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At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest

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At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest [#permalink]

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At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest in Native American customs and an increasing desire to understand Native American culture prompted ethnologists to begin recording the life stories of Native Americans. Ethnologists had a distinct reason for wanting to hear the stories: they were after linguistic or anthropological data that would supplement their own field observations, and they believed that the personal stories, even of a single individual, could increase their understanding of the cultures that they had been observing from without. In addition many ethnologists at the turn of the century believed that Native American manners and customs were rapidly disappearing, and that it was important to preserve for posterity as much information as could be adequately recorded before the cultures disappeared forever.

There were, however, arguments against this method as a way of acquiring accurate and complete information. Franz Boas, for example,described autobiographies as being “of limited value, and useful chiefly for the study of the perversion of truth by memory, while Paul Radin contended that investigators rarely spent enough time with the tribes they were observing, and inevitably derived results too tinged by the investigator’s own emotional tone to be reliable.

Even more importantly, as these life stories moved from the traditional oral mode to recorded written form, much was inevitably lost. Editors often decided what elements were significant to the field research on a given tribe. Native Americans recognized that the essence of their lives could not be communicated in English and that events that they thought significant were often deemed unimportant by their interviewers. Indeed, the very act of telling their stories could force Native American narrators to distort their cultures, as taboos had to be broken to speak the names of dead relatives crucial to their family stories.

Despite all of this, autobiography remains a useful tool for ethnological research: such personal reminiscences and impressions, incomplete as they may be, are likely to throw more light on the working of the mind and emotions than any amount of speculation from an ethnologist or ethnological theorist from another culture.
Questions 33–38 refer to the passage above.

33. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

(A) The historical backgrounds of two currently used research methods are chronicled.
(B) The validity of the data collected by using two different research methods is compared.
(C) The usefulness of a research method is questioned and then a new method is proposed.
(D) The use of a research method is described and the limitations of the results obtained are discussed.
(E) A research method is evaluated and the changes necessary for its adaptation to other subject areas are discussed.


[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
33. A Only one research method is discussed in the passage.
B Th e validity of data is questioned, but only one research method is discussed.
C While the usefulness of the method is questioned, no new one is proposed.
D Correct. Th e method of recording life stories is described, its limitations acknowledged, and its usefulness recognized.
E A research method is evaluated, but no changes are proposed.

The correct answer is D.


34. Which of the following is most similar to the actions of nineteenth-century ethnologists in their editing of the life stories of Native Americans?

(A) A witness in a jury trial invokes the Fifth Amendment in order to avoid relating personally incriminating evidence.

(B) A stockbroker refuses to divulge the source of her information on the possible future increase in a stock’s value.

(C) A sports announcer describes the action in a team sport with which he is unfamiliar.

(D) A chef purposely excludes the special ingredient from the recipe of his prizewinning dessert.

(E )A politician fails to mention in a campaign speech the similarities in the positions held by her opponent for political offi ce and by herself

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
A The passage does not suggest that the ethnographers deliberately withheld evidence for personal reasons.
B The ethnologists were faulted for other reasons, not for withholding evidence.
C Correct. As do the ethnologists, the sports announcer observes and reports, but in neither case is the observer adequately familiar with the subject being observed.
D The ethnologists did not purposely exclude an item from their studies.
E The passage does not point to any similarities between the ethnologists and the people they studied.

The correct answer is C.


35. According to the passage, collecting life stories can be a useful methodology because

(A) life stories provide deeper insights into a culture than the hypothesizing of academics who are not members of that culture
(B) life stories can be collected easily and they are not subject to invalid interpretations
(C) ethnologists have a limited number of research methods from which to choose
(D) life stories make it easy to distinguish between the important and unimportant features of a culture
(E).the collection of life stories does not require a culturally knowledgeable investigator

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
35 A Correct. Because they come from within a culture, the life stories reveal more about the culture than can any of the theories developed by those outside the culture.
B Neither the ease nor the diffi culty of gathering the stories is mentioned, but their vulnerability to misinterpretation is discussed in lines 19–28.
C Th e passage does not discuss how many research tools are available.
D Th e passage states that ethnologists regarded as unimportant some of the events that the people of the stories found significant (lines 33–37).
E According to the passage, ethnologists were criticized for not being culturally knowledgeable enough (lines 25–26).

The correct answer is A.


36. Information in the passage suggests that which of the following may be a possible way to eliminate bias in the editing of life stories?

(A) Basing all inferences made about the culture on an ethnological theory
(B) Eliminating all of the emotion laden information reported by the informant
(C) Translating the informant’s words into the researcher’s language
(D) Reducing the number of questions and carefully specifying the content of the questions that the investigator can ask the informant
(E) Reporting all of the information that the informant provides regardless of the investigator’s personal opinion about its intrinsic value

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
36 A The passage does not imply that bias results from veering away from a theory.
B Investigators are criticized for allowing emotion to tinge their reports (lines 27–28),but informants are not criticized for having emotional material.
C Lines 33–35 reveal that translations are not always possible.
D The passage does not discuss the number and content of questions, so it cannot be inferred that restricting them would eliminate bias.
E Correct. Reporting all the information, rather than choosing to report only what appears to the observer to be important, is a possible way to eliminate bias in editing life stories.

The correct answer is E.


37. The primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to

(A) question an explanation
(B) correct a misconception
(C) critique a methodology
(D) discredit an idea
(E) clarify an ambiguity

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
37 A Collecting life stories is not an explanation; it is a method to gain understanding of a culture.
B The autobiographies may be misinterpreted,but they are not a misconception.
C Correct. Th e passage is about a methodology; both its weaknesses and strengths are examined.
D Collecting the stories is not an idea but a method; though its limitations are revealed, the method is not discredited.
E The final paragraph implies that ambiguity is inherent in life stories; that ambiguity is not clarified.

The correct answer is C.


38. It can be inferred from the passage that a characteristic of the ethnological research on Native Americans conducted during the nineteenth century was the use of which of the following?

(A) Investigators familiar with the culture under study
(B) A language other than the informant’s for recording life stories
(C) Life stories as the ethnologist’s primary source of information
(D) Complete transcriptions of informants’ descriptions of tribal beliefs
(E) Stringent guidelines for the preservation of cultural data

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
38.A The investigators were criticized for not being suitably familiar with the culture (lines 25–26).
B Correct. Native Americans believed that English could not express their culture; at least some investigators, therefore, must have written the stories down in English.
C Ethnologists wanted the stories to supplement their fi eldwork (lines 5–9), not to replace it as their primary means of investigation.
D Lines 31–33 reveal that the life stories were edited, not complete.
E The passage provides no information about such guidelines.

The correct answer is B.



Same passage with extra questions: LINK
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA

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Originally posted by daagh on 12 Oct 2013, 08:25.
Last edited by broall on 10 Aug 2017, 08:28, edited 3 times in total.
Reformatted question, OA added
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QUESTION 38, PAG 35, VERBAL REVIEW OFFICIAL GUIDE 2ND ED [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2013, 10:37
QUESTION 38, PAG 35, VERBAL REVIEW OFFICIAL GUIDE 2ND ED


Please help me with this question.

At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest
in Native American customs and an increasing desire to
understand Native American culture prompted ethnologists
to begin recording the life stories of Native American.
Ethnologists had a distinct reason for wanting to
hear the stories: they were after linguistic or anthropological
data that would supplement their own field
observations, and they believed that the personal
stories, even of a single individual, could increase
their understanding of the cultures that they had been
observing from without. In addition many ethnologists
at the turn of the century believed that Native American
manners and customs were rapidly disappearing,
and that it was important to preserve for posterity as
much information as could be adequately recorded
before the cultures disappeared forever.
There were, however, arguments against this method
as a way of acquiring accurate and complete information.
Franz Boas, for example, described autobiographies as being
“of limited value, and useful chiefly for
the study of the perversion of truth by memory,” while
Paul Radin contended that investigators rarely spent
enough time with the tribes they were observing, and
inevitably derived results too tinged by the investi-
gator’s own emotional tone to be reliable.
Even more importantly, as these life stories moved
from the traditional oral mode to recorded written
form, much was inevitably lost. Editors often decided
what elements were significant to the field research on a
given tribe. Native Americans recognized that the
essence of their lives could not be communicated in
English and that events that they thought significant
were often deemed unimportant by their interviewers.
Indeed, the very act of telling their stories could force
Native American narrators to distort their cultures, as
taboos had to be broken to speak the names of dead
relatives crucial to their family stories.
Despite all of this, autobiography remains a useful
tool for ethnological research: such personal reminiscences
and impressions, incomplete as they may be, are
likely to throw more light on the working of the mind
and emotions than any amount of speculation from an
ethnologist or ethnological theorist from another
culture.

38 It can be inferred from the passage that a characteristic of the ethnological research on Native Americans conducted
during the nineteenth century was the use of which of the following?
(A) Investigators familiar with the culture under study
(B) A language other than the informant’s for recording life stories
(C) Life stories as the ethnologist’s primary source of information
(D) Complete transcriptions of informants’ descriptions of tribal beliefs
(E) Stringent guidelines for the preservation of cultural data

I chose A, i do no see why it can be wrong, and I do not finish to understand why B is the answer. I am confused since the passage mentions that during the 19th century there was an interested in linguistics, so I think researches could be interested in the different languages in different cultures, so I do not understand that "A language other than the informant's for recording life stories" is the correct answer.
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Re: QUESTION 38, PAG 35, VERBAL REVIEW OFFICIAL GUIDE 2ND ED [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2013, 21:57
Alexis.vargas10 wrote:
QUESTION 38, PAG 35, VERBAL REVIEW OFFICIAL GUIDE 2ND ED


Please help me with this question.

At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest
in Native American customs and an increasing desire to
understand Native American culture prompted ethnologists
to begin recording the life stories of Native American.
Ethnologists had a distinct reason for wanting to
hear the stories: they were after linguistic or anthropological
data that would supplement their own field
observations, and they believed that the personal
stories, even of a single individual, could increase
their understanding of the cultures that they had been
observing from without. In addition many ethnologists
at the turn of the century believed that Native American
manners and customs were rapidly disappearing,
and that it was important to preserve for posterity as
much information as could be adequately recorded
before the cultures disappeared forever.
There were, however, arguments against this method
as a way of acquiring accurate and complete information.

Franz Boas, for example, described autobiographies as being
“of limited value, and useful chiefly for
the study of the perversion of truth by memory,” while
Paul Radin contended that investigators rarely spent
enough time with the tribes they were observing, and
inevitably derived results too tinged by the investi-
gator’s own emotional tone to be reliable.

Even more importantly, as these life stories moved
from the traditional oral mode to recorded written
form, much was inevitably lost. Editors often decided
what elements were significant to the field research on a
given tribe.Native Americans recognized that the
essence of their lives could not be communicated in
English and that events that they thought significant
were often deemed unimportant by their interviewers.

Indeed, the very act of telling their stories could force
Native American narrators to distort their cultures, as
taboos had to be broken to speak the names of dead
relatives crucial to their family stories.
Despite all of this, autobiography remains a useful
tool for ethnological research: such personal reminiscences
and impressions, incomplete as they may be, are
likely to throw more light on the working of the mind
and emotions than any amount of speculation from an
ethnologist or ethnological theorist from another
culture.

38 It can be inferred from the passage that a characteristic of the ethnological research on Native Americans conducted
during the nineteenth century was the use of which of the following?
(A) Investigators familiar with the culture under study
(B) A language other than the informant’s for recording life stories
(C) Life stories as the ethnologist’s primary source of information
(D) Complete transcriptions of informants’ descriptions of tribal beliefs
(E) Stringent guidelines for the preservation of cultural data

I chose A, i do no see why it can be wrong, and I do not finish to understand why B is the answer. I am confused since the passage mentions that during the 19th century there was an interested in linguistics, so I think researches could be interested in the different languages in different cultures, so I do not understand that "A language other than the informant's for recording life stories" is the correct answer.


Focus on the highlighted portions of the text. The text starts out with what ethnologists started doing in 19th century. In arguments against the methods used, it talks about interviewers not spending enough time and hence probably not being properly familiar with the culture. So (A) is not correct. We cannot say that the research used investigators familiar with the culture under study.
Also, English was used to record the life stories of informants (which is different from informant's language) as is evident from the last highlighted portion. So (B) is correct.
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Re: At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2015, 20:11
33D,34C,35A,36E,37C,38C (One Incorrect)
Time=5minutes 49 seconds.
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Re: At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2016, 22:53
I don't understand the question 38

Anyone care to elaborate?
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Re: At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest [#permalink]

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Hi Aves,

38. It can be inferred from the passage that a characteristic of the ethnological research on Native Americans conducted during the nineteenth century was the use of which of the following?

(A) Investigators familiar with the culture under study
(B) A language other than the informant’s for recording life stories
(C) Life stories as the ethnologist’s primary source of information
(D) Complete transcriptions of informants’ descriptions of tribal beliefs
(E) Stringent guidelines for the preservation of cultural data

It's easy to eliminate A, D and E.

No information related to D.
About E, in the last sentence of paragraph 1: "it was important to preserve for posterity", it does not mention to "stringent guidelines". E is incorrect.
About option C: 'they were after linguistic or anthropological data that would supplement their own field observations' (line 4 and 5) so life stories are supplemented sources.

OA is B.

Hope this helps.
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Re: At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2016, 20:56
C C A E C B , got first incorrect :? , Took 10 mins 30 seconds
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Re: At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2016, 22:50
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All correct but timing needs to be improved.
Total time:0:13:17.85, ,
1, 0:04:22.87, 0:04:22.87
2, 0:00:58.45, 0:05:21.32
3, 0:02:20.03, 0:07:41.36
4, 0:00:41.71, 0:08:23.07
5, 0:01:24.66, 0:09:47.73
6, 0:00:54.89, 0:10:42.63
7, 0:02:34.93, 0:13:17.56
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Re: At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 05:08
Can someone please help with question number 34?

I thought because the ethnologist edited the stories according to things they deemed important and not important, I thought option D/E would have made a better choice.

As for option C, i thought because ethnologist are just supplementing their research with new method, they were not unaware/unfamiliar with North american culture. ANY THOUGHTS?
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Re: At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2018, 21:59
Good passage. Got one incorrect. The final question. Did not consider the correct meaning of the correct option.
Re: At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest   [#permalink] 14 Apr 2018, 21:59
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