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# Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile

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Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 22 Jun 2013, 00:37
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35% (01:21) correct 65% (02:53) wrong based on 1257 sessions

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Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

A. serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city

B. serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city

C. will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

D. in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

E. that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

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Originally posted by fozzzy on 21 Jun 2013, 21:55.
Last edited by fozzzy on 22 Jun 2013, 00:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2014, 11:45
7
6
CharlesBarclay wrote:
This one totally got me stumped..anybody want to take a crack at it and explain?
Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

(A) serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city
(B) serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city
(C) will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city
(D) in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city
(E) that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

option A:a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.
i somehow find this comparison faulty (both grammar and logic) .had A been like this :a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than in an American city. then the comparison would have been oki grammatically though i still feel that the intended meaning is missing in the modified version .

I'm happy to respond. I am not sure that I like this question. It seems to play on subtleties a bit more than the GMAT does.

Part of what is awkward about the prompt and choice (B) is putting the "serving a given population" at the beginning, before the comparison. This tells us the hyper-obvious information that the commuter rail system serves a population (i.e., they tend not build these in the middle of the desert with nobody around!!), and illogically, it suggests that the phrase applies to both parts of the comparison, that the rail system would serve the same given population in both the European city and in the American city. That is 100% illogical and not what the author is trying to say. Choices (A) & (B) are wrong.

Choice (E) is an unholy abomination. It seems to be trying to win a contest for the longest and most awkward possible answer. This one should be taken out back and shot. Clearly wrong.

That leaves us with (C) & (D). Both are grammatically correct. Both are plausible. I believe the reason the question writer wants us to reject (C) is the placement of the word "there" before the underlined part. The "there", where it appears, leaves a question hanging --- exactly about what place are we speaking?? The urgency of that question demands that a clear and unambiguous answer come as soon as possible. Think about the way (C) begins ----
(C) will usually be five times more efficient in ....
So we go that whole distance without getting an answer to our question, and we don't get an answer until the comparison. Slightly awkward. Meanwhile,
(D) in a European city will usually ....
BAM! Right away, the answer to our question. This one doesn't leave us hanging nearly as long, so in some subtle sense, it's more "satisfying." Let me say, though: the difference (C) and (D) here is ridiculously subtle, and absolutely is not characteristic of a GMAT SC question. The GMAT has very high standards. On GMAT SC, one answer is unambiguously correct, and each of the other four answer choices has something absolutely definitive and objective that is wrong. It's very hard to write high quality SC practice questions that adhere to this standard. Poorly written questions sometimes will try to create splits based on bizarrely subtle details, and the authors no doubt believe that they have written a good challenging question, but this is absolutely not in the spirit of the GMAT, and, in fact, it betrays an astonishing lack of familiarity with the standards of the GMAT.

I don't like this question at all. Here's a much better question for practice:
http://gmat.magoosh.com/questions/3604

Let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2013, 23:53
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This is a comparison question. D is correct.

Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

a serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city
Wrong. "it" refers to a commuter rail system in a European ==> Wrong because it compares to itself.

b serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city
Wrong. Bad grammar. "more efficient if X instead of Y" sounds awkward.

c will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city
Wrong. The comparison is "more efficient in a European city than one" ==> "a European city" compares to "one"

d in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city
Correct. Structure is: X in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will Y in an American city

e that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city
Wrong. Like C, bad grammar: X in a European city will be five times more efficient than if X in American city

Hope it helps.
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 15 Apr 2014, 10:55
3
9
This one totally got me stumped..anybody want to take a crack at it and explain?

Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

(A) serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city

(B) serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city

(C) will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

(D) in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

(E) that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

Originally posted by CharlesBarclay on 11 Apr 2014, 20:50.
Last edited by mikemcgarry on 15 Apr 2014, 10:55, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the title and underlined the question
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2014, 02:05
option A:a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.
i somehow find this comparison faulty (both grammar and logic) .had A been like this :a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than in an American city. then the comparison would have been oki grammatically though i still feel that the intended meaning is missing in the modified version .
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2014, 23:28
mikemcgarry wrote:
CharlesBarclay wrote:
This one totally got me stumped..anybody want to take a crack at it and explain?
Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

(A) serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city
(B) serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city
(C) will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city
(D) in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city
(E) that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

option A:a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.
i somehow find this comparison faulty (both grammar and logic) .had A been like this :a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than in an American city. then the comparison would have been oki grammatically though i still feel that the intended meaning is missing in the modified version .

I'm happy to respond. I am not sure that I like this question. It seems to play on subtleties a bit more than the GMAT does.

Part of what is awkward about the prompt and choice (B) is putting the "serving a given population" at the beginning, before the comparison. This tells us the hyper-obvious information that the commuter rail system serves a population (i.e., they tend not build these in the middle of the desert with nobody around!!), and illogically, it suggests that the phrase applies to both parts of the comparison, that the rail system would serve the same given population in both the European city and in the American city. That is 100% illogical and not what the author is trying to say. Choices (A) & (B) are wrong.

Choice (E) is an unholy abomination. It seems to be trying to win a contest for the longest and most awkward possible answer. This one should be taken out back and shot. Clearly wrong.

That leaves us with (C) & (D). Both are grammatically correct. Both are plausible. I believe the reason the question writer wants us to reject (C) is the placement of the word "there" before the underlined part. The "there", where it appears, leaves a question hanging --- exactly about what place are we speaking?? The urgency of that question demands that a clear and unambiguous answer come as soon as possible. Think about the way (C) begins ----
(C) will usually be five times more efficient in ....
So we go that whole distance without getting an answer to our question, and we don't get an answer until the comparison. Slightly awkward. Meanwhile,
(D) in a European city will usually ....
BAM! Right away, the answer to our question. This one doesn't leave us hanging nearly as long, so in some subtle sense, it's more "satisfying." Let me say, though: the difference (C) and (D) here is ridiculously subtle, and absolutely is not characteristic of a GMAT SC question. The GMAT has very high standards. On GMAT SC, one answer is unambiguously correct, and each of the other four answer choices has something absolutely definitive and objective that is wrong. It's very hard to write high quality SC practice questions that adhere to this standard. Poorly written questions sometimes will try to create splits based on bizarrely subtle details, and the authors no doubt believe that they have written a good challenging question, but this is absolutely not in the spirit of the GMAT, and, in fact, it betrays an astonishing lack of familiarity with the standards of the GMAT.

I don't like this question at all. Here's a much better question for practice:
http://gmat.magoosh.com/questions/3604

Let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike

Hey Mike,

I quite did not get the difference between options c & d, especially the place of "there" part. Would you explain it again ?

Thanks !
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2014, 11:38
5
vishalrastogi wrote:
Hey Mike,

I quite did not get the difference between options c & d, especially the place of "there" part. Would you explain it again ?

Thanks !

Dear vishalrastogi,
I'm happy to help. Here's the entire problem again:

Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.
(A) serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city
(B) serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city
(C) will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city
(D) in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city
(E) that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

Think about just the beginning of the sentence:
Because the population is denser there and ...
If that's all we heard of the sentence, we would have absolutely no clue where on earth the population was denser. We would have absolutely no clue as to the physical location about which the speaker is speaking. The writer or speaker has a specific geographic location in mind, and is telling us important things about that location, but at least at the outset, we are 100% in the dark about where on Earth the writer or speaker might mean.

Ordinarily, ambiguity in sentences is bad. The GMAT loves sentence that are crisp and clear and direct, sentence that efficiently communicate everything they are trying to say. In general, anything unclear or unspecified is a bad thing. Here, though, is a kind of exception. Sometimes, for rhetorical effect, it can be good thing to specify something or someone, the identity of which the reader doesn't know right away. The writer, by using this word "there" at the beginning of the sentence, has piqued our curiosity. This creates a kind of tension that generates forward momentum through the sentence --- we read the "there" and we are curious: we want to know the place about which the writer is talking, and this impels us to continue reading the sentence. This is one subtle trick for producing engaging writing.

Imagine if I began a sentence
"Because she was one of the most intelligent women ever to live, ..."
that sentence beginning would create enormous expectations. Wow! the reader would feel, we are going to find out at least one person's opinion on who the smartest woman of all time was. There's a very clear expectation that immediately following that opening phrase will be the name of this very impressive woman. Creating expectations in a sentence is a good thing if we fulfill those expectations. It becomes awkward if I create expectations, and then don't satisfy them:
"Because she was one of the most intelligent women ever to live, the university system at the turn of the century, after the Greek requirement had been dropped ...."
WAIT A MINUTE! That sentence cheated us. It created the expectation that we were going to find out the name of this very impressive woman, and then after the comma, it started talking about something else. Yes, the woman probably will be mentioned at some point, but because this mention is delayed, it frustrates the expectation.

BTW, I'm sorry, but I have no idea whom I would name as the smartest woman of all times.

This sentence creates a similar tension with the word "there", and version (D) immediate resolves the tension by letting us know right away that "there" means "in a European city." Choice (D) creates tension, creates an expectation, and then promptly resolves it.

By contrast, choice (C) create the same expectation, but then leaves us hanging longer. It's a little more ambiguous in (C) exactly which location is the one the author was suggesting in the first half of the sentence. This is somewhat analogous to my red sentence above --- the sentence creates a clear expectation, and then it is not so efficient about satisfying this expectation. That's a somewhat awkward move.

As I said above, the GMAT SC absolutely DO NOT test subtleties of this magnitude. The GMAT does not do a whole lot of this "building rhetorical tension" in sentence. The GMAT is much more straightforward and factual.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2014, 00:20
mikemcgarry wrote:
vishalrastogi wrote:
Hey Mike,

I quite did not get the difference between options c & d, especially the place of "there" part. Would you explain it again ?

Thanks !

Dear vishalrastogi,
I'm happy to help. Here's the entire problem again:

Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.
(A) serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city
(B) serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city
(C) will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city
(D) in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city
(E) that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

Think about just the beginning of the sentence:
Because the population is denser there and ...
If that's all we heard of the sentence, we would have absolutely no clue where on earth the population was denser. We would have absolutely no clue as to the physical location about which the speaker is speaking. The writer or speaker has a specific geographic location in mind, and is telling us important things about that location, but at least at the outset, we are 100% in the dark about where on Earth the writer or speaker might mean.

Ordinarily, ambiguity in sentences is bad. The GMAT loves sentence that are crisp and clear and direct, sentence that efficiently communicate everything they are trying to say. In general, anything unclear or unspecified is a bad thing. Here, though, is a kind of exception. Sometimes, for rhetorical effect, it can be good thing to specify something or someone, the identity of which the reader doesn't know right away. The writer, by using this word "there" at the beginning of the sentence, has piqued our curiosity. This creates a kind of tension that generates forward momentum through the sentence --- we read the "there" and we are curious: we want to know the place about which the writer is talking, and this impels us to continue reading the sentence. This is one subtle trick for producing engaging writing.

Imagine if I began a sentence
"Because she was one of the most intelligent women ever to live, ..."
that sentence beginning would create enormous expectations. Wow! the reader would feel, we are going to find out at least one person's opinion on who the smartest woman of all time was. There's a very clear expectation that immediately following that opening phrase will be the name of this very impressive woman. Creating expectations in a sentence is a good thing if we fulfill those expectations. It becomes awkward if I create expectations, and then don't satisfy them:
"Because she was one of the most intelligent women ever to live, the university system at the turn of the century, after the Greek requirement had been dropped ...."
WAIT A MINUTE! That sentence cheated us. It created the expectation that we were going to find out the name of this very impressive woman, and then after the comma, it started talking about something else. Yes, the woman probably will be mentioned at some point, but because this mention is delayed, it frustrates the expectation.

BTW, I'm sorry, but I have no idea whom I would name as the smartest woman of all times.

This sentence creates a similar tension with the word "there", and version (D) immediate resolves the tension by letting us know right away that "there" means "in a European city." Choice (D) creates tension, creates an expectation, and then promptly resolves it.

By contrast, choice (C) create the same expectation, but then leaves us hanging longer. It's a little more ambiguous in (C) exactly which location is the one the author was suggesting in the first half of the sentence. This is somewhat analogous to my red sentence above --- the sentence creates a clear expectation, and then it is not so efficient about satisfying this expectation. That's a somewhat awkward move.

As I said above, the GMAT SC absolutely DO NOT test subtleties of this magnitude. The GMAT does not do a whole lot of this "building rhetorical tension" in sentence. The GMAT is much more straightforward and factual.

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Thanks for explaining so vividly Mike. It is all making sense to me now.
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2014, 10:43
That REALLY clarifies things Mike...Thanks!
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2014, 17:01
I understood that X times more than ... was wrong, as written in the GMATClub Grammar book - what am I missing?
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2014, 17:30
AgusBA wrote:
I understood that X times more than ... was wrong, as written in the GMATClub Grammar book - what am I missing?

Hello AgusBA.

In fact, the syntax "X times more than..." should be avoided in GMAT. It doesn't mean the syntax does not happen. The official GMAT question #72 in the Verbal Supplement uses "5 times greater than....".

The rule of thumb is if you see a comparison "X times more than...." and "X times as....as...", the former is preferable. But if you don't see any comparison "X times as...as...", select the best option among the lot. GMAT wants you to pick the best solution, even it's not 100% correct.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2014, 11:14
Got it pqhai, thank you. Definitely, if there are no options to corrected, then there's nothing to do
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2014, 22:18
CharlesBarclay wrote:
This one totally got me stumped..anybody want to take a crack at it and explain?

Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

(A) serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city

(B) serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city

(C) will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

(D) in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

(E) that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

Although I took 5 mins,reading the options at least 50 times, and tried to extort an answer..My ear just couldn't distinguish between C & D..
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2014, 00:56
JusTLucK04 wrote:
CharlesBarclay wrote:
This one totally got me stumped..anybody want to take a crack at it and explain?

Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

(A) serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city

(B) serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city

(C) will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

(D) in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

(E) that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

Although I took 5 mins,reading the options at least 50 times, and tried to extort an answer..My ear just couldn't distinguish between C & D..

Hello JusTLuck

Option C:
will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

C is wrong because of incorrect comparison "a European city" vs. "one/a commuter rail system"

Structure of C is: X will be five times more efficient in Y than Z .....==> Clearly, C compares Y and Z ("a European city" and "one/a commuter rail system")

Option D:
A commuter rail system in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

The comparison is very clear. Thus, D is correct.

Hope it helps.
_________________

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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2014, 01:44
pqhai wrote:
JusTLucK04 wrote:
CharlesBarclay wrote:
This one totally got me stumped..anybody want to take a crack at it and explain?

Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

(A) serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city

(B) serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city

(C) will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

(D) in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

(E) that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

Although I took 5 mins,reading the options at least 50 times, and tried to extort an answer..My ear just couldn't distinguish between C & D..

Hello JusTLuck

Option C:
will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

C is wrong because of incorrect comparison "a European city" vs. "one/a commuter rail system"

Structure of C is: X will be five times more efficient in Y than Z .....==> Clearly, C compares Y and Z ("a European city" and "one/a commuter rail system")

Option D:
A commuter rail system in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

The comparison is very clear. Thus, D is correct.

Hope it helps.

Option C:
will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

C is wrong because of incorrect comparison "a European city" vs. "one/a commuter rail system"
I think there is an 'in' missing here...had there been an in before one...will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than in one serving a..
the explanation you provide is justified...But right now the comparison seems quite evident..Wat say??
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Re: Because the population is denser there and the auto mobile  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2015, 01:32
no,
I think C is wrong because "One" can refer to "city" and so not logic.
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#Top150 SC: Because the population is denser there and the automobile  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2015, 10:19
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Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

A. serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city

B. serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city

C. will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

D. in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

E. that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city
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Re: #Top150 SC: Because the population is denser there and the automobile  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2015, 10:30
souvik101990 wrote:
Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

A. serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city

B. serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city

C. will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

D. in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

E. that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

IMHO (D)

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Re: #Top150 SC: Because the population is denser there and the automobile  [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2015, 22:56
Hi Abhishek009 and souvik101990

Would you kindly present your analysis of the sentence? Why D is correct and other choices are wrong?

I have a doubt about D. It essentially says: A system will be more efficient than will a system. Doesn't it require a 'be' in the second part too, in order to maintain parallelism?

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Re: #Top150 SC: Because the population is denser there and the automobile  [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2015, 00:22
Abhishek009 wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Because the population is denser there and the automobile is therefore inefficient as a means of transportation, a commuter rail system serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city.

A. serving a given population is usually five times more efficient in a European city than it is in an American city

B. serving a given population will usually be five times more efficient if it is placed in a European city instead of an American city

C. will usually be five times more efficient in a European city than one serving a comparable population in an American city

D. in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than will a system serving a comparable population in an American city

E. that is implemented in a European city will usually be five times more efficient than if it is implemented with a comparable population in an American city

IMHO (D)

i have a doubt regarding D option it says "the system" now this system can be commuter rail or any other system also....
Re: #Top150 SC: Because the population is denser there and the automobile &nbs [#permalink] 10 Dec 2015, 00:22

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