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Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic

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Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Jan 2019, 02:54
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Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like people.


(A) are able to be programmed to think like people

(B) were able to be programmed to think as people

(C) can be programmed to think as people can

(D) could be programmed to think like people

(E) are capable of being programmed to think like people do

Originally posted by divanshuj on 08 Mar 2010, 07:12.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Jan 2019, 02:54, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2011, 09:13
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Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like people.
(A) are able to be programmed to think like people
(B) were able to be programmed to think as people
(C) can be programmed to think as people can
(D) could be programmed to think like people
(E) are capable of being programmed to think like people do


When you see a split in the answer choices between like and as, eliminate answer choices using this rule: LIKE to compare nouns, AS to compare clauses. Don't try to anticipate the answer; you can't reliably guess which direction the question will go. For instance, the correct answer to this question could have said either as people do or like people.

A uses like to compare computers to people. OK.
B uses as to compare computers to people. Those are both nouns. Eliminate.
C uses as to compare can be programmed to can (be programmed). The second instance of be programmed is elided, but that's not a problem. OK.
D uses like to compare computers to people. OK.
E seems to use like to compare think to do. Those are both verbs. Eliminate.

What next? Well, the comparison in C is illogical. the sentence is meant to say that people think, not that people can be programmed to think. By the way, when you see the word like in an SC, whether it's in the underlined section or not, you will almost certainly find at least one answer that makes an illogical comparison.

That leaves just A and D, are able to be vs. could be. I would choose D, could be, more for reasons of concision/awkwardness than because of the verb tense.
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2010, 23:05
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D is the correct answer because can is used for general ability whereas could is used for possibility.

A, B and E are eliminated because ability/capability is not used with things

found this explanation in other thread. hope this helps
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2010, 07:35
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POE leads to option C & D

I chose option D -- correct tense usage -- correct comparison between 'computers' and 'people' using "like"

IMO option C is ambiguous because of the comparison between actions (using "as") -- sounds like we are comparing the two of the following:
- computers can be programmed to think AS
- people can (be programmed to think)

OA pls
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Re: SC EXPLANATIONS THREAD 2  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2010, 11:32
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Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950's as an academic discipline based on teh assumption that computers are unable to be programmed to think like people.

a] are unable to be programmed to think like people

b] were able to be programmed to think as people

c]can be programmed to think as people can

d]could be programmed to think like people

e] are capable of being programmed to think like people do[/quote]

Some clarification on 'can' vs. 'could':

The modals (will, can, and may) have past forms (would, could, and might).

There are three occasions on which to use these past forms:

1. The sentence is in the past:
Ex. I could play piano when I was a child.

2. Reported speech:
Ex. She said that she could come. (Compare this to a direct quote, which would look like this: "She said, 'I can come.'")

3. The hypothetical present:
Ex. I could go to bed early tonight, but I want to finish the book I am reading.

4. The hypothetical past (could/would/might+have+v3)
Ex. I could have gone to bed early last night, but I stayed up to finish the book that I was reading.

I hope that explanation makes the 'could' in answer D a more obvious choice.
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2011, 22:08
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The essential things to consider here are: 1. Tense of the verb,2 improper diction and, 3, use of ‘like' for a clause


(A) Are able to be programmed to think like people ------- The main clause is in past tense. Use of present tense in the sub clause is wrong.
(B) Were able to be programmed to think as people ---- – could be is the right choice of the word compared to ‘were able”
(C) can be programmed to think as people can---- shift to present tense in sub cluse is wrong when the main clause is in past tense
(D) could be programmed to think like people ------ good choice.
(E) are capable of being programmed to think like people do ------1. wrong tense, 2. using ‘like’ for comparing verb
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2011, 04:25
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kaliaabhishek wrote:
Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like people.
(A) are able to be programmed to think like people
(B) were able to be programmed to think as people
(C) can be programmed to think as people can
(D) could be programmed to think like people
(E) are capable of being programmed to think like people do


D wins. Main clause is in past tense, hence the successive clause needs to maintain the tense.

The concept is described very well in Manhattan GMAT SC guide (Tense Sequence).

"Avoid mixing Present tense with Conditional tense and mixing Past tense with Future tense. The usual sequences are either
1. Present+Future
Eg. The scientist believes that the machine will be wonderful.
OR 2. Past+Conditional.
Eg. The scientist believed that the machine would be wonderful.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2012, 07:27
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IMO D.
Here is my approach.

Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like people.

(A) are able to be programmed to think like people >> tense problem
(B) were able to be programmed to think as people >> wordy and 'as' compares clauses, not noun. Here People is a noun.
(C) can be programmed to think as people can >> tense problem
(D) could be programmed to think like people >> it corrects tense problem, also 'like' correctly compares nouns. Hence it is the right answer.
(E) are capable of being programmed to think like people do >> tense problem
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2013, 22:19
Computers do not have abilities and they are not capable.... "Capable" and "able" are to "active" for inanimate objects to use.
Eliminate A, B and E.

Between C and D, we must eliminate C on grounds that it uses "can" which is not consistent with the past tense and "programmed to think as people can" . The intended meaning is to think like people.

Answer: D
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2013, 16:27
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Check the logical context to realise that in
(C) can be programmed to think as people can.
'as people can' refers to the ability of the people to be programmed as the computers are , and not the thinking ability.
(D) could be programmed to think like people.
here it correctly refers to the comparison between the thinking ability of people and computers.


Please let me know if i am right.
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2017, 06:14
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Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like people.

(A) are able to be programmed to think like people
This gives a meaning that "Computer are themselves able to be programmed"
We actually want to say that "computer can be programmed"


(B) were able to be programmed to think as people
Three Issues :
1st : "Were" - use of past means that computer no longer can be programmed : This is NOT intended..
2nd : Usage of "as" for comparison needs a verb after the subject.. In short we need a clause after the use of "as" ..
Here "as people do is required"
3rd : Same as Option A


(C) can be programmed to think as people can
"as people can" is incorrect : should be "as people do"

(D) could be programmed to think like people
Correct Choice : Comparison using "like" requires that "like be followed by a noun...which is exactly what is given here...

(E) are capable of being programmed to think like people do
Here a clause (people do) is being compared using "like" which incorrect. Correct usage of Like for comparison shall be as mentioned in Option D
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Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2017, 07:43
Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like people.
(A) are able to be programmed to think like people -
(B) were able to be programmed to think as people - usage of as is incorrect (When as is used for comparison, we need a verb)
(C) can be programmed to think as people can - illogical meaning- it means that people can be programmed to think
(D) could be programmed to think like people - Correct
(E) are capable of being programmed to think like people do - usage of like to compare verbs is incorrect

Answer D

1. Can we eliminate options A, C, and E because the tense of the main clause is past whereas the 'that' clause is in the present tense?

2. If we can't eliminate using decision point in 1, which is better
could be programmed to think like people
OR can be programmed to think like people

3. If we change option C as
Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers can be programmed to think as people do
which can be interpreted as- can be programmed to think as people think.

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , EducationAisle , VeritasPrepErika , other experts - please enlighten
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2019, 15:35
Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like people.

(A) are able to be programmed to think like people
Like is okay here.
Are able - refers to an assumption - a possibility. It makes less logical sense to state "are" than "could" or "may be".

(B) were able to be programmed to think as people
B is incorrect because we would require a verb to state how exactly computers were able to be programmed - to think as people do
"were able" - but to me the author is referring to an assumption made at a particular point in time, so the use of simple past here- "were able"- to refer to the actual assumption people were making at that time doesn't make much sense to me.

(C) can be programmed to think as people can

C literally says that people can be programmed. Incorrect

(D) could be programmed to think like people
Correct as it states the possibility of the assumption via "could be" and "like" correctly compares computers thinking to people's thinking.

(E) are capable of being programmed to think like people do
"of being programmed" doesn't make sense to me - computers are able to be programmed not capable.
Like people do is incorrect - we don't use like to compare two clauses.
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Re: Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2020, 06:04
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Skywalker18 wrote:
Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like people.
(A) are able to be programmed to think like people -
(B) were able to be programmed to think as people - usage of as is incorrect (When as is used for comparison, we need a verb)
(C) can be programmed to think as people can - illogical meaning- it means that people can be programmed to think
(D) could be programmed to think like people - Correct
(E) are capable of being programmed to think like people do - usage of like to compare verbs is incorrect

Answer D

1. Can we eliminate options A, C, and E because the tense of the main clause is past whereas the 'that' clause is in the present tense?

No. Which is better in the noun clause, the present tense or the past tense, is debatable. I prefer the present tense, though, because the sentence is not saying, "people assumed that X." Rather, via the noun clause, the sentence is articulating the assumption. The assumption is basically timeless. So, my call is that the use of the present tense in the noun clause is actually a little better.

Quote:
2. If we can't eliminate using decision point in 1, which is better
could be programmed to think like people
OR can be programmed to think like people

The sentence is articulating the assumption. The assumption is basically timeless. So, my call is that the use of present tense "can" is a little better.

Quote:
3. If we change option C as
Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers can be programmed to think as people do
which can be interpreted as- can be programmed to think as people think.

Yup, "do" replaces "think," whereas "can" could only replace "can be programmed," since the sentence does not include "can think." So, your new version works.
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Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2020, 08:29
STEP 1 - UNDERSTANDING INTENDED MEANING

Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like people

• AI developed during the late 1950s as an academic discipline.
• It was based on a certain assumption
• The assumption was: Computers could be programmed to think like people.

1. The point of comparison/similarity is: Computers could be programmed to think the way people think.
2. The comparison marker “like” has been correctly used to bring out the similarity.
3. The expression “computers are able to be programmed” is awkward, wordy and most of all, uses the wrong tense. The main clause of the sentence is in the simple past tense. Thus, the use of “are” is incorrect.


STEP 2 – ANSWER CHOICE ELIMINATION

Choice B analysis
Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers were able to be programmed to think as people.

• The awkward expression “able to be” still remains
• When “as” is used for comparison, it should always be followed by a clause
• In such cases, it is incorrect to use “as” with a noun/pronoun
• Here “as” is used for comparison but is incorrectly followed by the noun “people”

Incorrect Choice

Choice C analysis

Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers can be programmed to think as people
can.


• The use of “can” indicating the simple present tense of the verb “think” is incorrect since the entire sentence is in the simple past tense.

Incorrect Choice.

Choice D analysis

Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers could be programmed to think like
people.


1. Logical
2. Clear
3. Same as the intended meaning

Correct Choice.

Choice E analysis

Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic discipline based on the assumption that computers are capable of being programmed to
think like people do


• The use of the simple present “are” is incorrect since the entire sentence is in the simple past tense.
• Like/Unlike should always be followed by a noun or pronoun
• In the given sentence, “like” is followed by the clause “people do”.

Incorrect Choice.
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Artificial intelligence emerged during the late 1950’s as an academic   [#permalink] 22 Jan 2020, 08:29
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