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# An economic recession can result from a lowering of

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An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2006, 12:49
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An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A. a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

B. a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

C. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

D. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

E. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
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27 Jul 2006, 13:00
oh... what a mess...

I pick C

"a lowering"... is this a word? it plays a role of a noun, but it is kind of awkward... I think GMAT wouldn't use it... they would say "a decrease" instead. IMO

but in any case A and B are out for another reason, which is SVA

D and E use passive voice and gerund "causing"... to mean the verb cause... and there is no "to be" in the sight for "causing".

C is tricky, cause it has "which" next to investment, but it isn't referred to investment but to a falling rates... but like you said earlier today dahiya - we can live with that

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27 Jul 2006, 13:07
ps_dahiya wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A. a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

B. a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

C. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

D. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

E. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

A,B,C which is ambiguos
D->result from <noun>,causing <verb>(people to cut),starting <noun>
not parallel
E->result from <noun>,causing <noun>(cutbacks),starting <noun>

Will go with E

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27 Jul 2006, 13:34
IMO E.

u2lover wrote:
oh... what a mess...
C is tricky, cause it has "which" next to investment, but it isn't referred to investment but to a falling rates... but like you said earlier today dahiya - we can live with that

Even though "which" refer to falling employement rates, C has SV agreement err.
"falling employement rates" is singular.
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27 Jul 2006, 13:43
freetheking wrote:
Even though "which" refer to falling employement rates, C has SV agreement err.
"falling employement rates" is singular.

don't know what the hell I was thinking... C seems also as the rates triggered the investment drop and that's the other way around... also has "by" which is consistently used in passive voice and C isn't one

E

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27 Jul 2006, 18:03
freetheking wrote:
Even though "which" refer to falling employement rates, C has SV agreement err.
"falling employement rates" is singular.

keep thinking about how "falling employment rates" can be singular... can't figure it out... can you elaborate on this? are you saying that "falling" is a noun? in that case, I think that's incorrect... falling describes rates and rates 'cause'...

despite this, C is still wrong because "rates triggered by X" is incorrect becase it sounds like "rates triggered X"... with "BY" we need passive voice (see pg. 47 of MGMAT SC)

so now I am quite sure that its E

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27 Jul 2006, 18:49
I believe "falling employment rates" is singular.

stuck b/w C and E... leaning toward C...
u2lover I'm really sorry that I made u suffer again.

"triggered by" vs "that are triggered by"
In C,
"falling employment rates" (that are) triggered by
"falling employment rates" (that is) triggered by
Can be both case, but logically latter one make sense.

In E,
"falling employment rates" that are triggered by
but logically "falling employment rates that is triggered by" is correct!
This made me switch to C.

"which cause~" vs "causing~"
employment rates cause ~~~ and start ~ => make sense
"which" is refer to "employment rates", not "falling employment rates"
An economic recession causes ~and starts ~ => not sure it makes sense..

I wouldn't be suprised, if OA is C.

I got promoted - I'm a major shareholder!!!
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Last edited by freetheking on 27 Jul 2006, 19:03, edited 1 time in total.

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27 Jul 2006, 19:01
guys, it can't be C.

"falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates. "

starting a cycle [of layoffs] that "LEADS" to even lower employment rates.

"lead to" in C is incorrect.

the answer is E. (in my opinion ofcourse).

what's the OA/OE?
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27 Jul 2006, 19:54
shoonya is right, i missed the last part of the sentence

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27 Jul 2006, 22:42
IMO, C is better than E:
+V-ing phrase is used to describe another action taking place simultaneously with the first action ( as an immediate cause-and-effect relationship). Here, in C : "starting...." happens simultaneously and consequently after the action "cause......"

+ In E: "causing .....starting ....." are not actions simultenously and consequently taking place after " are triggered ....." . Note that "are triggered" is not an action caused by the "falling ...rates" itself.

C is more logically sound!

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27 Jul 2006, 22:51
my choice is E too.

C has serious issues with S-V agreement

drop in investment, which cause cutbacks

should be causes

in other choices, people to cut consumer spending seems redundant.

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28 Jul 2006, 06:57
C seems to be the correct choice.

A, B, D - incorrect - redundancy - "back" in lead back.. is not required when already "cycle" is mentioned.

D, E - incorrect - "causing" and "starting " incorrectly refer to "economic recession". (the falling employment rates cause the cutbacks in consumer spending and start the cycle of layoffs).

Further in A, B - ""causes people to cut consumer spending" - wordy..people not required as consumers are people only.
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28 Jul 2006, 07:09
OA is C.

OE:
The original sentence contains a clause beginning with "which" that logically describes the result of lower employment rates. However, as written, this clause seems to describe the result of "a drop in investment" because "which" modifies the noun just before it. We need to find a replacement that makes the causal relationship clear. Additionally, the phrase "causes people to cut consumer spending" is wordy and somewhat illogical since the people are the consumers. A more concise way to say this would be "causes cutbacks in consumer spending." Finally, the use of "back" is redundant, as it is implied by the word "cycle".

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) The use of "which" incorrectly suggests that "dropping investment" "causes people to cut consumer spending" when, in fact, the employment rates cause this phenomenon. Additionally, the phrase "causes people to cut consumer spending" is wordy and the use of "back" is redundant, as it is implied by the word "cycle".

(C) CORRECT. This choice makes clear, through the use of the plural verb "cause", that the employment rates are responsible for the cutbacks in spending. Further it uses the concise phrase "cutbacks in consumer spending" and eliminates the redundant word "back."

(D) This choice contains the wordy phrase "causing people to cut consumer spending" and the redundant phrase "lead back." Moreover, the words "causing" and "starting" illogically refer back to the economic recession. In fact, the falling employment rates, not the economic recession, cause the cutbacks in consumer spending and start the cycle of layoffs.

(E) The words "causing" and "starting" illogically refer back to the economic recession. In fact, the falling employment rates, not the economic recession, cause the cutbacks in consumer spending and start the cycle of layoffs.
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28 Jul 2006, 08:27
ps, could you comment on why the "lead to" is right in C?

C - starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
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28 Jul 2006, 08:32
ps_dahiya wrote:
OA is C.

OE:

(C) CORRECT. This choice makes clear, through the use of the plural verb "cause", that the employment rates are responsible for the cutbacks in spending. Further it uses the concise phrase "cutbacks in consumer spending" and eliminates the redundant word "back."

(E) The words "causing" and "starting" illogically refer back to the economic recession. In fact, the falling employment rates, not the economic recession, cause the cutbacks in consumer spending and start the cycle of layoffs.

According to OE, the sentence should be
F. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes cutbacks in consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs that leads to even lower employment rates.
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28 Jul 2006, 08:38
shoonya wrote:
ps, could you comment on why the "lead to" is right in C?

C - starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

"cycle of layoffs" is NOT leading to lower employment, but layoffs are leading to lower employment.

I chose E because of other reason. jaynayak got a point for not choosing E. It cleared my doubts.
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28 Jul 2006, 08:43
freetheking wrote:
ps_dahiya wrote:
OA is C.

OE:

(C) CORRECT. This choice makes clear, through the use of the plural verb "cause", that the employment rates are responsible for the cutbacks in spending. Further it uses the concise phrase "cutbacks in consumer spending" and eliminates the redundant word "back."

(E) The words "causing" and "starting" illogically refer back to the economic recession. In fact, the falling employment rates, not the economic recession, cause the cutbacks in consumer spending and start the cycle of layoffs.

According to OE, the sentence should be
F. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes cutbacks in consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs that leads to even lower employment rates.

Excellent point. You might me wondering about the source?? Guess !!!!

This is from the one of the most famous SC guys: MGMAT. (Their online SC question bank.)
I got 8 wrong out of 25. I don't know if there are more ambiguous questions or not. OE provided is so confusing that you don't even like to look at that.

You guys rock.
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28 Jul 2006, 09:02
Hello PS boss..i have the same doubt as shoonya has on the usage of that lead to..shouldn't "starting a cycle of layoffs" be conjugated with a singular verb?

And also wanted to know the source of this question if you could reveal that to us..it's a very GMATish question ....

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28 Jul 2006, 09:39
ps_dahiya wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

C. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

Can someone pls explain, how 'which' is referring to 'falling employment' rather than 'ivestment'. Accoring to MGMAT which always refers to the noun next to it. So I din't even bother looking at the choises A,B and C.
Thanks.

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28 Jul 2006, 11:14
ps_dahiya wrote:
dwivedys wrote:
Hello PS boss..i have the same doubt as shoonya has on the usage of that lead to..shouldn't "starting a cycle of layoffs" be conjugated with a singular verb?

And also wanted to know the source of this question if you could reveal that to us..it's a very GMATish question ....

Its written just above your post.

Thanks PS got it.. I didn't realize it was there when I posted it ..

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28 Jul 2006, 11:14

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