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Article: We can distinguish three different realms of

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Article: We can distinguish three different realms of [#permalink]

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Updated on: 03 Apr 2009, 19:33
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We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three levels on the quantum ladder. The first is the atomic realm, which includes the world of atoms, their interactions, and the structures that are formed by them, such as molecules, liquids and solids, and gases and plasmas. This realm includes all the phenomena of atomic physics, chemistry, and, in a certain sense, biology. The energy exchanges taking place in this realm are of a relatively low order. If these exchanges are below one electron volt, such as in the collisions between molecules of the air in a room, then atoms and molecules can be regarded as elementary particles. That is, they have "conditional elementarity" because they keep their identity and do not change in any collisions or in other processes at these low energy exchanges. If one goes to higher energy exchanges, say 104 electron volts, then atoms and molecules will decompose into nuclei and electrons; at this level, the latter particles must be considered as elementary. We find examples of structures and processes of this first rung of the quantum ladder on Earth, on planets, and on the surfaces of stars.

The next rung is the nuclear realm. Here the energy exchanges are much higher, on the order of millions of electron volts. As long as we are dealing with phenom- ena in the atomic realm, such amounts of energy are unavailable, and most nuclei are inert: they do not change. However, if one applies energies of millions of electron volts, nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, and the processes of radioactivity occur; our elementary particles then are protons, neutrons, and electrons. In addition, nuclear processes produce neutrinos, particles that have no detectable mass or charge. In the universe, energies at this level are available in the centers of stars and in star explosions. Indeed, the energy radiated by the stars is produced by nuclear reactions. The natural radioactivity we find on Earth is the long-lived remnant of the time when now-earthly matter was expelled into space by a major stellar explosion.

The third rung of the quantum ladder is the subnuclear realm. Here we are dealing with energy exchangers of many billions of electron volts. We encounter excited nucleons, new types of particles such as mesons, heavy electrons, quarks, and gluons, and also antimatter in large quantities. The gluons are the quanta, or smallest units, of the force (the strong force) that keeps the quarks together. As long as we are dealing with the atomic or nuclear realm, these new types of particles do not occur and the nucleons remain inert. But at subnuclear energy levels, the nucleons and mesons appear to be composed of quarks, so that the quarks and gluons figure as elementary particles.

Question 24: According to the passage, which of the following can be found in the atomic realm?

(A) More than one level of energy exchange
(B) Exactly one elementary particle
(C) Exactly three kinds of atomic structures
(D) Three levels on the quantum ladder
(E) No particles smaller than atoms

Do you agree that answer (E) is the correct one? Why?

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Originally posted by Caroline121 on 16 Mar 2009, 23:31.
Last edited by Caroline121 on 03 Apr 2009, 19:33, edited 1 time in total.
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18 Mar 2009, 18:11
hi caroline
can you pls post all the ques for this passage
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Updated on: 03 Apr 2009, 19:42

21. the primary topic of the passage is which of the following?

(A) The interaction of the realms on the quantum ladder

(B) Atomic structures found on Earth, on other planets, and on the surfaces of stars

(C) Levels of energy that are released in nuclear reactions on Earth and in stars

(D) Particles and processes found in the atomic, nuclear, and subnuclear realms

(E) New types of particles occurring in the atomic realm

22. According to the passage, radioactivity that occurs naturally on Earth is the result of

(A) the production of particles that have no detectable mass or electric charge

(B) high energy exchanges on the nuclear level that occurred in an ancient explosion in a star

(C) processes that occur in the center of the Sun, which emits radiation to the Earth

(D) phenomena in the atomic realm that cause atoms and molecules to decompose into nuclei and electrons

(E) high-voltage discharges of electricity that took place in the atmosphere of the Earth shortly after the Earth was formed

23. The author organizes the passage by

(A) making distinctions between two groups of par- ticles, those that are elementary and those that are composite

(B) explaining three methods of transferring energy to atoms and to the smaller particles that constitute atoms

(C) describing several levels of processes, increasing in energy, and corresponding sets of particles, generally decreasing in size

(D) putting forth an argument concerning energy levels and then conceding that several qualifi- cations of that argument are necessary

(E) making several successive refinements of a defi- nition of elementarity on the basis of several groups of experimental results

24: According to the passage, which of the following can be found in the atomic realm?

(A) More than one level of energy exchange
(B) Exactly one elementary particle
(C) Exactly three kinds of atomic structures
(D) Three levels on the quantum ladder
(E) No particles smaller than atoms

25. According to the author, gluons are not

(A) considered to be detectable

(B) produced in nuclear reactions

(C) encountered in subnuclear energy exchanges

(D) related to the strong force

(E) found to be conditionally elementary

26. At a higher energy level than the subnuclear level described, if such a higher level exists, it can be expected on the basis of the information in the pas- sage that there would probably be

(A) excited nucleons (B) elementary mesons

(C) a kind of particle without detectable mass or charge

(D) exchanges of energy on the order of millions of electron volts

(E) another set of elementary particles

27. The passage speaks of particles as having conditional elementarity if they

(A) remain unchanged at given level of energy exchange

(B) cannot be decomposed into smaller constituents

(C) are mathematically simpler than some other set of particles

(D) release energy at a low level in collisions

(E) belong to the nuclear level on the quantum ladder
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Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. ----Russell

Originally posted by Caroline121 on 20 Mar 2009, 06:49.
Last edited by Caroline121 on 03 Apr 2009, 19:42, edited 1 time in total.
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21 Mar 2009, 03:07
can you please post OA please? the topic seems to be interesting and can you also put in the source of the topic please?
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21 Mar 2009, 23:50

OA Pls.....

Thanks
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22 Mar 2009, 03:24
D
B
C
A--- I chose A because E gets eliminated when we come to know from the passage that there are 2 elementary particles-atoms and molecules but which is smaller is not known from passage.
B
E
A
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22 Mar 2009, 04:26
20. E (It is not D since we are talking about the atomic realm. It is not C and B. It is not A since the level of energy exchanges are low and if it goes higher, it breaks into nuclei and electrons - so no particles smaller than atoms, since it also mentions that atoms and molecules are the elementary particles.)
21. D (It is not A, B, C and E - A and B are irrelevant. C is not the main item. And not E, since it doesn't have anything to do with new particles in the atomic realm)
22. B (It is not A and D since they are irrelevant. And it is not C and E since that is not how the radioactivity occured - it was more due to stellar explosions)
23. C (Since none of the others, B, D or E are actually relevant. in A, there is nothing mentioned about composite.)
25. B (C and D are correct. There is nothing mentioned about A and E)
26. E (A and B are in subnuclear realm. C and D are in nuclear realm. So naturally it would be E)
27. A (It is not C, D or E since all are irrelevant. B is not correct)
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22 Mar 2009, 04:26
20. E (It is not D since we are talking about the atomic realm. It is not C and B. It is not A since the level of energy exchanges are low and if it goes higher, it breaks into nuclei and electrons - so no particles smaller than atoms, since it also mentions that atoms and molecules are the elementary particles.)
21. D (It is not A, B, C and E - A and B are irrelevant. C is not the main item. And not E, since it doesn't have anything to do with new particles in the atomic realm)
22. B (It is not A and D since they are irrelevant. And it is not C and E since that is not how the radioactivity occured - it was more due to stellar explosions)
23. C (Since none of the others, B, D or E are actually relevant. in A, there is nothing mentioned about composite.)
25. B (C and D are correct. There is nothing mentioned about A and E)
26. E (A and B are in subnuclear realm. C and D are in nuclear realm. So naturally it would be E)
What is OA?
27. A (It is not C, D or E since all are irrelevant. B is not correct)
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22 Mar 2009, 17:51
@caroline .. the ans E is correct .. re-read the follliwn in 1st para

Quote:
Then atoms and molecules can be regarded as elementary particles. That is, they have "conditional elementarity" because they keep their identity and do not change in any collisions or in other processes at these low energy exchanges. If one goes to higher energy exchanges, say 104 electron volts, then atoms and molecules will decompose into nuclei and electrons; at this level, the latter particles must be considered as elementary.

Hence E

21 A
22 B
23 C ( confused between C and D )
24 ( guess ques no 24 is the one posted with passage , ans e )
25 E
26 E
27 B

What are OA ??
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23 Mar 2009, 05:43
lav wrote:
@caroline .. the ans E is correct .. re-read the follliwn in 1st para

Quote:
Then atoms and molecules can be regarded as elementary particles. That is, they have "conditional elementarity" because they keep their identity and do not change in any collisions or in other processes at these low energy exchanges. If one goes to higher energy exchanges, say 104 electron volts, then atoms and molecules will decompose into nuclei and electrons; at this level, the latter particles must be considered as elementary.

That a particle is elementary does not imply that it is the smallest...
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03 Apr 2009, 19:44
The OAs are below.

21. D, 22. B, 23. C, 24. A, 25. B, 26. E, 27. A

This topic comes from a reference book of GMAT published in Chinese.
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Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. ----Russell

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03 Apr 2009, 19:55
lav wrote:
@caroline .. the ans E is correct .. re-read the follliwn in 1st para

About Question 24, clues from 1st paragraph of article is below.
If these exchanges are below one electron volt, such as in the collisions between molecules of the air in a room, then atoms and molecules can be regarded as elementary particles. That is, they have "conditional elementarity" because they keep their identity and do not change in any collisions or in other processes at these low energy exchanges. If one goes to higher energy exchanges, say 104 electron volts, then atoms and molecules will decompose into nuclei and electrons; at this level, the latter particles must be considered as elementary.

Since entire 1st paragraph is relative to the atomic realm, the statement that "no particles smaller than atoms" in the atomic realm is not strictly correct.

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Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. ----Russell

Re: RC - Quantum Ladder   [#permalink] 03 Apr 2009, 19:55
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