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Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria

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Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2018, 19:45
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New RC from 1990 Paper Test



    Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madri-
    gals, arias, and cantatas published in Venice between
    1644 and 1664. Her use of these vocal forms places her
    directly within the cantata tradition of the mid-seven-
(5)
    teenth century, along with such major figures as Rossi,
    Carissimi, and Cesti. With the notable exception of
    Francesca Caccini (1587 – c. 1640), she is the only known
    woman among the many aria and cantata composers of
    seventeenth-century Italy, and is, presumably, among the
(10)
    very few women of the period to have pursued a career
    as a composer and to have achieved some measure of
    public recognition.
    This historical distinction attracted attention to her
    works early in the present century, even when the music
(15)
    of most of her male contemporaries, and,indeed, most
    women composers of any era, remained relatively
    ignored. But appreciation of her style was limited by pre-
    vailing convention to an isolation of its supposedly femi-
    nine qualities: “great spontaneity, exquisite grace, mar-
(20)
    velously fine taste.” Such an appreciation now appears
    irrelevant as well as polemical in its incompleteness
    because we are in a better position – with regard to both
    historical knowledge and social awareness – to attempt
    a more precise evaluation of a somewhat anomalous fig-
(25)
    ure like Barbara Strozzi.
    Born in 1619 in Venice, she grew up in the home of
    Giulio Strozzi, a renowned poet and leading figure
    among Venetian intellectuals. Barbara’s presence in
    Giulio’s household guaranteed her and early and full
(30)
    exposure to Venetian musical and literary society.
    Indeed, she was able to enter a world that was, appar-
    ently, closed to other members of her sex. Similarly,
    Francesca Caccini, the most prominent and successful
    Italian woman composer of the period, was the daughter
(35)
    of professional musicians and therefore exposed to music
    for infancy. This parallel suggests that such an envi-
    ronment may have been essential for the development of
    a female composer.
    But though Strozzi’s music certainly shares fully
(40)
    the aesthetic aim of her contemporaries, and of the baroque
    in general – to move the passions - her life and her
    work distinguishes her form these contemporaries in vari-
    ous ways. Whereas other composers sought (and found)
    a public forum for their effective expression in the the-
(45)
    ater and the Church, her world remained more private.
    Strozzi was a singer in Venice, surrounded by opera
    librettists and impresarios at a time when opera was the
    main cultural interest of a large segment of Venetian
    society, yet she apparently never sang in opera, nor did
(50)
    she write an opera. She is not a composer of dramatic
    works; her songs are addressed to a more intimate audi-
    ence, expressing less the feeling of fictive characters than
    her own: “These harmonic notes,” she writes, “are the
    language of the soul, and instruments of the heart.”

1. According to the passage, Barbara Strozzi’s music attracted attention early in the twentieth century because of

A) Its uniquely private character
B) Its influence on Francesca Caccini
C) The scarcity of seventeenth-century women composers
D) The conventionality of its forms
E) The historical importance of Giulio Strozzi.



2. The author’s use of word “supposedly” in the line 18 implies which of the following?

A) The author doubts the historical authenticity of the quotation that follows.
B) The author doubts the accuracy of the facts she is reporting.
C) The author disagrees with the judgment she is discussing.
D) The author does not believe that Stozzi’s music has the qualities cited in the quotation.
E) The author is not sure of the significance of the quotation.



3. With which of the following statements would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?

A) The music of the seventeenth-century Italy is less frequently performed today than it was 50 years ago.
B) Contemporary music historians no longer discuses the music of a given composer in terms of its particular individual style.
C) The cantata tradition of seventeenth-century Italy is much better understood today than it ever has been.
D) Late-twentieth-century music historians have more accurate historical information than their early-twentieth-century counterparts.
E) Music historians of the early twentieth century were uninterested in the details of social life in seventeenth-century Venetian musical circles.



4. The author of the passage bases her assertion that Strozzi is one of the very few seventeenth-century Italian women composers (lines 7-12) on which of the following assumptions?

A) Public recognition is an indispensable part of a career as a composer.
B) Strozzi and Caccini were influenced by the same composers.
C) The music of any woman composer whom her seventeenth-century contemporaries regarded as noteworthy would be known to modern scholars.
D) The cantata tradition of the mid-seventeenth-century includes composers and performers of madrigals and arias as well as cantatas.
E) More women pursued careers as composers in seventeenth-century Italy than is evident from music published in the seventeenth-century.



5. The author of the passage implies that which of the following was most essential to the success of both Francesca Caccini and Barbara Strozzi?

(A) Their presence in Venice at a time when vocal music flourished
(B) Their early firsthand exposure to music and musicians
(C) The lack of competition from other composers
(D) The popularity of madrigals and cantatas in seventeenth-century Italy
(E) The uniqueness of the musical forms they created


6. It can be inferred from the passage that all of the following made Barbara Strozzi "a somewhat anomalous figure" (lines 24-25) EXCEPT:

(A) She was a woman composer during the seven­ teenth century.
(B) She was intimately involved in Venetian literary and musical society.
(C) She did not write dramatic works for voice.
(D) She did not perform operatic works.
(E) She wrote moving baroque vocal works.


7. The author of the passage implies that composers of Italian baroque music typically

(A) composed more operas than cantatas
(B) preferred sacred to secular musical forms
(C) aspired to reach large segments of the public with their works
(D) avoided emotional expression in their works
(E) wrote music for solo voices rather than for choral ensembles


8. The author of the passage quotes Barbara Strozzi in lines 53-54 most probably in order to

A) Support the claim that strozzi’s works are self-revealing
B) Qualify the point concerning strozzi’s dramatic work
C) Illustrate Strozzi’s confident approach to her art
D) Show why Strozzi avoided opera as both composer and performer
E) Suggest that Strozzi’s viewpoint was typical of baroque musicians



9. The passage provides information to answer which of the following questions?

A) What was the exact family relationship between Giulio Strozzi and Barbara Strozzi?
B) What is the evidence that indicates that Barbara Strozzi never sang in an opera?
C) Were Barbara strozzi’s compositions know to her contemporaries?
D) Did Barbara Storzzi know Francesca Caccini?
E) What instruments provide the accompaniment for Barbara Strozzi’s vocal works?




Source: Jamboree

JOURNAL ARTICLE
Barbara Strozzi, "virtuosissima cantatrice": The Composer's Voice
Ellen Rosand
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Vol. 31, No. 2 (Summer, 1978), pp. 241-281
Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the American Musicological Society
DOI: 10.2307/830997
https://www.jstor.org/stable/830997
Page Count: 41

Attachments

rosand1978.pdf [4.79 MiB]
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Re: Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2018, 19:48

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions



I will add explanations after I see a few responses.
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Re: Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2018, 11:51
P1 - About BS - achivements.
P2 - Limited appreciation and reason.
P3 - What influenced her success.
P4 - BS was different than her contemprories. How is defined.

1. According to the passage, Barbara Strozzi’s music attracted attention early in the twentieth century because of
Lines to read - presumably, among the very few women of the period to have pursued a career as a composer and to have achieved some measure of public recognition. This historical distinction attracted attention to her works early in the present century

C) The scarcity of seventeenth-century women composers

-----------------------------------------------

2. The author’s use of word “supposedly” in the line 18 implies which of the following?
At first i have selected C and E. With following part in inclined towards C. Author seems to be sure of what he is saying.
"Such an appreciation now appears irrelevant as well as polemical in its incompleteness because we are in a better position – with regard to both historical knowledge and social awareness"

C) The author disagrees with the judgment she is discussing.

-----------------------------------------------
3. With which of the following statements would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?

D) Late-twentieth-century music historians have more accurate historical information than their early-twentieth-century counterparts.

Such an appreciation now appears irrelevant as well as polemical in its incompleteness because we are in a better position – with regard to both historical knowledge and social awareness – to attempt a more precise evaluation of a somewhat anomalous figure like Barbara Strozzi.

------------------------------------------------

4. The author of the passage bases her assertion that Strozzi is one of the very few seventeenth-century Italian women composers (lines 7-12) on which of the following assumptions?
>>>> she is the only known woman among the many aria and cantata composers of seventeenth-century Italy,

C) The music of any woman composer whom her seventeenth-century contemporaries regarded as noteworthy would be known to modern scholars.

------------------------------------------------
5. The author of the passage implies that which of the following was most essential to the success of both Francesca Caccini and Barbara Strozzi?

Similarly, Francesca Caccini, the most prominent and successful Italian woman composer of the period, was the daughter
(35)of professional musicians and therefore exposed to music for infancy.

(B) Their early firsthand exposure to music and musicians

---------------------------------------------------

6. It can be inferred from the passage that all of the following made Barbara Strozzi "a somewhat anomalous figure" (lines 24-25) EXCEPT:

All except E is defined in last para.
(E) She wrote moving baroque vocal works.

------------------------------------

7. The author of the passage implies that composers of Italian baroque music typically

Whereas other composers sought (and found) a public forum for their effective expression in the the- (45) ater and the Church

(C) aspired to reach large segments of the public with their works

---------------------------------------

8. The author of the passage quotes Barbara Strozzi in lines 53-54 most probably in order to
her songs are addressed to a more intimate audi-ence, expressing less the feeling of fictive characters than her own

A) Support the claim that strozzi’s worself-revealingvealing

------------------------------------

9. The passage provides information to answer which of the following questions?

A) What was the exact family relationship between Giulio Strozzi and Barbara Strozzi? - not clear
B) What is the evidence that indicates that Barbara Strozzi never sang in an opera? - no evidence
C) Were Barbara strozzi’s compositions know to her contemporaries?
D) Did Barbara Storzzi know Francesca Caccini? - no sure.
E) What instruments provide the accompaniment for Barbara Strozzi’s vocal works? - not given

Left with C, but cant find it either. workout - How to be sure about C ?
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Re: Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2018, 02:14
1. According to the passage, Barbara Strozzi’s music attracted attention early in the twentieth century because of
C) The scarcity of seventeenth-century women composers - Correct

With the notable exception of Francesca Caccini (1587 – c. 1640), she is the only known woman among the many aria and cantata composers of seventeenth-century Italy, and is, presumably, among the
very few women of the period to have pursued a career as a composer and to have achieved some measure of public recognition.

2. The author’s use of word “supposedly” in the line 18 implies which of the following?

A) The author doubts the historical authenticity of the quotation that follows.
B) The author doubts the accuracy of the facts she is reporting.
C) The author disagrees with the judgment she is discussing.
D) The author does not believe that Stozzi’s music has the qualities cited in the quotation.
E) The author is not sure of the significance of the quotation.

Question A - I was in a fix between C and D and ended up choosing option D. How can we eliminate option D?

3. With which of the following statements would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?

A) The music of the seventeenth-century Italy is less frequently performed today than it was 50 years ago.
B) Contemporary music historians no longer discuses the music of a given composer in terms of its particular individual style.
C) The cantata tradition of seventeenth-century Italy is much better understood today than it ever has been. - Correct
D) Late-twentieth-century music historians have more accurate historical information than their early-twentieth-century counterparts.
E) Music historians of the early twentieth century were uninterested in the details of social life in seventeenth-century Venetian musical circles.

Such an appreciation now appears irrelevant as well as polemical in its incompleteness because we are in a better position – with regard to both historical knowledge and social awareness – to attempt
a more precise evaluation


4. The author of the passage bases her assertion that Strozzi is one of the very few seventeenth-century Italian women composers (lines 7-12) on which of the following assumptions?

A) Public recognition is an indispensable part of a career as a composer.
B) Strozzi and Caccini were influenced by the same composers.
C) The music of any woman composer whom her seventeenth-century contemporaries regarded as noteworthy would be known to modern scholars.
D) The cantata tradition of the mid-seventeenth-century includes composers and performers of madrigals and arias as well as cantatas.
E) More women pursued careers as composers in seventeenth-century Italy than is evident from music published in the seventeenth-century.

Question B -Please provide an explanation for question 4

5. The author of the passage implies that which of the following was most essential to the success of both Francesca Caccini and Barbara Strozzi?
B) Their early firsthand exposure to music and musicians - Correct

Barbara’s presence in Giulio’s household guaranteed her and early and full exposure to Venetian musical and literary society. Similarly, Francesca Caccini, the most prominent and successful
Italian woman composer of the period, was the daughter of professional musicians and therefore exposed to music for infancy. This parallel suggests that such an environment may have been essential for the development of a female composer.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that all of the following made Barbara Strozzi "a somewhat anomalous figure" (lines 24-25) EXCEPT:

(A) She was a woman composer during the seven­ teenth century. - Incorrect - women composers during that period were rare
(B) She was intimately involved in Venetian literary and musical society. - her songs are addressed to a more intimate audience
(C) She did not write dramatic works for voice. - Incorrect - She is not a composer of dramatic works
(D) She did not perform operatic works. - Incorrect - yet she apparently never sang in opera in spite of Opera being very popular
(E) She wrote moving baroque vocal works. - Correct

We can eliminate options to get to answer E as writing moving baroque vocal works is not stated as an exception to the 17th-century norms.

7. The author of the passage implies that composers of Italian baroque music typically
(A) composed more operas than cantatas - Incorrect - not mentioned
(B) preferred sacred to secular musical forms - Incorrect - not mentioned
(C) aspired to reach large segments of the public with their works - Correct
(D) avoided emotional expression in their works - Incorrect
(E) wrote music for solo voices rather than for choral ensembles - Incorrect

Whereas other composers sought (and found) a public forum for their effective expression in the theater and the Church, her world remained more private.
Question C - how can we infer whether the other composers were composers of Italian baroque music?

Is it because of the below statement-
But though Strozzi’s music certainly shares fully the aesthetic aim of her contemporaries, and of the baroque in general – to move the passions

8. The author of the passage quotes Barbara Strozzi in lines 53-54 most probably in order to
A) Support the claim that strozzi’s works are self-revealing- Correct her songs are addressed to a more intimate audience, expressing less the feeling of fictive characters than her own

9. The passage provides information to answer which of the following questions?

A) What was the exact family relationship between Giulio Strozzi and Barbara Strozzi? - Incorrect -Barbara was born in the house of Giulio Strozzi
B) What is the evidence that indicates that Barbara Strozzi never sang in an opera? - Incorrect - no evidence has been mentioned
C) Were Barbara strozzi’s compositions know to her contemporaries?
D) Did Barbara Storzzi know Francesca Caccini? - Incorrect
E) What instruments provide the accompaniment for Barbara Strozzi’s vocal works? - Incorrect - not mentioned

Question D-I am unable to find option C in the passage

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyMurray , other experts - please enlighten
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Re: Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2018, 06:49
My brain is a mashed potato right now after spending 18 mins on this question.....How difficult was this passage to grasp..?
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Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2019, 08:06
Skywalker18 aragonn

Hey guys,

The answer to Q9 that you're both looking for is hidden here: "she is the only known woman among the many aria and cantata composers of seventeenth-century Italy, and is, presumably, among the very few women of the period to have pursued a career as a composer and to have achieved some measure of public recognition."
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Re: Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2019, 21:41
Hi,
Can someone please explain why options A and D are incorrect in question 4?
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Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2019, 16:56
workout u1983 GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo broall Gnpth

Hi Experts, I was wondering if one of you could please clarify my doubts on the following questions. Would greatly appreciate it!

Q2: I am not able to see why option C is correct. I choose option D instead because of this particular line from the passage "Such an appreciation now appears
irrelevant as well as polemical in its incompleteness". Isn't the author doubting on the mentioned qualities?

Q8: I am not able to understand why option A is correct? My main confusion is how can we deduce from line 53-54 that strozzi’s works are self-revealing? I was able to understand that her songs expressed less feelings of the fictive characters that she created than her own but I am not able to see how we can deduce that her songs were "self revealing"? I opted for option C instead.

Q9: I was confused between option A and C and ended up picking option A instead. In the paragraph we are given "Born in 1619 in Venice, she grew up in the home of Giulio Strozzi....Similarly, Francesca Caccini was the daughter of professional musicians and therefore exposed to music for infancy". I chose option A solely because of the word "similarly". The passage states that "similarly" FC was the daughter of the professional musicians. Can't we deduce based on the word "similarly" that BS was the daughter of GS?
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Re: Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2019, 01:53
Hi experts,

Could you please explain Q2 and Q3?
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Re: Barbara Strozzi was a singer and composer of madrigals, aria &nbs [#permalink] 07 Jan 2019, 01:53
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