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# An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t

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An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2009, 03:42
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25% (01:38) correct 75% (01:26) wrong based on 449 sessions

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An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(A) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(B) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

(D) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

(E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

If you could also suggest why "a cycle of layoffs that lead" may be right and not "a cycle of layoffs that leads" be right? Perhaps both are right.

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2009, 10:59
2
The option C is written incorrectly

I just could not convince myself that C is the right choice, so looked up other forums. The correct ans is

c. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

source: http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/an- ... t1071.html
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2009, 07:38
riteshbindal wrote:
Is it E?

It is neither C or E. But OA is C.

See http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/an- ... t1071.html
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2010, 07:04
4
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This one nailed me today, I rarely get SC wrong. I will love if any of the Manhattan Instructors will pitch in and explain the OA to the maximum possible extent.

1. especially the use of "which"
2. I believe option C has SV disagreement since "cycle" is singular and should use "leads".

People,

Reopening the question.
An economic recession can result from a lowering of
employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which
causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of
layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates
.
• a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in
investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending
and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower
employment rates.
• a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping
investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending
and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower
employment rates.
• falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment,
which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a
cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in
investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and
starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower
employment rates.
• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in
investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and
starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment
rates.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2010, 20:15
4
2
OA is C

This is very interesting thing I learnt and I will like to share.

Lets say X is singular and Y plural. Imagine this pattern :
X of Y, which is
------> which points to the noun before the comma. So X or Y??? In such case let GMAT be your guide. I haven't seen a foe helping! But here it does

1. If the verb after which is singular -> which refers to X
2. If the verb after which is plural -> which refers to Y

This rule overrides any rule about "which" referring to X [Reason - Ohhh so you didn't see the preposition "of"]
E.g. the box of nails, which is on the counter ---> which refers to box. I'd always say which refers to box since gmat was consistent in writing statements like this. But the truth is that the verb after "which" is singular "is" and seems to refer to X.

When I saw this sentence today I ignored the hints about "which" - they were right there in the sentence !

3:2 split leaves A,B and C as contenders. And I guess people already killed A and B

Option C. "which" refers to "employment rates" because the verb "cause" is plural. So subject has to be plural.
cycle of layoffs that lead ----> that refers to "layoffs" since the verb "lead" is plural.

• falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment,
which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a
cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2010, 20:48
So why is E wrong?

Here is the OE
(D) This choice contains the wordy phrase "causing people to cut
consumer spending" and the redundant phrase "lead back."
Moreover, the words "causing" and "starting" illogically refer back
to the economic recession. In fact, the falling employment rates,
not the economic recession, cause the cutbacks in consumer
spending and start the cycle of layoffs.
(E) The words "causing" and "starting" illogically refer back to the
economic recession. In fact, the falling employment rates, not the
economic recession, cause the cutbacks in consumer spending
and start the cycle of layoffs.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2010, 18:13
9
4
Hey All,

So apparently people wanted a Manhattan instructor to weigh in. So here I am! BTW, could people start putting the part of the sentence that's underlined in an actual underline? It's easy to do, and it makes the questions so much easier to read.

An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

NOTE: Clearly this is some kind of modifier issue ("which causes..." "triggered by..."). Remember that noun modifiers MUST TOUCH the noun they modify. There also seems to be some parallelism issues at work (and).

A) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending
and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
PROBLEM: "Results from a lowering" is not idiomatic. "A lowering" would imply that somebody actually did the "lowering", whereas "falling" has no initiator. "Which causes" is unclear, but seems to be modifying "investment", which is incorrect (seems this way because it would say "which cause (no s)" if "rates" were the modifiee). Next, "causes" should be parallel to "starts", because it isn't "people" who "start a cycle of layoffs". Next, it's not leading "back" to even lower rates (they're even lower...we were never there before). Finally, we don't need to say "people to cut consumer spending". "Consumer spending" already implies the people.

B) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending
and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
PROBLEM: "A lowering" issue. "Causes" issue. "leading back" issue.

C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a
cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
ANSWER: Lots of modifiers, but all are correct. "triggered" modifies "rates". "which cause" modifies "rates" as well. "starting" modifies the cutbacks in consumer spending (which makes logical sense...people don't spend money...businesses don't make us much...they have to lay people off).

D) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and
starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
PROBLEM: "lead back" issue. "people...consumer spending" issue.

E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and
starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
PROBLEM: Just one modifier goes wrong here. "starting a cycle of layoffs" is modifying the previous clause ("Recession can result from rates that are triggered by a drop in investment"). But it's actually the cutbacks in consumer spending that start the cycle of layoffs. Also, we need a comma before the final participle ("leading"), because it's representing the RESULT of the layoffs, rather than modifying it adjectivally (C uses a relative clause "that lead" to do this).

Hope that helps! Toughie!

-t
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2010, 02:19
Quote:
C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a
cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
ANSWER: Lots of modifiers, but all are correct. "triggered" modifies "rates". "which cause" modifies "rates" as well. "starting" modifies the cutbacks in consumer spending (which makes logical sense...people don't spend money...businesses don't make us much...they have to lay people off).

can anyone explain, how gramatically in the sentence(not logically)-"starting modifies the cutbacks in economic spending"

An economic recession can result from falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a
cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates

I mean for example, in one of the earlier post, regarding which.
I came to know that we can find out what which modifies by
X(singular) , Y(plural), which singular/plural.
But we cannot apply this principle just as it is and assume its right because in option A, which causes would refer to investment, when 'which' refers to rates.
Similarly i am curious to know how starting modfies cutbacks in customer spending.

Kudos for the post, it helped me learn about which.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2010, 11:28
Hey BlueRobin,

It's actually a bit more complicated than that. Generally when we use a participle (-ing or -ed words), the resulting modifier modifies the ENTIRE preceding clause in some way (often explaining the RESULT of that clause). Here's an example:

I just got a job, making my mother very proud.

In that sentence, "making" is NOT modifying "job". It is modifying the FACT that I got a job.

This example is the same:

"starting" is actually modifying the ENTIRE preceding clause here. It's showing how the result of the triggered drop in investment causing cutbacks in spending starts a cycle of layoffs. Does that make sense? The most important takeaway is that participles with commas are VERY free (they have a lot of options for how they modify).

Let me know if you have any follow up questions!

-t
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2010, 12:51
I thought it was "E"

"A" through "C" have "investment, which". According to the rule "which" has to refer to the noun that it follows.("investments"cannot "cause cutbacks in consumer spending", while "drop" can).
I guess there are exceptions when "which" refers to the preceding noun phrase "drop in investment".
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2010, 12:56
1
I agree with you here, Fijisurf - that "which" next to "investment" bothers me about C...that's a pretty fatal error.

E looks pretty good - the only potential pitfall I see in that one is the "starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates." portion, in which "layoffs leading" may be slightly awkward compared to "layoffs that lead", but I don't think it's a fatal flaw at all, especially not compared to C's misuse of "which". I'd live and die with E on this one...do we know that C is the true official answer? Could it possibly be mistyped here?
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2010, 23:20
1
Check this out guys.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/an- ... t1071.html
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2012, 08:46
2
The problem seems to be the mix up with the Manhattan Thread. The OA of the Manhattan topic( C) has been religiously taken, forgetting that the order of the choices in gmatclub example is altered. The C of Manhattan is actually the E of gmatclub thread and hence the copycat OA C is wrong; it should be E in fact.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2012, 11:24
I reproduce what the Manhattan link has in its print. You may see that the answer choices are not the same, as has been claimed. Answer choice C in Manhattan is the same as answer choice E in gmatclub

A
Quote:
n economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a. a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

b a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

c. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

d. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

e. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Let's compare the choices

Manhattan C
c. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates

gmatclub E

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates

gmatclub C

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

You may appreciate that the choices are significantly different from each other of both forums ; The gmatclub e is the verbatim ditto of Manhattan C. The correct answer in Manhattan is C. and therefore the same version that is the gmatclub should be right answer , because there is no change in the stimulus.

2. Yes, in certain situations the relative pronoun ‘which’ may refer to a distant noun other than what it touches; Those situations must be thoroughly understood, before resorting to them at will. I might accentuate that this thread is not the one that has those conditions and therefore unfit to apply those exemptions.

Hope I am clear
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2014, 09:01
goodyear2013 wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
B) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
D) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Manhattan GMAT SC Quiz Bank Q17

The sentence says that economic recession can result of lower employment rates triggered by drop in investment..
Now problem with A and B which refers to investment and not lowering of employment rates as it should..Thus A and B are wrong..

The original sentence means that investment causes people to cutback on spending..(In option B, The verb cause is also incorrect...it should be singular because subject is Investment)

So we are down to C,D and E

E can be ruled out as sub-ordinate clause with that is not there with third element in this list..Also this option changes the meaning by stating that falling employments rates are trigerred by the given factors.

Down to C and D..

Option that are triggerred by is not required as option C is more concise.

Also in D, the sentence means economic recession causes people (really can economic recession cause people...NO NO) to cut consumer spending where as the meaning in C more clear stating that economic recession causes cutback in consumer spending

Thus ans is C

Took me a while but got it correct.

NOTE: We have similar question discussed earlier but the options are bit different and hence not merging the question with previous ones

an-economic-recession-can-result-from-a-lowering-of-37157.html
an-economic-recession-can-result-from-a-lowering-of-32511.html
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2016, 08:42
goodyear2013 wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
B) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
D) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Manhattan GMAT SC Quiz Bank Q17

Correct answer will be (C) for the highlighted errors above...

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2016, 13:40
Added OA. The explanation given by the expert seems sufficient: an-economic-recession-can-result-from-96972.html#p748155

If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2016, 09:17
sayantanc2k wrote:
Added OA. The explanation given by the expert seems sufficient: an-economic-recession-can-result-from-96972.html#p748155

If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button.

Hi sayantanc2k,

As per principle, a noun modifier should touch the noun it modifies. In case of option C, even if which bypasses the prep phrase "by a xxxx", can it bypass triggered and modify rates?
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2016, 04:52
warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Added OA. The explanation given by the expert seems sufficient: an-economic-recession-can-result-from-96972.html#p748155

If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button.

Hi sayantanc2k,

As per principle, a noun modifier should touch the noun it modifies. In case of option C, even if which bypasses the prep phrase "by a xxxx", can it bypass triggered and modify rates?

You are right - ideally "which" should touch "rates". However there are certain exceptions to the modifier touch rule - one of them is (excerpt from Manhattan SC guide):
A “mission-critical” modifier falls between. .........The less important modifier refers to the noun plus the first modifier.
Option C has to be considered an example of such exception and in absence of the ideal case in which the modifier touches the noun it refers, C is the best choice.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t  [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2017, 04:38
sayantanc2k wrote:
Added OA. The explanation given by the expert seems sufficient: http://gmatclub.com/forum/an-economic-r ... ml#p748155

If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button.

In answer choice C we have "a cycle of layoffs that lead" Why is it correct that the verb is plural since we have "a cycle" {noun} + "of layoffs" {prep. phrase} ?
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t &nbs [#permalink] 24 Feb 2017, 04:38

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