GMAT Question of the Day: Daily via email | Daily via Instagram New to GMAT Club? Watch this Video

It is currently 01 Apr 2020, 04:26

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
GMAT Club team member
User avatar
V
Status: GMAT Club Team Member
Affiliations: GMAT Club
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 5327
GPA: 3.62
Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 08 Oct 2019, 01:51
3
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 273 sessions

48% (02:16) correct 52% (02:08) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 259 sessions

68% (01:04) correct 32% (01:00) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 253 sessions

55% (01:13) correct 45% (01:06) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 236 sessions

57% (01:17) correct 43% (01:17) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 225 sessions

89% (01:05) correct 11% (01:41) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 305, Date : 02-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving rise to new theories. Recently, a set of 3.3-millionyear-old fossils, the remains of the earliest well preserved child ever found, were discovered in Ethiopia. Estimated to be 3 years old at death, the female child was of the Australopithecus afarensis species, a human ancestor that lived in Africa over 3 million years ago. “Her completeness, antiquity, and age at death make this find of unprecedented importance in the history of paleoanthropology,” said Zeresenay Alemseged, a noted paleo-anthropologist, opining that the discovery could reconfigure conceptions about early humans’ capacities.

Previously, afarensis was believed to have abandoned arboreal habitats. However, while the new fossil's lower limbs support the view of an upright stance, its gorilla-like arms suggest that afarensis was still able to swing through trees, initiating a reexamination of long-held theories of early human development. Also, the presence of a hyoid bone, a rarely preserved larynx bone that supports throat muscles, has dramatically affected concepts of the origin of speech. Although primitive and more apelike than human-like, this fossil hyoid is the first found in such an early human-related species.


1. The organization of the passage could best be described as

(A) discussing a controversial scientific discovery
(B) contrasting previous theories of development with current findings
(C) illustrating a contention with a specific example
(D) arguing for the importance of a particular field of study
(E) refuting a popular misconception



2. The passage quotes Zeresenay Alemseged in order to

(A) provide evidence to qualify the main idea of the first paragraph
(B) question the claims of other scientists
(C) provide evidence to support the linguistic abilities of the afarensis species
(D) provide corroboration for the significance of the find
(E) provide a subjective opinion that is refuted in the second paragraph



3. Each of the following is cited as a factor in the importance of the discovery of the fossils EXCEPT

(A) the fact that the remains were those of a child
(B) the age of the fossils
(C) the location of the discovery
(D) the species of the fossils
(E) the intact nature of the fossils



4. It can be inferred from the passage's description of the discovered fossil hyoid bone that

(A) Australopithecus afarensis was capable of speech
(B) the discovered hyoid bone is less primitive than the hyoid bone of apes
(C) the hyoid bone is necessary for speech
(D) the discovery of the hyoid bone necessitated the reexamination of prior theories
(E) the hyoid bone was the most important fossil found at the site



5. The impact of the discovery of the hyoid bone in the field of archaeology could best be compared to which one of the following examples in another field?

(A) The discovery and analysis of cosmic rays lend support to a widely accepted theory of the origin of the universe.
(B) The original manuscript of a deceased 19th-century author confirms ideas of the development of an important work of literature.
(C) The continued prosperity of a state-run economy stirs debate in the discipline of macroeconomics.
(D) Newly revealed journal entries by a prominent Civil War–era politician lead to a questioning of certain accepted historical interpretations about the conflict.
(E) Research into the mapping of the human genome gives rise to nascent applications ofindividually tailored medicines.



135/295

_________________

Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 02 Sep 2019, 08:59.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 08 Oct 2019, 01:51, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (855).
Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2454
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 02 Sep 2019, 10:38
3
All correct in 7 mins 40 seconds, including 2 mins 30 seconds to read.
Para 1- 3.3-million year-old fossils undermines accepted ideas
Para 2- gorilla-like arms suggest that afarensis was still able to swing through trees; presence of a hyoid bone


1. The organization of the passage could best be described as
(C) illustrating a contention with a specific example- Correct, the contention is 'Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving rise to new theories' and example of Australopithecus afarensis fossil is given

2. The passage quotes Zeresenay Alemseged in order to
(D) provide corroboration for the significance of the find
“Her completeness, antiquity, and age at death make this find of unprecedented importance in the history of paleoanthropology,” said Zeresenay Alemseged, a noted paleo-anthropologist, opining that the discovery could reconfigure conceptions about early humans’ capacities.

3. Each of the following is cited as a factor in the importance of the discovery of the fossils EXCEPT
(A) the fact that the remains were those of a child- incorrect, “Her completeness, antiquity, and age at death make this find of unprecedented importance in the history of paleoanthropology,
(B) the age of the fossils- incorrect, “Her completeness, antiquity, and age at death make this find of unprecedented importance in the history of paleoanthropology, 3.3 million-year-old fossil
(C) the location of the discovery- Correct
(D) the species of the fossils- incorrect, the female child was of the Australopithecus afarensis species, a human ancestor that lived in Africa over 3 million years ago.
(E) the intact nature of the fossils- incorrect, “Her completeness, antiquity, and age at death make this find of unprecedented importance in the history of paleoanthropology,


4. It can be inferred from the passage's description of the discovered fossil hyoid bone that

(D) the discovery of the hyoid bone necessitated the reexamination of prior theories
the presence of a hyoid bone, a rarely preserved larynx bone that supports throat muscles, has dramatically affected concepts of the origin of speech.

5. The impact of the discovery of the hyoid bone in the field of archaeology could best be compared to which one of the following examples in another field?
(D) Newly revealed journal entries by a prominent Civil War–era politician lead to a questioning of certain accepted historical interpretations about the conflict. - Correct, this scenario is analogous to the discovery of hyoid bone in a Australopithecus afarensis fossil
_________________
When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 18 Aug 2017
Posts: 114
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Sep 2019, 00:49
Hi Experts,

In Q3, why C is incorrect?

The passage states that "Recently, a set of 3.3-millionyear-old fossils, the remains of the earliest well preserved child ever found, were discovered in Ethiopia"

They were discovered in Ethiopia, the discovery location.

Please Explain.

Thank you.
GMAT Club team member
User avatar
V
Status: GMAT Club Team Member
Affiliations: GMAT Club
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 5327
GPA: 3.62
Re: Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Sep 2019, 23:57
Official Explanation


3. Each of the following is cited as a factor in the importance of the discovery of the fossils EXCEPT

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

On Except questions, it is often easier to eliminate incorrect answer choices until only one is left.

(A) The fourth sentence of the first paragraph cites a quotation from a noted paleo-anthropologist that the find of the child fossils was of unprecedented importance due to the child's age at death. Therefore, the fact that the remains were those of a child was of substantial significance.

(B) The antiquity (a synonym for age) of the fossils is mentioned in the fourth sentence of the first paragraph as a reason why the fossils were an important discovery.

(C) CORRECT. The location of the fossil discovery is mentioned in the first paragraph of the passage. However, the location is not provided as a reason why the fossils are significant.

(D) This choice is tricky. The second paragraph describes what was previously believed about afarensis and that this evidence dramatically affected certain theories about the development of speech in humans. The fossils were of a human-related species, so the species itself was significant in influencing the theories about human speech.

(E) The fourth sentence of the first paragraph notes that the find was important due its completeness. The intact nature of the fossils is another way of saying that the fossils are complete.

Answer: C


Hope it helps

ballest127 wrote:
Hi Experts,

In Q3, why C is incorrect?

The passage states that "Recently, a set of 3.3-millionyear-old fossils, the remains of the earliest well preserved child ever found, were discovered in Ethiopia"

They were discovered in Ethiopia, the discovery location.

Please Explain.

Thank you.

_________________
Manager
Manager
User avatar
B
Joined: 30 May 2019
Posts: 96
Location: United States
Concentration: Technology, Strategy
GPA: 3.6
Re: Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Sep 2019, 08:34
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct in 7 mins 40 seconds, including 2 mins 30 seconds to read.
Para 1- 3.3-million year-old fossils undermines accepted ideas
Para 2- gorilla-like arms suggest that afarensis was still able to swing through trees; presence of a hyoid bone


1. The organization of the passage could best be described as
(C) illustrating a contention with a specific example- Correct, the contention is 'Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving rise to new theories' and example of Australopithecus afarensis fossil is given


I get that when you look at the passage for a couple more minutes you could come to this conclusion that C is the only one that fits properly.

I have an issue here though:
When you are looking at this paragraph under time and gmat pressure, do you also come to C finally ?
I got stuck between B and C and then finally chose to go with B because the whole passage seemed to talk about "contrasting ".

Also, how is 'Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving rise to new theories' a contention ?


SajjadAhmad. If you could chime in as well. What should have been my strategy to get this correct ? What did I miss when I chose B over C ?

I know i didn't see exact theories, should that have been my clue ?
GMAT Club team member
User avatar
V
Status: GMAT Club Team Member
Affiliations: GMAT Club
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 5327
GPA: 3.62
Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Sep 2019, 23:05
Official Explanation


1. The organization of the passage could best be described as

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

When assessing a passage's organization, consider the main idea of each paragraph. This passage begins by noting that archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving rise to new theories. It supports this statement by relating the impact of one discovery in the field. Thus, the best answer will reference both the overall contention and the use of the example.

(A) This choice omits the phenomenon that the discovery is meant to illustrate: discoveries often give rise to new theories. Also, there is nothing controversial about the described discovery.

(B) The passage does not focus on the contrast between previous theories of human development and current theories. Rather, it discusses a singular discovery that affects previous theories. The passage would need to outline both previous and current theories of development and then contrast them. Instead, the passage focuses on how one example illustrates a way in which the field of archaeology evolves.

(C) CORRECT. The passage makes a general claim and uses a specific example to support that claim, just as this choice states.

(D) One might feel that the evolution of theories of human development is a worthwhile object of contemplation, but the passage does not argue for the importance of archaeology as a field of study. This answer choice misstates the organization of the passage.

(E) The passage does not indicate how popular the earlier theories of human development were. Also, the passage provides only one example of a single discovery and its importance. The language employed in the passage does not warrant describing the passage as a refutation of past theories.

Answer: C


Hope it helps

navderm wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct in 7 mins 40 seconds, including 2 mins 30 seconds to read.
Para 1- 3.3-million year-old fossils undermines accepted ideas
Para 2- gorilla-like arms suggest that afarensis was still able to swing through trees; presence of a hyoid bone


1. The organization of the passage could best be described as
(C) illustrating a contention with a specific example- Correct, the contention is 'Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving rise to new theories' and example of Australopithecus afarensis fossil is given


I get that when you look at the passage for a couple more minutes you could come to this conclusion that C is the only one that fits properly.

I have an issue here though:
When you are looking at this paragraph under time and gmat pressure, do you also come to C finally ?
I got stuck between B and C and then finally chose to go with B because the whole passage seemed to talk about "contrasting ".

Also, how is 'Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving rise to new theories' a contention ?


SajjadAhmad. If you could chime in as well. What should have been my strategy to get this correct ? What did I miss when I chose B over C ?

I know i didn't see exact theories, should that have been my clue ?

_________________
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 31 Aug 2018
Posts: 80
GMAT 1: 610 Q46 V28
Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Dec 2019, 19:17
SajjadAhmad

Where can I find the official explanation for all the questions, similar to the one you have provided for question 1?

Also, in question 2 what do we mean by when we say 'to qualify the main idea'?

"2. The passage quotes Zeresenay Alemseged in order to

(A) provide evidence to qualify the main idea of the first paragraph"

Skywalker18
If you too can throw some light on the above 'qualify the main idea' doubt of mine?


Thanks
Saurabh
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 29 May 2017
Posts: 192
Location: Pakistan
Concentration: Social Entrepreneurship, Sustainability
Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Dec 2019, 03:02
ballest127 wrote:
Hi Experts,

In Q3, why C is incorrect?

The passage states that "Recently, a set of 3.3-millionyear-old fossils, the remains of the earliest well preserved child ever found, were discovered in Ethiopia"

They were discovered in Ethiopia, the discovery location.

Please Explain.

Thank you.
[/quote]

Hi.....the passage does say that this species lived in africa......and since Ethiopia is in africa ....does this not make the location to be TRUE?
GMAT Club team member
User avatar
V
Status: GMAT Club Team Member
Affiliations: GMAT Club
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 5327
GPA: 3.62
Re: Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Dec 2019, 08:40
1
Sarjaria84 wrote:
SajjadAhmad

Where can I find the official explanation for all the questions, similar to the one you have provided for question 1?

Also, in question 2 what do we mean by when we say 'to qualify the main idea'?

"2. The passage quotes Zeresenay Alemseged in order to

(A) provide evidence to qualify the main idea of the first paragraph"

Skywalker18
If you too can throw some light on the above 'qualify the main idea' doubt of mine?

Thanks
Saurabh


This question originates from Manhattan GRE guide so you can find explanation of all questions there, as far as question number 2 is concerned i am posting the official explanation of the same.

Official Explanation


2. The passage quotes Zeresenay Alemseged in order to

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

This quotation in the first paragraph highlights the importance of the discovery and is followed by another similar reference. The quotation is used to emphasize the exceptional importance of this find; the correct answer for this Inference question will reflect this emphasis.

(A) The main idea of the first paragraph is that a new finding can call accepted archaeological theories into question. The rest of the paragraph provides an example of this phenomenon. The quotation emphasizes the importance of the discovery itself, not the example, nor does the quotation qualify or limit the main idea of the first paragraph.

(B) The passage does not discuss claims of other scientists. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

(C) The discussion of the linguistic ability of the afarensis species is in the second paragraph and is unrelated to this quotation.

(D) CORRECT. The point of this paragraph is to illustrate that in archaeology, important factual discoveries lead to theoretical changes. The quotation corroborates the idea that this discovery is in fact a significant one.

(E) The quotation is offered as corroboration of the importance of the discovery and is not refuted at any point in the passage.

Answer: D


Hope it helps
_________________
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving   [#permalink] 24 Dec 2019, 08:40
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





cron

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne