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American companies may find the solution to their performance related

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 17:03
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American companies may find the solution to their performance related problems in their own backyard. A recently conducted independent study shows that in the business world, social and political skills have become the real key to getting ahead in organisations, skills that successful managers use to their advantage. The study found out that successful managers, those who get promoted relatively quickly vis-à-vis effective managers, perform day to day activities that are more or less dissimilar to the ones conducted by effective managers or those who have satisfied, committed subordinates, in addition to high performing units. Accordingly, it comes as no surprise that networking, which consists of socializing or politicking and interacting with others, was one activity that, out of the core four activities among the plethora of activities performed by managers, topped the list for successful managers but was ranked the lowest in the list of activities performed by the effective ones. Indeed the findings of the study do not negate the reality that there are managers who strike a balance between the activities performed by both types of managers and hence are successful and effective at the same time, but the meagre percentage such managers formed of the study’s sample, barely ten percent, affirms the general divide between successful and effective managers.

These findings clearly belie the traditional assumption typically suggested by formal personnel policies that promotions are based purely on performance. In effect, the study’s implications affirm the cynical, yet what now seems real, view that people who are not necessarily the most accomplishing in terms of performing well in the other three key activity areas, namely communication, traditional management, and human resource management, are being promoted to the top level. Therefore, American companies looking to improve their performance and productivity need to ensure that formal rewards, especially promotions, are tied to performance. This way companies will be promoting a work-culture that turns effective managers in to successful managers and gives the currently successful managers a chance to effectively focus on productivity and not just on socializing and politicking.

1. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT

A. Managers in general perform some activities that are more important than others.

B. Successful managers are inherently good at networking whereas effective managers are not.

C. Some managers do not fit exclusively in one of the two categories.

D. Some company policies are inconsistent with the actual workings of the company.

E. American companies looking to enhance their performance must look within their set-up for scope of improvement.

2. The author is primarily concerned with

A. discussing a trend and its implications

B. criticising some companies for an unfair practice followed by them

C. evaluating a situation and warning against its possible implications

D. describing the findings of a study

E. uncovering the gap between the perception and the reality of a situation

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

A. Socializing and politicking are activities not worthy of a manager's time.

B. The study's findings shed light on many unstated assumptions that are part of some of the policies followed by American companies.

C. Out of the four core activities, it is communication in which effective managers perform the best.

D. There is a gap between what appraisal related policies suggest and what the actual case is.

E. American companies looking to improve their performance and productivity need to ensure that the most effective managers are also promoted once in a while.

4. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the second paragraph?

A. To criticize the false picture companies portray with respect to appraisals

B. To close the gap between perception and reality

C. To take forward the discussion on the strict measures American companies need to take

D. To discuss the implications of a study

E. To motivate a kind of managers to become successful


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New post Updated on: 21 Oct 2018, 20:10
2
1. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT


A. Managers in general perform some activities that are more important than others.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

The author distinctly mentions in the first paragraph that there are four main (core) activities that managers perform from a plethora of activities.

B. Successful managers are inherently good at networking whereas effective managers are not.

Correct: No information given

We don't have any information to conclude whether these managers naturally have the aptitude or lack of the same for networking. We are just told that successful managers indulge the most in networking and effective managers, the least.

C. Some managers do not fit exclusively in one of the two categories.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This information is given in the last sentence of the first paragraph. The author states:
Indeed the findings of the study do not negate the reality that there are managers who strike a balance between the activities performed by both types of managers and hence are successful and effective at the same time

D. Some company policies are inconsistent with the actual workings of the company.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This information can be derived from the first sentence of the last paragraph. The author states that:
These findings clearly belie the traditional assumption typically suggested by formal personnel policies that promotions are based purely on performance.

E. American companies looking to enhance their performance must look within their set-up for scope of improvement.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This statement is supported by the whole passage in general and especially by the first sentence and the second last sentence of the passage.

2. The author is primarily concerned with


A. discussing a trend and its implications

Correct

The author discusses the trend observed in American companies; the trend is that some managers (successful ones) not performing better than others (effective managers)on most of the four core activities are promoted relatively quickly. This trend is given to us in the form of the study findings.
The second paragraph talks about the implications of the findings/trend in terms of what they mean for the current situation in companies and how companies can use this information to institute measures enhancing their productivity and performance.

B. criticising some companies for an unfair practice followed by them

Incorrect: Partial Scope

Even though the author does use a slightly critical tone in the first two sentences of the last paragraph, they do not form sufficient content to make us believe that the main purpose of the author is to criticize the companies for promoting successful managers relatively quickly. Also, the use of the word "unfair" is not fully supported by the passage.

C. evaluating a situation and warning against its possible implications

Incorrect: Partial Scope

It is correct that the author evaluates the situation uncovered by the study's findings; however, he/she does not warn us against any possible implications. Whatever the implications are, they are current.

D. describing the findings of a study

Incorrect: Partial Scope

This choice fails to capture the essence of the passage. The author doesn't just describe the findings of the study; he/she discusses them while discussing the implications of these findings.

E. uncovering the gap between the perception and the reality of a situation

Incorrect: Partial scope

The only place any perception is talked about is in the discussion of the formal personnel policies (first sentence- last para); however, the whole purpose of the passage is not to make the readers aware of the reality of the situation.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?


A. Socializing and politicking are activities not worthy of a manager's time.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author never comments on the worthiness of this activity. He/she suggests that other activities need to be focused on as well if companies are to improve on their performance.

B. The study's findings shed light on many unstated assumptions that are part of some of the policies followed by American companies.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author only talks about one assumption and not many. ( ref.: first sentence- last paragraph)

C. Out of the four core activities, it is communication in which effective managers perform the best.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author gives no information regarding the performance of effective managers in terms of their individual performance on the core activities- except that networking is something that features on the bottom of their activities.

D. There is a gap between what appraisal related policies suggest and what the actual case is.

Correct

This choice directly flows from the first sentence of the last paragraph. The author says:
These findings clearly belie the traditional assumption typically suggested by formal personnel policies that promotions are based purely on performance.

E. American companies looking to improve their performance and productivity need to ensure that the most effective managers are also promoted once in a while.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The proposed solution is not effective managers getting a promotion once in a while but that of getting it relatively faster.

4. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the second paragraph?


A. To criticize the false picture companies portray with respect to appraisals

Incorrect: Partial Scope

This covers only the scope of the first two sentences of the last paragraph. The author's suggestion mentioned in the last few sentences of the passage are not mentioned in this choice.

B. To close the gap between perception and reality

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice too, like choice A, covers only the first two sentences of the last paragraph and not the whole scope of the paragraph.

C. To take forward the discussion on the strict measures American companies need to take

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not tell us whether the measures to be taken by the company are strict or not.

D. To discuss the implications of a study

Correct

As mentioned in the explanation for the correct choice in the main idea question, this paragraph talks about the implications of the findings/trend in terms of what they mean for the current situation in companies and how companies can use this information to institute measures enhancing their productivity and performance.

E. To motivate a kind of managers to become successful

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author proposes a solution to the companies looking to achieve a particular goal; it does not mean that he is directly addressing the effective managers here.
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Originally posted by workout on 09 Oct 2018, 17:18.
Last edited by workout on 21 Oct 2018, 20:10, edited 3 times in total.
Added explanations after seeing few resposnes.
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New post 09 Oct 2018, 22:07
The second question :-
The author is primarily concerned with :

I feel the answer should be D : describing the findings of a study

The passage has referred to findings throughout

A recently conducted independent study shows that in the business world, social and political skills have become the real key to getting ahead in organisations, skills that successful managers use to their advantage. The study found

Indeed the findings of the study do not negate the reality

These findings clearly belie the traditional assumption typically suggested by formal personnel policies

Can you please help and explain the answer
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New post 10 Oct 2018, 00:06
Explanation for question 1 please?

Posted from my mobile device
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New post 10 Oct 2018, 02:02
This passage was tough.
Need explanation for Q2 and Q4.
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New post 10 Oct 2018, 02:15
rahulkashyap wrote:
Explanation for question 1 please?

Posted from my mobile device

rahulkashyap
As this is the inference question so it must be true according to the scope of the passage.

A. Managers in general perform some activities that are more important than others. - Language is not extreme. Can be inferred

B. Successful managers are inherently good at networking whereas effective managers are not. - Language is extreme. Comparison is not given in the passage. So this can't be inferred.

C. Some managers do not fit exclusively in one of the two categories. - Can be inferred

D. Some company policies are inconsistent with the actual workings of the company. - Can be inferred

E. American companies looking to enhance their performance must look within their set-up for scope of improvement. - Language is extreme. But in 2nd para , this can be inferred
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New post 10 Oct 2018, 04:21
2
American companies may find the solution to their performance related problems in their own backyard. A recently conducted independent study shows that in the business world, social and political skills have become the real key to getting ahead in organisations, skills that successful managers use to their advantage. The study found out that successful managers, those who get promoted relatively quickly vis-à-vis effective managers, perform day to day activities that are more or less dissimilar to the ones conducted by effective managers or those who have satisfied, committed subordinates, in addition to high performing units. Accordingly, it comes as no surprise that networking, which consists of socializing or politicking and interacting with others, was one activity that, out of the core four activities among the plethora of activities performed by managers, topped the list for successful managers but was ranked the lowest in the list of activities performed by the effective ones. Indeed the findings of the study do not negate the reality that there are managers who strike a balance between the activities performed by both types of managers and hence are successful and effective at the same time, but the meager percentage such managers formed of the study’s sample, barely ten percent, affirms the general divide between successful and effective managers.

These findings clearly belie the traditional assumption typically suggested by formal personnel policies that promotions are based purely on performance. In effect, the study’s implications affirm the cynical, yet what now seems real, view that people who are not necessarily the most accomplishing in terms of performing well in the other three key activity areas, namely communication, traditional management, and human resource management, are being promoted to the top level. Therefore, American companies looking to improve their performance and productivity need to ensure that formal rewards, especially promotions, are tied to performance. This way companies will be promoting a work-culture that turns effective managers in to successful managers and gives the currently successful managers a chance to effectively focus on productivity and not just on socializing and politicking.

1. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT

A. Managers in general perform some activities that are more important than others.
--Incorrect, reference text is in green color. Ranking of activities has been mentioned.
B. Successful managers are inherently good at networking whereas effective managers are not.
--Correct, the passage mentions that successful managers 'perform' activities such as networking more often than effective managers do but the passage never mentioned that the effective managers are not good at networking. The passage only talks about the ranking of activities in day-to-day life. So, this option can't be inferred from the passage.
C. Some managers do not fit exclusively in one of the two categories.
--Incorrect, this can be inferred from the passage, reference text is in green color.
D. Some company policies are inconsistent with the actual workings of the company.
--Incorrect, tricky one! But this option can be inferred from the first line of Para 2.
E. American companies looking to enhance their performance must look within their set-up for scope of improvement.
--Incorrect, this can be inferred from the first line of the passage and from the author's conclusion.

2. The author is primarily concerned with

A. discussing a trend and its implications
--Correct, by POE. The author first discusses the situation of successful and effective managers, a common trend in a typical company and then through the implications of a study proposes a solution to promote managers based on their performance.
B. criticizing some companies for an unfair practice followed by them
--Incorrect, too extreme. Fair and unfair has not been mentioned in the passage.
C. evaluating a situation and warning against its possible implications
--Incorrect, tricky one! implications of a study have been mentioned and a possible solution has been proposed to the companies for improvement. But no warning has been issued.
D. describing the findings of a study
--Incorrect, tempting one!. Implications of the study has also been discussed. Option A is better.
E. uncovering the gap between the perception and the reality of a situation
--Incorrect, too generic and only partially related to the passage.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

A. Socializing and politicking are activities not worthy of a manager's time.
--Incorrect, too extreme. The author asks for a balanced approach, reference text is in pink color.
B. The study's findings shed light on many unstated assumptions that are part of some of the policies followed by American companies.
--Incorrect, tricky one! the study doesn't talk about the assumptions 'that are part' of some policies. In fact, the passage talks about the assumptions 'suggested' by those policies i.e., what people assume on the basis of such policies.
C. Out of the four core activities, it is communication in which effective managers perform the best.
--Incorrect, not mentioned in the passage. Ranking of politicking is mentioned but not of the other core activities.
D. There is a gap between what appraisal related policies suggest and what the actual case is.
--Correct, this can be inferred from the first line of Para 2, highlighted in pink color.
E. American companies looking to improve their performance and productivity need to ensure that the most effective managers are also promoted once in a while.
--Incorrect, It is opposite to what the author concludes, if anything. The author wants companies to promote effective mangers more often so that they can become successful managers.

4. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the second paragraph?

A. To criticize the false picture companies portray with respect to appraisals
--Incorrect, no criticism was made by the author.
B. To close the gap between perception and reality
--Incorrect, too generic answer.
C. To take forward the discussion on the strict measures American companies need to take
--Incorrect, the author only proposes a methodology, strictness and further discussion has not been mentioned by the author.
D. To discuss the implications of a study
--Correct, Para 2 discusses the results of the study, reference text is highlighted in blue color and author derives a conclusion on the basis of it.
E. To motivate a kind of managers to become successful
--Incorrect, too specific. Also, the author proposes a solution for the company and doesn't actually motivates managers.
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New post 10 Oct 2018, 10:11
NCRanjan wrote:
The second question :-
The author is primarily concerned with :

I feel the answer should be D : describing the findings of a study

The passage has referred to findings throughout

A recently conducted independent study shows that in the business world, social and political skills have become the real key to getting ahead in organisations, skills that successful managers use to their advantage. The study found

Indeed the findings of the study do not negate the reality

These findings clearly belie the traditional assumption typically suggested by formal personnel policies

Can you please help and explain the answer


In the second paragraph if read beyond "These findings clearly belie the traditional assumption typically suggested by formal personnel policies that promotions are based purely on performance.", the author talks about the implications of the study. The author also gives a conclusion which can be seen after the word "Therefore" (highlighter). Hence the author is discussing a trend and its implications - Choice A. Hope this helps :)
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New post 12 Oct 2018, 07:06
1
workout wrote:
1. The author is primarily concerned with


A. debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does not talk about any myth in the first place, and therefore there's no question of debunking it.

B. suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author mentions only a correlation between the people who had a relatively higher knowledge of music and the "happy" effect of sad music on such people. By no means does the author imply a causation between the two.

C. discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author discusses a finding from one study and not various studies.

D. explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music

Incorrect: Irrelevant

In the passage, there is no mention whatsoever of different personality types.

E. explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood

Correct

This answer choice matches the main point we came up with in the summary section. The author introduces a point in the last sentence of the first passage and then elaborates on it in the second paragraph, discussing the reason behind the observed finding of the study.

2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?


A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no reasoning given as to why the people with a relatively higher knowledge of music had a significant gap between their PE and IE scores. Hence, it cannot be inferred that these participants distanced themselves from the emotional content. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B. The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by unfamiliar content in it.

Correct

The author says that Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners.
This choice is a restatement of the author's opinion.

C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not comment on the internal state of these participants. He/She just states the reason that these people "reported" being happy after listening to the piece of sad music. Accordingly, there is no way forus to determine whether these people were neutral in their emotions or somewhat happy.

D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not mention anything about the "ease" with which a piece of sad music could be used to generate happiness in its listeners.

E. The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not mention any causal relationship between the knowledge of music and the response generated. If anything, the final paragraph raises a consideration that could hurt this piece of information.

3. Which of the following is the function of the final paragraph in the passage?


A. To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study

Correct

This choice is on the same lines as the summary we came up with for this particular paragraph. In the previous paragraph, the author details out the profile of the people who reported as being close to happy after listening to the piece of sad music. These people had a relatively higher knowledge of music and a significant gap in their PE and IE scores. Accordingly, one possible implication is that a causal relation exists between the knowledge of music and its effect. It is to shed some light on the relevance of this implication that the author talks about the PE scores of people not so musically literate.

B. To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The implication regarding the causal relationship, as detailed out in the explanation for the above answer choice, is never explicitly discussed in the passage. Also, the tone of the author in the final paragraph "not necessarily", "could just mean" is mild and does not support the phrase "completely in the opposite direction" in the choice.

C. To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does not prescribe any future course of action in the final paragraph.

D. To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author never questions the study's findings. All the author does is raise a consideration about a possible conclusion that could be drawn from the study's findings.

E. To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author never mentions any myth anywhere in the passage.

4. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT


A. Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score.

Correct: Not given in the passage

There is no mention of the "awareness" of the participants with regards to their PE and IE scores. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B. The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This choice is a restatement of the information given in the first paragraph, which is: In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation.

C. It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This information flows from a combination of two pieces of information given in the passage. They are:
1) In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. (third paragraph)
2) However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. (last paragraph)

Since the ones who were not so musically literate were also the ones who felt sad after listening to the music, one can infer the information given in this choice.

D. The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information is stated in the first paragraph, in which the author talks about music being able to transcend barriers.

E. Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information is stated in the first sentence of the passage.


Hey Workout,

This is not the explationation for this passage. I think you messed up the thread
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Re: American companies may find the solution to their performance related  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2018, 02:48
1
workout wrote:
1. The author is primarily concerned with


A. debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does not talk about any myth in the first place, and therefore there's no question of debunking it.

B. suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author mentions only a correlation between the people who had a relatively higher knowledge of music and the "happy" effect of sad music on such people. By no means does the author imply a causation between the two.

C. discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author discusses a finding from one study and not various studies.

D. explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music

Incorrect: Irrelevant

In the passage, there is no mention whatsoever of different personality types.

E. explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood

Correct

This answer choice matches the main point we came up with in the summary section. The author introduces a point in the last sentence of the first passage and then elaborates on it in the second paragraph, discussing the reason behind the observed finding of the study.

2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?


A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no reasoning given as to why the people with a relatively higher knowledge of music had a significant gap between their PE and IE scores. Hence, it cannot be inferred that these participants distanced themselves from the emotional content. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B. The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by unfamiliar content in it.

Correct

The author says that Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners.
This choice is a restatement of the author's opinion.

C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not comment on the internal state of these participants. He/She just states the reason that these people "reported" being happy after listening to the piece of sad music. Accordingly, there is no way forus to determine whether these people were neutral in their emotions or somewhat happy.

D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not mention anything about the "ease" with which a piece of sad music could be used to generate happiness in its listeners.

E. The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not mention any causal relationship between the knowledge of music and the response generated. If anything, the final paragraph raises a consideration that could hurt this piece of information.

3. Which of the following is the function of the final paragraph in the passage?


A. To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study

Correct

This choice is on the same lines as the summary we came up with for this particular paragraph. In the previous paragraph, the author details out the profile of the people who reported as being close to happy after listening to the piece of sad music. These people had a relatively higher knowledge of music and a significant gap in their PE and IE scores. Accordingly, one possible implication is that a causal relation exists between the knowledge of music and its effect. It is to shed some light on the relevance of this implication that the author talks about the PE scores of people not so musically literate.

B. To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The implication regarding the causal relationship, as detailed out in the explanation for the above answer choice, is never explicitly discussed in the passage. Also, the tone of the author in the final paragraph "not necessarily", "could just mean" is mild and does not support the phrase "completely in the opposite direction" in the choice.

C. To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does not prescribe any future course of action in the final paragraph.

D. To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author never questions the study's findings. All the author does is raise a consideration about a possible conclusion that could be drawn from the study's findings.

E. To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author never mentions any myth anywhere in the passage.

4. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT


A. Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score.

Correct: Not given in the passage

There is no mention of the "awareness" of the participants with regards to their PE and IE scores. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B. The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This choice is a restatement of the information given in the first paragraph, which is: In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation.

C. It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This information flows from a combination of two pieces of information given in the passage. They are:
1) In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. (third paragraph)
2) However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. (last paragraph)

Since the ones who were not so musically literate were also the ones who felt sad after listening to the music, one can infer the information given in this choice.

D. The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information is stated in the first paragraph, in which the author talks about music being able to transcend barriers.

E. Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information is stated in the first sentence of the passage.


Hi workout,
It seems that you have posted OEs for a different passage. Can you please post the correct ones?
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