time for inference.

knowing this strick helps us succeed on hard questions.
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Re: Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from groun  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2020, 09:28
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Is 6 minutes with all answers correct a good time for passage this length and with 3 questions of which 1-2 are 700 level ?
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Re: Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from groun  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 14:15
8:35

Got 2/3, made a silly mistake with the first one. :/
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Re: Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from groun  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 21:34
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altairahmad
Hi,
Although I am no expert, as per my personal assessment of this passage, I think 6 minutes is a little on higher side. Unfortunately, it took me around the same amount of time as well. :(
I also believe that such time assessment is pretty personalized thing depending on someone's strong and weak areas. As an example, RC is not particularly my strongest suit till date. If it is same for someone, then 6 minutes may be unavoidable. :(
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Re: Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from groun   [#permalink] 28 Jan 2020, 21:34

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