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Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To be

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Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To be  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2019, 07:10
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 429, Date: 03-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To begin with, autism, a neurological condition that impairs an individual’s ability to interact with others, is a wide-ranging spectrum disorder. Some high-level autistics hold jobs and have families. Others are almost incapable of communicating or otherwise interacting with the world. Between these extremes lie individuals with a variety of symptoms. Some can communicate, but have difficulty differentiating between a trivial comment and an important point. Others cannot stand to be touched, or might feel a gentle touch as hurtful. As there is no nationwide agreement on the classification of different levels of autism, a person considered to have high-level autism (sometimes called Asperger’s Syndrome) could move to a state where he or she is deemed neurotypical—that is, not autistic at all.

Not knowing what causes autism also complicates any consideration of its treatment, though genetic research has proven promising in this regard. A region of chromosome 1 has been associated with autism, as has a region of chromosome 3 that contains the GAT1 gene and the OXTR gene. The GAT1 gene is involved in transmitting messages between brain cells, and the OXTR gene appears to help the early brain develop.

Environmental factors, including viral infections and exposure to environmental chemicals, continue to be investigated as well. There has also been research into the possibility of a link between autism and certain vaccines. None of these possible causes has proven conclusive, but none has been ruled out, either.

Finally, many autistics reject the premise that they need to be “cured” at all. These people, who prefer the term “autistics” to “people with autism,” believe that eradicating their autism would wipe out something central to their personalities. Many are opposed to a treatment known as Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA), arguing that this is a potentially traumatic process that only teaches autistics to imitate certain neurotypical behavior. Some in the autistic community are also critical of neuroleptic drugs, which can suppress certain behaviors, but which, the critics say, are overprescribed. With so much controversy regarding the nature of this complicated condition, it is unlikely that any agreement as to its proper treatment, or whether it should be treated at all, will be forthcoming.

Spoiler: :: OA
E

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to _______.

(A) provide a summary of the range of treatments available for autism
(B) give a general description of the symptoms and possible causes of autism
(C) show that autistics are not in agreement as to how to treat their condition, or whether to treat it at all
(D) reconcile various opinions regarding the treatment of autism
(E) present an overview of the difficulties involved with treating autism


Spoiler: :: OA
A

2. According to the passage, an autistic individual _______.

(A) might have developed the condition through exposure to a vaccine
(B) is symptomatically unlike an individual with Asperger’s Syndrome
(C) given neuroleptic drugs stands a better chance of controlling his or her symptoms than an individual treated with ABA
(D) who is able to communicate with some proficiency would prefer being called “autistic” not “a person with autism”
(E) is not able to properly perceive the sense of touch


Spoiler: :: OA
C

3. It can be inferred that individuals who prefer to be called “autistics” rather than “people with autism” _______.

(A) are likely to have Asperger’s Syndrome
(B) are skeptical that altering someone’s GAT1 gene would have any meaningful effect on their autism
(C) would not be in favor of genetic manipulation as a way to eliminate their autism
(D) are able to communicate verbally with relative ease
(E) do not believe that autism is a crucial part of their personalities


Spoiler: :: OA
C

4. According to the passage, brain development in infants _______.

(A) is largely determined by a region of chromosome 1
(B) can be affected by environmental chemicals
(C) is aided by the OXTR gene
(D) can be damaged by an overprescription of neuroleptic drugs
(E) can be altered by ABA


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Re: Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To be  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2020, 10:33
Please help with Question 2 and 3
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Re: Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To be  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2020, 00:00
sarthaknash90 wrote:
Please help with Question 2 and 3


Official Explanation


2. According to the passage, an autistic individual _______.

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The third paragraph makes it clear that vaccines might be a cause of autism. (B): The first paragraph defines Asperger's as a type of autism. (C): No comparison of the treatments is made.

(D): This connection is not made. Some high-level individuals might prefer the other term. (E): This is never said to be true for all people with autism.

Answer: A


3. It can be inferred that individuals who prefer to be called “autistics” rather than “people with autism” _______.

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

The 1st sentence of the last paragraph states that these people “believe that eradicating their autism would wipe out something central to their personalities.” Therefore, they would not be in favor of manipulation — genetic or otherwise —- that would eliminate their autism.

(A): Though this is possible, it is never directly indicated in the passage. (B): They may not like the change, but there is no reason to think that they would doubt that there would be a change.

(D): The passage gives no information about their verbal communication skills. (E): The opposite is indicated. We are told that they “believe that eradicating their autism would wipe out something central to their personalities.”

Answer: C


Hope it helps
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Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To be  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2020, 07:18
1
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to _______.

(A) provide a summary of the range of treatments available for autism This is only touched upon in the last paragraph. Eliminate.

(B) give a general description of the symptoms and possible causes of autism This option ignores the talk about treatment, but because the topics mentioned here cover almost 3/4ths of the passage, we can hold on to this option for the moment.

(C) show that autistics are not in agreement as to how to treat their condition, or whether to treat it at all This is only touched upon in the last paragraph. Eliminate.

(D) reconcile various opinions regarding the treatment of autism Treatment is only touched upon in the last paragraph and there is no "reconciliation". Eliminate.

(E) present an overview of the difficulties involved with treating autism Correct. Para 1 talks about how it is a spectrum disorder, paras 2 & 3 discuss several possible causes (which make treatment difficult) and the last paragraph questions the need for treatment itself.

Since option (E) is clearly the better option, we can eliminate (B).

2. According to the passage, an autistic individual _______.

(A) might have developed the condition through exposure to a vaccine Correct. The passage states: "There has also been research into the possibility of a link between autism and certain vaccines. None of these possible causes has proven conclusive..."

(B) is symptomatically unlike an individual with Asperger’s Syndrome High level autism is called Asperger's Syndrome. Eliminate.

(C) given neuroleptic drugs stands a better chance of controlling his or her symptoms than an individual treated with ABA There is no comparison of the efficacy of various treatments. Eliminate.

(D) who is able to communicate with some proficiency would prefer being called “autistic” not “a person with autism” We don't know if this preference is only among people who are "able to communicate with some proficiency" or among all such people either. Eliminate.

(E) is not able to properly perceive the sense of touch No such information in the passage. Eliminate.

3. It can be inferred that individuals who prefer to be called “autistics” rather than “people with autism” _______.

(A) are likely to have Asperger’s Syndrome We don't know if this is true of only high level autistics. Eliminate.

(B) are skeptical that altering someone’s GAT1 gene would have any meaningful effect on their autism Their skepticism is regarding the requirement of treatment itself and not its impact. Eliminate.

(C) would not be in favor of genetic manipulation as a way to eliminate their autism This appears to be the best answer since they are opposed to eliminating autism by any means. Correct.

(D) are able to communicate verbally with relative ease The passage does not give this information about them. Eliminate.

(E) do not believe that autism is a crucial part of their personalities The passage states: "These people...believe that eradicating their autism would wipe out something central to their personalities". Eliminate.

4. According to the passage, brain development in infants _______.

On this topic, the passage states: "...the OXTR gene appears to help the early brain develop."

(A) is largely determined by a region of chromosome 1 Inconsistent with above. Eliminate.

(B) can be affected by environmental chemicals Inconsistent with above. Eliminate.

(C) is aided by the OXTR gene Correct. Consistent with above.

(D) can be damaged by an overprescription of neuroleptic drugs Inconsistent with above. Eliminate.

(E) can be altered by ABA Inconsistent with above. Eliminate.

Hope this helps.
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Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To be   [#permalink] 15 Mar 2020, 07:18

Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To be

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