GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 21 Feb 2019, 08:00

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel
Events & Promotions in February
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
272829303112
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
242526272812
Open Detailed Calendar
  • Online GMAT boot camp for FREE

     February 21, 2019

     February 21, 2019

     10:00 PM PST

     11:00 PM PST

    Kick off your 2019 GMAT prep with a free 7-day boot camp that includes free online lessons, webinars, and a full GMAT course access. Limited for the first 99 registrants! Feb. 21st until the 27th.
  • Free GMAT RC Webinar

     February 23, 2019

     February 23, 2019

     07:00 AM PST

     09:00 AM PST

    Learn reading strategies that can help even non-voracious reader to master GMAT RC. Saturday, February 23rd at 7 AM PT

Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

 
Senior PS Moderator
User avatar
D
Status: It always seems impossible until it's done.
Joined: 16 Sep 2016
Posts: 722
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jan 2019, 01:57
2
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 28 sessions

54% (03:46) correct 46% (04:06) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 40 sessions

23% (01:56) correct 77% (01:27) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 38 sessions

29% (01:17) correct 71% (01:02) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 37 sessions

86% (00:39) correct 14% (00:30) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 36 sessions

26% (01:23) correct 74% (01:32) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 34 sessions

53% (00:54) correct 47% (00:56) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humanitarian purposes—reached its apex in England in the late nineteenth century, modern commentators have articulated two major criticisms of the philanthropy that was a mainstay of England’s middle-class Victorian society. The earlier criticism is that such philanthropy was even by the later nineteenth century obsolete, since industrialism had already created social problems that were beyond the scope of small, private voluntary efforts. Indeed, these problems required substantial legislative action by the state. Unemployment, for example, was not the result of a failure of diligence on the part of workers or a failure of compassion on the part of employers, nor could it be solved by well-wishing philanthropists.

The more recent charge holds that Victorian philanthropy was by its very nature a self-serving exercise carried out by philanthropists at the expense of those whom they were ostensibly serving. In this view, philanthropy was a means of flaunting one’s power and position in a society that placed great emphasis on status, or even a means of cultivating social connections that could lead to economic rewards. Further, if philanthropy is seen as serving the interests of individual philanthropists, so it may be seen as serving the interests of their class. According to this “social control” thesis, philanthropists, in professing to help the poor, were encouraging in them such values as prudence, thrift, and temperance, values perhaps worthy in themselves but also designed to create more productive members of the labor force. Philanthropy, in short, was a means of controlling the labor force and ensuring the continued dominance of the management class.

Modern critics of Victorian philanthropy often use the words “amateurish” or “inadequate” to describe Victorian philanthropy, as though Victorian charity can only be understood as an antecedent to the era of statesponsored, professionally administered charity. This assumption is typical of the “Whig fallacy”: the tendency to read the past as an inferior prelude to an enlightened present. If most Victorians resisted state
control and expended their resources on private, voluntary philanthropies, it could only be, the argument goes, because of their commitment to a vested interest, or because the administrative apparatus of the state was incapable of coping with the economic and social needs of the time.

This version of history patronizes the Victorians, who were in fact well aware of their vulnerability to charges of condescension and complacency, but were equally well aware of the potential dangers of statemanaged charity. They were perhaps condescending to the poor, but—to use an un-Victorian metaphor—they put their money where their mouths were, and gave of their careers and lives as well.

1. Which one of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?
(A) While the motives of individual practitioners have been questioned by modern commentators, Victorian philanthropy successfully dealt with the social ills of nineteenth-century England.
(B) Philanthropy, inadequate to deal with the massive social and economic problems of the twentieth century, has slowly been replaced by state-sponsored charity.
(C) The practice of reading the past as a prelude to an enlightened present has fostered revisionist views of many institutions, among them Victorian philanthropy.
(D) Although modern commentators have perceived Victorian philanthropy as either inadequate or self-serving, the theoretical bias behind these criticisms leads to an incorrect interpretation of history.
(E) Victorian philanthropists, aware of public resentment of their self-congratulatory attitude, used devious methods to camouflage their self-serving motives.

2. According to the passage, which one of the following is true of both modern criticisms made about Victorian philanthropy?
(A) Both criticisms attribute dishonorable motives to those privileged individuals who engaged in private philanthropy.
(B) Both criticisms presuppose that the social rewards of charitable activity outweighed the economic benefits.
(C) Both criticisms underemphasize the complacency and condescension demonstrated by the Victorians.
(D) Both criticisms suggest that government involvement was necessary to cure social ills.
(E) Both criticisms take for granted the futility of efforts by private individuals to enhance their social status by means of philanthropy.

3. Which one of the following best describes the attitude of the author of the passage toward the “Whig” interpretation of Victorian philanthropy?
(A) strong disagreement
(B) mild skepticism
(C) cynical amusement
(D) bland indifference
(E) unqualified support

4. Which one of the following best describes the primary purpose of the passage?
(A) providing an extended definition of a key term
(B) defending the work of an influential group of theorists
(C) narrating the chronological development of a widespread practice
(D) examining modern evaluations of a historical phenomenon
(E) analyzing a specific dilemma faced by workers of the past

5. It can be inferred from the passage that a social control theorist would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements concerning the motives of Victorian philanthropists?
(A) Victorian philanthropists were driven more by the desire for high social status than by the hope of economic gain.
(B) Victorian philanthropists encouraged such values as thrift and temperance in order to instill in the working class the same acquisitiveness that characterized the management class.
(C) Though basically well-intentioned, Victorian philanthropists faced problems that were far beyond the scope of private charitable organizations.
(D) By raising the living standards of the poor, Victorian philanthropists also sought to improve the intellectual status of the poor.
(E) Victorian philanthropists see philanthropy as a means to an end rather than as an end in itself.

6. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) Two related positions are discussed, then both are subjected to the same criticism.
(B) Two opposing theories are outlined, then a synthesis between the two is proposed.
(C) A position is stated, and two differing evaluations of it are given.
(D) Three examples of the same logical inconsistency are given.
(E) A theory is outlined, and two supporting examples are given.


_________________

Regards,
Gladi



“Do. Or do not. There is no try.” - Yoda (The Empire Strikes Back)

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 19 Aug 2015
Posts: 40
Concentration: Leadership, International Business
GMAT 1: 680 Q48 V35
CAT Tests
Re: Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jan 2019, 06:57
Hey guys

Can someone explain question 5

5. It can be inferred from the passage that a social control theorist would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements concerning the motives of Victorian philanthropists?
(A) Victorian philanthropists were driven more by the desire for high social status than by the hope of economic gain.
(B) Victorian philanthropists encouraged such values as thrift and temperance in order to instill in the working class the same acquisitiveness that characterized the management class.
(C) Though basically well-intentioned, Victorian philanthropists faced problems that were far beyond the scope of private charitable organizations.
(D) By raising the living standards of the poor, Victorian philanthropists also sought to improve the intellectual status of the poor.
(E) Victorian philanthropists see philanthropy as a means to an end rather than as an end in itself.

Why is B incorrect?
VP
VP
avatar
G
Joined: 09 Mar 2018
Posts: 1001
Location: India
Re: Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jan 2019, 07:07
1
zeniamehta wrote:
Hey guys

Can someone explain question 5

5. It can be inferred from the passage that a social control theorist would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements concerning the motives of Victorian philanthropists?
(A) Victorian philanthropists were driven more by the desire for high social status than by the hope of economic gain.
(B) Victorian philanthropists encouraged such values as thrift and temperance in order to instill in the working class the same acquisitiveness that characterized the management class.
(C) Though basically well-intentioned, Victorian philanthropists faced problems that were far beyond the scope of private charitable organizations.
(D) By raising the living standards of the poor, Victorian philanthropists also sought to improve the intellectual status of the poor.
(E) Victorian philanthropists see philanthropy as a means to an end rather than as an end in itself.

Why is B incorrect?


According to this “social control” thesis, philanthropists, in professing to help the poor, were encouraging in them such values as prudence, thrift, and temperance, values perhaps worthy in themselves but also designed to create more productive members of the labor force. Philanthropy, in short, was a means of controlling the labor force and ensuring the continued dominance of the management class.

You might have taken it from the bold part.(though i didn't get this one right, but i removed this option like this)

Victorian philanthropists encouraged such values as thrift and temperance in order to instill in the working class the same acquisitiveness(greed) that characterized the management class.

But nowhere in that para, author has mentioned that they will have the same greed as the management class.Its too extreme for that matter.
_________________

If you notice any discrepancy in my reasoning, please let me know. Lets improve together.

Quote which i can relate to.
Many of life's failures happen with people who do not realize how close they were to success when they gave up.

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 19 Aug 2015
Posts: 40
Concentration: Leadership, International Business
GMAT 1: 680 Q48 V35
CAT Tests
Re: Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jan 2019, 07:08
2. According to the passage, which one of the following is true of both modern criticisms made about Victorian philanthropy?
(A) Both criticisms attribute dishonorable motives to those privileged individuals who engaged in private philanthropy.
First criticism doesnt show dishonorable motives
(B) Both criticisms presuppose that the social rewards of charitable activity outweighed the economic benefits.
Not mentioned anywhere
(C) Both criticisms underemphasize the complacency and condescension demonstrated by the Victorians.
These terms are mentioned in Last para, but in a completely diff context.
(D) Both criticisms suggest that government involvement was necessary to cure social ills.
Yes, last lines of both criticisms highlight this.
(E) Both criticisms take for granted the futility of efforts by private individuals to enhance their social status by means of philanthropy.
Just in second crticism not both
Senior PS Moderator
User avatar
D
Status: It always seems impossible until it's done.
Joined: 16 Sep 2016
Posts: 722
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jan 2019, 07:50
This is a very tough question. Please find the official explanation - OA is D.

If we scan through the text of paragraph 1 where “the earlier criticism” is discussed, we see that Victorian philanthropy was allegedly obsolete because the social problems of the day required state action. As such, anything that doesn’t mention that fact can be rejected.

(A) Dishonorable motives might be read into the second criticism (paragraph 2), although the word departs from the language of the passage and should cause you some pause. The “earlier criticism,” however, doesn’t consider the philanthropists’ motives at all, so (A) cannot be what we seek.

(B) This choice focuses exclusively on the second criticism’s claim that the philanthropists were selfserving. Again, this element in the second criticism’s argument just never appears in the first one’s.

(C) “Complacency and condescension?” The author uses neither of these terms while describing the two criticisms’ claims. Note that these Hot Words appear in paragraph 3—that is, after the two criticisms have been fully described.

(D) This one is tough to spot, but remaining aware of the topic and scope can help immensely here. In the first lines of the passage (1–2), philanthropy is defined as “the volunteering of private resources for humanitarian purposes.” The first criticism explicitly addresses the issue of intervention by the state in lines 10–12. Then, in paragraph 3, the author encompasses both criticisms under the heading of “modern critics” and claims that the modern critics are wrong to think that Victorian-era philanthropy “can only be understood as an antecedent to the era of statesponsored, professionally administered charity.” Well, if both of the criticisms commit the same fallacy—that is, assuming that philanthropy preceded the era of state-run giving—then they must agree that solving social problems required state intervention. And thus (D) must be correct.

(E) “The futility of efforts by private individuals” echoes the first critic’s charge that philanthropists were unable to address the issues of the industrial age, but “enhance their social status” is an allusion to the second criticism’s focus on the self-serving motivations of Victorian philanthropists. In other words, (E) cobbles together pieces of each criticism instead of finding what is true of both of them, and (E) therefore becomes a classic example of a “faulty use of detail” combined with an unhealthy dose of “distortion.”

zeniamehta wrote:
2. According to the passage, which one of the following is true of both modern criticisms made about Victorian philanthropy?
(A) Both criticisms attribute dishonorable motives to those privileged individuals who engaged in private philanthropy.
First criticism doesnt show dishonorable motives
(B) Both criticisms presuppose that the social rewards of charitable activity outweighed the economic benefits.
Not mentioned anywhere
(C) Both criticisms underemphasize the complacency and condescension demonstrated by the Victorians.
These terms are mentioned in Last para, but in a completely diff context.
(D) Both criticisms suggest that government involvement was necessary to cure social ills.
Yes, last lines of both criticisms highlight this.
(E) Both criticisms take for granted the futility of efforts by private individuals to enhance their social status by means of philanthropy.
Just in second crticism not both

_________________

Regards,
Gladi



“Do. Or do not. There is no try.” - Yoda (The Empire Strikes Back)

Manager
Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 03 Mar 2017
Posts: 248
Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jan 2019, 09:50
aragonn Gladiator59
please explain Q-5

Skywalker18 adkikani
Try this. A very good passage with tough questions
_________________

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All the Gods, All the Heavens, and All the Hells lie within you.

Senior PS Moderator
User avatar
D
Status: It always seems impossible until it's done.
Joined: 16 Sep 2016
Posts: 722
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jan 2019, 10:38
OA is E. Please find OE.
Here, “social control theorist” points us to the second paragraph, and we can further narrow our search to the philanthropists’ motives, which the critics deemed “self-serving.”

(A) Lines 22–23 make it clear that high social status and economic gain were interchangeable to the Victorians; they could not possibly be “driven more” by one or the other. This choice is a classic example of an “irrelevant distinction.”
(B) This choice is half right, half wrong. The passage mentions philanthropists’ attempting to instill values in the working class (29–31), but states that their goal in doing so was a more productive labor force and certainly not to raise the working class to the level of the managing class.
(C) The “social control” theorists did not think the Victorian philanthropists were “basically well-intentioned.” Quite the contrary.
(D) We cannot be sure whether the poor’s intellectual status was of any interest to the philanthropists, on the social control theorist’s view. We can be sure that on that view, any help the philanthropists gave the working class would have to have strings—not present in (D)—attached.
(E) Whether the philanthropists’ goal was social status or control of the working class, they certainly (in the theorist’s view) desired from the working class some end beyond their means—i.e., their philanthropy. (E) is right on the money.

warrior1991 wrote:
Gladiator59
please explain Q-5

_________________

Regards,
Gladi



“Do. Or do not. There is no try.” - Yoda (The Empire Strikes Back)

Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 08 Jul 2016
Posts: 66
CAT Tests
Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jan 2019, 12:01
5. It can be inferred from the passage that a social control theorist would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements concerning the motives of Victorian philanthropists?
(A) Victorian philanthropists were driven more by the desire for high social status than by the hope of economic gain. Though Victorian philanthropists were driven by both social status and economic gain, the passage does not discuss what drove them more.
(B) Victorian philanthropists encouraged such values as thrift and temperance in order to instill in the working class the same acquisitiveness that characterized the management class. This is a curve ball. Victorian philanthropists did want to instill these qualitites in the working class, but saying that these characterized the management class is an over-statement.
(C) Though basically well-intentioned, Victorian philanthropists faced problems that were far beyond the scope of private charitable organizations. Private charitable organizations was never discussed.
(D) By raising the living standards of the poor, Victorian philanthropists also sought to improve the intellectual status of the poor. Improvement of intellectual status of the poor was never the motive of philanthropists
(E) Victorian philanthropists see philanthropy as a means to an end rather than as an end in itself. According to theorist, philanthropists had ulterior motives - social status and economic gain. So,philanthropy was just a means to an end.
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 29 Nov 2016
Posts: 96
Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Jan 2019, 21:23
What a passage. First of all thank you Gladiator59 for such a wonderful passage. Could get only 3 right after spending about 20 minutes on it.

I still have my doubts on the 3 i got incorrect.

Any help would be highly appreciated.

2. According to the passage, which one of the following is true of both modern criticisms made about Victorian philanthropy?
(C) Both criticisms underemphasize the complacency and condescension demonstrated by the Victorians.
(D) Both criticisms suggest that government involvement was necessary to cure social ills.

I could narrow down the options to 2. But here my doubt is that both of these options are independent of the "both criticisms" mentioned in the passage. Government involvement is something that the author states in context of another theory: theory of some bias and if (D) is correct then (C) isnt wrong either. Author, in last para, explains the view of theory mentioned in Para 3 and states that Victorians were condescend to the poor ( hence did not have a feeling of supermacy while helping them) Then option (C) definitely is correct in stating that the 2 theories underemphasized condescension.

3. Which one of the following best describes the attitude of the author of the passage toward the “Whig” interpretation of Victorian philanthropy?
(A) strong disagreement
(B) mild skepticism
(C) cynical amusement
(D) bland indifference
(E) unqualified support

I could not find authors support to any of the views stated. Please provide insights. Infact, I marked (E) considering the last line of Para 3. I could locate that as the only independent statement that comes from the author himself along with the last para. Rest of the passage looks like the view of either critics or the theory.

6. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) Two related positions are discussed, then both are subjected to the same criticism.
(B) Two opposing theories are outlined, then a synthesis between the two is proposed.
(C) A position is stated, and two differing evaluations of it are given.
(D) Three examples of the same logical inconsistency are given.
(E) A theory is outlined, and two supporting examples are given.

Why is Option (C) incorrect? Can some one please explain the POE for this?

+1 for people who are willing to help me on this.

Thanks
Senior PS Moderator
User avatar
D
Status: It always seems impossible until it's done.
Joined: 16 Sep 2016
Posts: 722
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Jan 2019, 02:31

Official Passage Outline & Map -


Victorian Philanthropy
What aspect of the broad Topic, philanthropy in the Victorian era, most interests the author? What, in short, is the Scope? Lines 6–12 reveal it: the modern criticism of that philanthropy. Paragraph 1 explains the “earlier” charge that it really was obsolete, and paragraph 2 the “more recent” charge that it was selfserving and at the expense of the downtrodden rather than for their benefit. Interestingly, the author holds her temper for the longest time—reporting the criticism objectively well past the first two paragraphs—but she can do so no longer in paragraph 3. Starting with her description of the critics’ assumption as the “Whig fallacy,” she begins to make her Purpose clear in that she wants to redeem the Victorian philanthropists from these charges. Paragraph 4 vindicates them, and the last sentence stands neatly as her Main Idea about the Victorians who gave money to the poor: they were pretty admirable, all things considered.

Map:
Paragraph 1: Criticism: Phil. obsolete
Paragraph 2: Criticism: Phil. self-serving
Paragraph 3: Faulty assumption of critics
Paragraph 4: Defense of Victorian phils

Official Explanations -


Q1 OA: D
Spoiler: :: "OE Question 1"
As we’ve seen, this passage can really be divided into two overall ideas: the criticisms of Victorian philanthropists and the author’s rebuttal of those criticisms. Only choice (D) includes both the modern critiques of Victorian philanthropy and the author’s refutation of them.
(A) The choice gets off to a good start, but we know from lines 10–12 that Victorian philanthropy was ultimately unsuccessful. This is a distortion of the author’s argument.
(B) This sentiment is true according to the passage, but focuses on a detail from paragraph 1 and paragraph 3.
(C) We don’t know anything about modern critiques of “many institutions,” just those of Victorian philanthropy.
(E) The choice restates the “social control” thesis from paragraph 2. Not only is this too narrow, it’s a sentiment that the author disagrees with.

Q2 OA: D
Spoiler: :: "OE Question 2"
Locating the relevant text could be difficult here, as “both modern criticisms” encompasses most of the passage. But this question is not dissimilar to a Logical Reasoning question in which two people are talking and we’re asked, “Which of the following would both speakers agree with?” Such questions, you may recall, can be approached in an indirect way by our rejecting any choice that fails to apply to both speakers. So for question 22, if we scan through the text of paragraph 1 where “the earlier criticism” is discussed, we see that Victorian philanthropy was allegedly obsolete because the social problems of the day required state action. As such, anything that doesn’t mention that fact can be rejected.

(A) Dishonorable motives might be read into the second criticism (paragraph 2), although the word departs from the language of the passage and should cause you some pause. The “earlier criticism,” however, doesn’t consider the philanthropists’ motives at all, so (A) cannot be what we seek.
(B) This choice focuses exclusively on the second criticism’s claim that the philanthropists were selfserving. Again, this element in the second criticism’s argument just never appears in the first one’s.
(C) “Complacency and condescension?” The author uses neither of these terms while describing the two criticisms’ claims. Note that these Hot Words appear in paragraph 3—that is, after the two criticisms have been fully described.
(D) This one is tough to spot, but remaining aware of the topic and scope can help immensely here. In the first lines of the passage (1–2), philanthropy is defined as “the volunteering of private resources for humanitarian purposes.” The first criticism explicitly addresses the issue of intervention by the state in lines 10–12. Then, in paragraph 3, the author encompasses both criticisms under the heading of “modern critics” and claims that the modern critics are wrong to think that Victorian-era philanthropy “can only be understood as an antecedent to the era of statesponsored, professionally administered charity.” Well, if both of the criticisms commit the same fallacy—that is, assuming that philanthropy preceded the era of state-run giving—then they must agree that solving social problems required state intervention. And thus (D) must be correct.
(E) “The futility of efforts by private individuals” echoes the first critic’s charge that philanthropists were unable to address the issues of the industrial age, but “enhance their social status” is an allusion to the second criticism’s focus on the self-serving motivations of Victorian philanthropists. In other words, (E) cobbles together pieces of each criticism instead of finding what is true of both of them, and (E) therefore becomes a classic example of a “faulty use of detail” combined with an unhealthy dose of “distortion.”


Q3 OA: A
Spoiler: :: "OE Question 3"
The author disagrees with the “Whig” interpretation, and does so rather emphatically. Choice (A), “strong disagreement,” matches this perfectly.
(B) Too tentative, not negative enough. Our author is not only “skeptical” of the two criticisms that she discusses in the passage, she’s downright dismissive of them.
(C) The author is certainly not “amused” and there’s no evidence of “cynicism.”
(D) The author is not “indifferent” to this interpretation and “bland” is too bland in its tone.
(E) A 180: utterly positive instead of utterly negative.


Q4 OA: D
Spoiler: :: "OE Question 4"
The author certainly does “examine modern evaluations” of Victorian philanthropy. One would wish that (D) communicated her strong dissent from those evaluations—doing so would make (D) more on the money—but there’s no getting around the fact that (D) is the only choice that takes the scope of the passage into account.
(A) There are two criticisms of Victorian philanthropists, which are themselves critiqued, not just defined. Moreover, in the course of the text several terms are “defined”—philanthropy, “social control” thesis, Whig fallacy—and none of those definitions is in and of itself the key purpose.
(B) A 180. The author is attacking the theorists and defending the Victorians.
(C) The only “chronological development” in the passage is the brief description of the two criticisms as earlier and later, and narrating is too neutral to match up with our author’s tone at all.
(E) The “workers of the past” are mentioned only in passing.


Q5 OA: E
Spoiler: :: "OE Question 5"
Here, “social control theorist” points us to the second paragraph, and we can further narrow our search to the philanthropists’ motives, which the critics deemed “self-serving.”
(A) Lines 22–23 make it clear that high social status and economic gain were interchangeable to the Victorians; they could not possibly be “driven more” by one or the other. This choice is a classic example of an “irrelevant distinction.”
(B) This choice is half right, half wrong. The passage mentions philanthropists’ attempting to instill values in the working class (29–31), but states that their goal in doing so was a more productive labor force and certainly not to raise the working class to the level of the managing class.
(C) The “social control” theorists did not think the Victorian philanthropists were “basically wellintentioned.” Quite the contrary.
(D) We cannot be sure whether the poor’s intellectual status was of any interest to the philanthropists, on the social control theorist’s view. We can be sure that on that view, any help the philanthropists gave the working class would have to have strings—not present in (D)—attached.
(E) Whether the philanthropists’ goal was social status or control of the working class, they certainly (in the theorist’s view) desired from the working class some end beyond their means—i.e., their philanthropy. (E) is right on the money.


Q6 OA: A
Spoiler: :: "OE Question 6"
In an Organization of the Passage question, the correct answer must match the entire passage, piece by piece, in the correct order.
Only (A) is a perfect match, and thus our correct answer.
(B) There’s no synthesis of the two theories in the passage, and it’s unclear whether these two schools of criticism are mutually exclusive anyway. (The very existence of question 22 suggests that they are not.)
(C) Rather, two positions are given, and a single evaluation of both follows.
(D) Answers can give away their flaws by counting them out. We can watch for the number of things mentioned in an answer choice, and match them up to the passage. What are the three examples?
(E) There are two theories outlined, not just one.

_________________

Regards,
Gladi



“Do. Or do not. There is no try.” - Yoda (The Empire Strikes Back)

GMAT Club Bot
Re: Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani   [#permalink] 25 Jan 2019, 02:31
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Although philanthropy—the volunteering of private resources for humani

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.