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Re: Between June 1987 and May 19888, the bodies of at least 740 bottlenose [#permalink]
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Sajjad1994 can you provide 3? I can see why the wrong choices are wrong, but again I don't see support for the answer. How does the author 'accept the data'. Paragraph 3 is dedicated towards a full out rejection of the researcher's conclusions.

(A) A physics teacher accepts the data from a student’s experiment but questions the student’s conclusions. - Correct. Inline with the statements made above. Think of Author as Teacher and Researchers as Students.
(B) An astronomer provides additional observations to support another astronomer’s theory. - NO theories/hypothesis are supported in the passage with additional premise.
(C) A cook revises a traditional recipe by substituting modern ingredients for those used in the original. - If we consider cook as author here, then the author actually provides an alternative and not a revision of original hypothesis.
(D) A doctor prescribes medication for a patient whose illness was misdiagnosed by another doctor. - If we consider a doctor as an author then we have to consider another doctor as another author whereas comparisons are between explanations of author and researchers.
(E) A microbiologist sets out to replicate the experiment that yielded a classic theory of cell structure. - Irrelevant. Neither author nor researchers replicate anything
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Re: Between June 1987 and May 19888, the bodies of at least 740 bottlenose [#permalink]
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CEdward wrote:
Sajjad1994 can you provide 3? I can see why the wrong choices are wrong, but again I don't see support for the answer. How does the author 'accept the data'. Paragraph 3 is dedicated towards a full out rejection of the researcher's conclusions.

(A) A physics teacher accepts the data from a student’s experiment but questions the student’s conclusions. - Correct. Inline with the statements made above. Think of Author as Teacher and Researchers as Students.
(B) An astronomer provides additional observations to support another astronomer’s theory. - NO theories/hypothesis are supported in the passage with additional premise.
(C) A cook revises a traditional recipe by substituting modern ingredients for those used in the original. - If we consider cook as author here, then the author actually provides an alternative and not a revision of original hypothesis.
(D) A doctor prescribes medication for a patient whose illness was misdiagnosed by another doctor. - If we consider a doctor as an author then we have to consider another doctor as another author whereas comparisons are between explanations of author and researchers.
(E) A microbiologist sets out to replicate the experiment that yielded a classic theory of cell structure. - Irrelevant. Neither author nor researchers replicate anything


Explanation


3. Which one of the following is most analogous to the approach taken by the author of the passage with regard to the research described in the third paragraph?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

In Paragraph 3 the author relates the evidence that the research team found for its brevetoxin hypothesis, but it’s not until Paragraph 4 that he reveals his point of view on the team’s reasoning, which is of course that their rather sound evidence does not lead to their conclusion; rather, it supports a very different hypothesis from the one the team came up with. This is almost exactly repeated in (A).

(B) Unlike the astronomer in (B), the author seeks to undercut someone else’s theory, by coming up with a better one of his own.

(C) The passage features no revision of evidence that would be necessary for (C) to be an appropriate analogy.

(D)’s emphasis on action—the doctor prescribing medication—has no parallel in the passage. (D) would be a better choice if it read, “A doctor makes a correct diagnosis using a patient’s chart from which a colleague made an earlier misdiagnosis.”

(E) totally loses sight of the author’s disagreement with the conclusion that the team drew from the evidence compiled in Paragraph 3.

Answer: A


Explanation Credit: Kaplan LSAT
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Re: Between June 1987 and May 19888, the bodies of at least 740 bottlenose [#permalink]
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1. The passage is primarily concerned with assessing

The main point of the passage is to identify the causes of die off of bottlenose dolphins.

(A) the effects of a devastating bacterial infection in Atlantic coast bottlenose dolphins. Incorrect. The passage mentions the effects in first paragraph. The further paragraphs in passage aim to find out the reasons for the dieoff.
(B) the process by which illnesses in Atlantic coast bottlenose dolphins were correctly diagnosed. Incorrect. The process is not assessed.
(C) the weaknesses in the research methodology used to explore the dolphin die-off. Incorrect. No weakness in methodology assessed. The explanation for die off is assessed.
(D) possible alternative explanations for the massive dolphin die-off. Correct Since the current reasons of die off does not seem plausible, the author aims to identify the alternative explanations for the massive die-offs.
(E) relative effects of various marine pollutants on dolphin mortality. Incorrect. No relative effects on marine pollutants assessed.

2. Which one of the following is mentioned in the passage as evidence for the explanation of the dolphin die-off offered in the final paragraph?

(A) the release of stored brevetoxins from the dolphins’ blubber reserves. Incorrect This is mentioned in first paragraph and not last paragraph.
(B) the date on which offshore dumping was known to have occurred nearby. Incorrect Offshore dumping is discussed in last paragraph but no date is specified.
(C) the presence of dumping sites for PCBs in the area. Incorrect Dumping is mentioned but not dumping for PCBs.
(D) the synthetic pollutants that were present in the fish eaten by the dolphins. Incorrect. This is not mentioned in the last paragraph.
(E) the effects of PCBs on liver function in dolphins. Correct. This effect is mentioned in the last paragraph and is the correct answer.

3. Which one of the following is most analogous to the approach taken by the author of the passage with regard to the research described in the third paragraph?

(A) A physics teacher accepts the data from a student’s experiment but questions the student’s conclusions. Correct. In the passage the author accepts the reasons as a contributing factor to the dolphins die off but doubts on the conclusion and presents the alternative hypothesis.
(B) An astronomer provides additional observations to support another astronomer’s theory. Incorrect. Additional observations in the passage are not to support any other researcher's theory.
(C) A cook revises a traditional recipe by substituting modern ingredients for those used in the original. Incorrect. No revision on the research is carried out with same effects.
(D) A doctor prescribes medication for a patient whose illness was misdiagnosed by another doctor. Incorrect. No two different researches prescribed.
(E) A microbiologist sets out to replicate the experiment that yielded a classic theory of cell structure. Incorrect. No replication of theory done.

4. Which one of the following most accurately describes the organization of the last paragraph?

(A) One explanation is criticized and a different explanation is proposed. Correct The authors does not find research on effects responsible for dolphins die off plausible and presents an alternative hypothesis.
(B) An argument is advanced and then refuted by means of an opposing argument. Incorrect. The current hypothesis or research is not refuted.
(C) Objections against a hypothesis are advanced, the hypothesis is explained more fully, and then the objections are rejected. Incorrect The current hypothesis or research is not rejected.
(D) New evidence in favor of a theory is described, and then the theory is reaffirmed. Incorrect the theory is not reaffirmed in the passage.
(E) Discrepancies between two explanations are noted, and a third explanation is proposed. Incorrect there are only two hypothesis. The third one does not exist.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would most probably agree with which one of the following statements about brevetoxin?

(A) It may have been responsible for the dolphins’ skin lesions but could not have contributed to the bacterial infection. Incorrect PCBs are responsible for skin lesions as per the passage.
(B) It forms more easily when both P. brevis and synthetic pollutants are present in the environment simultaneously. Incorrect. The passage does not suggest this.
(C) It damages liver function and immune system responses in bottlenose dolphins but may not have triggered this particular dolphin die-off. Incorrect PCBs damage the liver function and immune system.
(D) It is unlikely to be among the factors that contributed to the dolphin die-off. Incorrect. As per last paragraph, it is a contributing faction to the dolphin die off
(E) It is unlikely to have caused the die-off because it was not present in the dolphins’ environment when the die-off began. Correct. The part of the passage suggesting the statement is in last paragraph "dolphins began dying in June, hundreds of miles north of and some months earlier than the October red tide bloom."

6. The explanation for the dolphin die-off given by the research team most strongly supports which one of the following?

(A) The biological mechanism by which brevetoxin affects dolphins is probably different from that by which it affects other marine animals. Incorrect. The passage no where compares dolphins and other marine animals.
(B) When P. brevis blooms in an area where it does not usually exist, it is more toxic than it is in its usual habitat. Incorrect no such comparison on toxic nature of P brevis.
(C) Opportunistic bacterial infection is usually associated with brevetoxin poisoning in bottlenose dolphins. Incorrect. No such assertion in the passage.
(D) The dolphins’ emaciated state was probably a symptom of PCB poisoning rather than of brevetoxin poisoning. Incorrect According to the passage, the combined effect of PCBs and brevetoxin poisoning emaciated dolphins.
(E) When a dolphin metabolizes its blubber, the PCBs released may be more dangerous to the dolphin than they were when stored in the blubber. Correct. The part of the passage suggesting the statement is "The emaciated appearance of many dolphins indicated that they were metabolizing their blubber reserves, thereby reducing their buoyancy and insulation (and (35) adding to overall stress) as well as releasing stores of previously accumulated synthetic pollutants, such as PCBs, which further exacerbated their condition"

7. The author refers to dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico in the last paragraph in order to

(A) refute the assertion that dolphins tend not to inhabit areas where P. brevis is common. Incorrect. This is not mentioned in the passage.
(B) compare the effects of synthetic pollutants on these dolphins and on Atlantic coast dolphins. Incorrect no such comparison made in the passage.
(C) cast doubt on the belief that P. brevis contributes substantially to dolphin die-offs. Correct The author mentions Gulf of Mexico to explain than P brevis is present in Gulf of Mexico and no such die off of dolphins take place there.
(D) illustrate the fact that dolphins in relatively pollution-free waters are healthier than dolphins in polluted waters. Incorrect no such information in the passage.
(E) provide evidence for the argument that P. brevis was probably responsible for the dolphins’ deaths. Incorrect This is opposite.

8. Which one of the following factors is explicitly cited as contributing to the dolphins’ deaths in both theories discussed in the passage?

(A) the dolphins diet. Incorrect. Only one explanation mentions the fish on which dolphins prey.
(B) the presence of P. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico. Incorrect. P brevis in the gulf of Mexico are irrelevant.
(C) the wide variety of toxins released by the red tide bloom of October 1987. Incorrect red tide toxins were released in June.
(D) the presence of synthetic pollutants in the dolphins’ bodies. Correct. This is mentioned as a contributing factor in both the hypothesis.
(E) the bacterial infection caused by a generalized failure of the dolphins’ immune systems. Incorrect. Mentioned in one of the hypothesis.
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Re: Between June 1987 and May 19888, the bodies of at least 740 bottlenose [#permalink]
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2. Which one of the following is mentioned in the passage as evidence for the explanation of the dolphin die-off offered in the final paragraph?

(A) the release of stored brevetoxins from the dolphins’ blubber reserves
(B) the date on which offshore dumping was known to have occurred nearby
(C) the presence of dumping sites for PCBs in the area
(D) the synthetic pollutants that were present in the fish eaten by the dolphins
(E) the effects of PCBs on liver function in dolphins


Finally, the
specific effects of brevetoxin on dolphins are unknown,
whereas PCB poisoning is known to impair functioning
(50) of the immune system and liver and to cause skin
lesions
; all of these problems were observed in the
diseased animals.


Although
brevetoxin may have been a contributing factor, the
event that actually precipitated the die-off was a sharp
increase in the dolphins’ exposure to synthetic
(60) pollutants.


Ans D
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Re: Between June 1987 and May 19888, the bodies of at least 740 bottlenose [#permalink]
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Re: Between June 1987 and May 19888, the bodies of at least 740 bottlenose [#permalink]
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