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# Around the World in 80 Questions (Day 5): It has been observed that

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Re: Around the World in 80 Questions (Day 5): It has been observed that [#permalink]
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The argument states that countries that spend more on education than on defense tend to publish more research papers for every dollar spent on research than countries that spend more on defense than education. The argument then concludes that to support technological advancement most efficiently, a country must prioritize education over defense.

Option A states that many countries chose not to publish research papers on the scientific discoveries made by employees of their defense departments. This weakens the argument because it suggests that the number of research papers published is not a reliable measure of the amount of research being done in a country. If many countries are not publishing research papers on their defense-related research, then the comparison between countries in the argument is not valid.

Option B states that many countries have seen their rates of technological development increase when they have increased their investments in research related to defense. This weakens the argument because it suggests that defense-related research can also lead to technological advancement. If this is true, then the argument's conclusion that a country must prioritize education over defense is not necessarily correct.

Option C states that some research papers are so theoretical that they don’t lead to any technological advancement for decades. This does not weaken the argument because the argument does not claim that all research papers lead to technological advancement. The argument simply states that countries that spend more on education tend to publish more research papers for every dollar spent on research.

Option D states that a country cannot rely solely on its technological capabilities to defend itself against other nations. This does not weaken the argument because the argument is not about whether a country should only focus on education or defense. The argument is about which area a country should prioritize if it wants to support technological advancement most efficiently.

Option E states that many papers published as a result of research related to defense have contributed to technological advancement. This does not weaken the argument because the argument does not claim that defense-related research does not lead to technological advancement. The argument simply states that countries that spend more on education tend to publish more research papers for every dollar spent on research.

Therefore, the option that most seriously weakens the argument is A.
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Re: Around the World in 80 Questions (Day 5): It has been observed that [#permalink]
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Bunuel wrote:
It has been observed that countries that spend more on education than on defense tend to publish more research papers for every dollar spent on research than countries that spend more on defense than education. Thus, to support technological advancement most efficiently, a country must prioritize education over defense.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the above argument?

A. Many countries chose not to publish research papers on the scientific discoveries made by employees of their defense departments.
B. Many countries have seen their rates of technological development increase when they have increased their investments in research related to defense.
C. Some research papers are so theoretical that they don’t lead to any technological advancement for decades.
D. A country cannot rely solely on its technological capabilities to defend itself against other nations.
E. Many papers published as a result of research related to defense have contributed to technological advancement.

 This question was provided by Target Test Prep for the Around the World in 80 Questions Win over \$20,000 in prizes: Courses, Tests & more

Conclusion: to support technological advancement most efficiently, a country must prioritize education over defense

Support provided: countries that spend more on education than on defense tend to publish more research papers for every dollar spent on research than countries that spend more on defense than education

We have to weaken the conclusion.

A. Many countries chose not to publish research papers on the scientific discoveries made by employees of their defense departments.

We can keep this option. This option tells us the criteria that the author uses to conclude the conclusion is not correct. The employees cannot publish the work.

B. Many countries have seen their rates of technological development increase when they have increased their investments in research related to defense.

Out of scope. The crux of the argument is not to increase but to decrease the funding to the defense. Also, we cannot assume any causality here.

C. Some research papers are so theoretical that they don’t lead to any technological advancement for decades.

Irrelevant. First we don't know which research papers are these and which group has published the. Second, the use of some renders the statement very vague. Eliminate.

D. A country cannot rely solely on its technological capabilities to defend itself against other nations.

Hinges on practical knowledge. Doesn't weaken the conclusion. Eliminate.

E. Many papers published as a result of research related to defense have contributed to technological advancement.

A strong contender, but like C the number is not quantifiable. IMO A is a stronger option. Eliminate.

IMO A
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Re: Around the World in 80 Questions (Day 5): It has been observed that [#permalink]
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It has been observed that countries that spend more on education than on defense tend to publish more research papers for every dollar spent on research than countries that spend more on defense than education. Thus, to support technological advancement most efficiently, a country must prioritize education over defense.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the above argument?

A. Many countries chose not to publish research papers on the scientific discoveries made by employees of their defense departments.
If many countries have not published the research papers on the scientific discoveries made by employees of their defense departments, then there is a significant error in concluding that countries that spend more on education than on defense tend to publish more research papers for every dollar spent on research than countries that spend more on defense than education -- and thus attributability of greater technological advancement to prioritisation of education over defense will be invalid--thus weakening the argument

B. Many countries have seen their rates of technological development increase when they have increased their investments in research related to defense.
the argument talks about 'most efficiently' supporting technological advancement-- even if the increase in technological development is there, it will still support the argument if not 'most efficient'

C. Some research papers are so theoretical that they don’t lead to any technological advancement for decades.
'theoretical' aspects of research papers have not been discussed to affect the technological advancement

D. A country cannot rely solely on its technological capabilities to defend itself against other nations.
A prediction highlighting aspects not related to the argument..no impact on the argument

E. Many papers published as a result of research related to defense have contributed to technological advancement.
An additional fact...doesn't affect the conclusion ie,to support technological advancement most efficiently, a country must prioritize education over defense..'More' research papers or not -- that's the moot point related to technological advancement