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Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t

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Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2019, 03:56
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Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a true field of science, because it uses scientific methods, such as the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

A. If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

B. Since astrology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

C. Any enterprise that does not use the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals is not genuine science.

D. If a field of study employs scientific methods, that field of study is true field of science, regardless of what that field of study might concern or conclude.

E. Since astrology depends on the observation of stars, it depends on the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals.

Source: GMAT Free (14)

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Re: Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2019, 00:22
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Only C uses the correct logical structure that if x-> Y. And If not Y-> not X.

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Re: Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2019, 05:08
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a true field of science, because it uses scientific methods, such as the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

A. If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

B. Since astrology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

C. Any enterprise that does not use the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals is not genuine science.

D. If a field of study employs scientific methods, that field of study is true field of science, regardless of what that field of study might concern or conclude.

E. Since astrology depends on the observation of stars, it depends on the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals.

Source: GMAT Free (14)


Official Explanation



Reading the question: this is a brief, pseudo-syllogistic argument, so we will use term matching.

Image

The conclusion comes at the beginning of this argument; "Astrology is a true field of science" is the opinion that draws on the other facts for support. The improperly matched term is "true field of science." The most critical assumption is roughly, "A field that uses scientific methods is a true field of science." That statement or a variant of it, such as its contrapositive, is what we're expecting as the answer.

Applying the filter: (C) and (D) both have the right terms involved. Choice (D) matches our prediction. Choice (C) is the logical inversion of what we're looking for, so it is not correct.

Logical proof: We can prove choice (D) with the negation test. Say that employing scientific methods did not make that field of study is true field of science. In that case, the argument falls apart. Since the negation of (D) destroys the argument, (D) itself is assumed by the argument.

The correct answer is (D).

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Re: Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2020, 03:40
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Assumption: Any line of work/study which uses scientific methods is a true science, only answer D talks about this.
2nd method: This can be tackeled using supported assumption technique, i.e. what are the points which needs to be linked via assumption-- if you see, a coorect assumption would be linking scientic methods with true scince, again only D does that linkage
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Re: Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2020, 01:26
ArtVandaley wrote:
Only C uses the correct logical structure that if x-> Y. And If not Y-> not X.

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I agree with you...
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Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2020, 02:13
Conclusion: Astrology is a true field of science

Why? because it uses scientific methods (such as the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals).

If this conclusion must hold, then it must be true that sufficing the 'scientific method' criteria is enough to be classified as a true field of science - this must be the assumption.

Only C and D come close to this description. So, let us analyze these two options carefully.

C. Any enterprise that does not use the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals is not genuine science. - This certainly would seem confusing at first but upon careful reading, we understand that (C) talks about the opposite of what's mentioned in the passage.

In other words, we certainly know that Astronomy is being considered as a true science simply because it uses scientific methods. The passage does not talk about those enterprises that do not use scientific methods. Hence, we cannot make any comment on those enterprises that do not use scientific methods. Therefore, eliminate (C)


D. If a field of study employs scientific methods, that field of study is true field of science, regardless of what that field of study might concern or conclude. - This is in line with what's stated in the passage. Hence, (D) is the correct option
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Re: Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2020, 02:40
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The correct answer is option D.


Understanding the passage
- Astrology: considered a false science by many
- Conclusion (author's claim): it is a true field of science
- Logic: Because it uses scientific methods, such as
1. Analysis of cause and effect
2. Documentation of observations, over time by many individuals

Pre-Thinking
In what scenario would Astrology NOT be a true field of science?
Given that - it uses scientific methods

What if simply using scientific methods does not equate to the field being a field of science? The author's core assumption here is that any field of study that employs scientific methods can be considered a field of science.


Option Choice Analysis
A. If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
Whether Astrology is able to answer the questions it raises is not something we know about in the passage. This option is out of the scope of the argument (which is about scientific method leading to consideration of a field as a science). Incorrect choice.

B. Since astrology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
Out of scope. Whether the results are credible or not does not impact the argument about astrology being a science.

C. Any enterprise that does not use the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals is not genuine science.

Interesting choice. But incorrect on two counts.
1. Cause and Effect analysis, and documentation are 2 examples given for scientific methods. There may be other examples. So, an enterprise may not use these 2 methods, but use other scientific methods, and therefore may still be considered a science as per the author's argument.
2. Even if these 2 are the only aspects that constitute scientific method, that only means that
An enterprise that does not use scientific method is not genuine science. But does this imply that an enterprise that uses scientific method is definitely genuine science? Not really! The passage essentially talks about a different segment (enterprise that uses scientific method), whereas the option talks about another segment (enterprises that do not use scientific method). Since the option talks about a completely different segment, this option can not be the correct assumption.


D. If a field of study employs scientific methods, that field of study is true field of science, regardless of what that field of study might concern or conclude.
This is correct, and in line with our analysis. In other words, a field of study which uses scientific methods will be considered a true field of science.

E. Since astrology depends on the observation of stars, it depends on the analysis of cause and effect and careful documentation of observations over time by many individuals.
This only tells us why astrology uses the 2 scientific methods given as an example. It does not help us make the claim that astrology is a true field of science.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t   [#permalink] 31 May 2020, 02:40

Astrology is considered by many a false science, but it is in fact a t

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