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Both Alexander Gerschenkron and Jerry Hough view the former Soviet Uni

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Both Alexander Gerschenkron and Jerry Hough view the former Soviet Uni  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2018, 02:36
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Both Alexander Gerschenkron and Jerry Hough view the former Soviet Union as an "anomalous" nation in certain fundamental respects. Gerschenkron sees the Soviet Union as deviating from the expected European pattern of industrialization, while Hough emphasizes how the Soviet Union differed from the standard type of bureaucratic organization. Despite this difference in orientation, both authors share a similar theoretical approach.

First, both authors react in their works to specific explanations already existing in their fields. Gerschenkron responds to the prevailing belief that all countries pass through stages of industrialization similar to that of England's industrial growth and that states must possess certain specific prerequisites before they can industrialize. Hough reacts to the notion that only a bureaucracy that embodies the conventional American image of organization can operate efficiently. This idealized American image, known as monism, sees efficiency as maximized when bureaucrats perform only those duties passed down to them from a central authority.

Second, both Gerschenkron and Hough also attempt to use their work to supplement the existing explanations prevailing in their fields. Gerschenkron expands W. W. Rostow's industrialization model by defining a causal factor, the "degree of economic backwardness," that he believes impacts, among other things, the speed and structure of a country's industrialization. In a similar vein, Hough concludes that the centralized, monistic model of organization must be expanded if it is to enable efficient administration. He uses the Soviet experience to show that overlapping bureaucratic duties can sometimes promote organizational efficiency.

Ultimately, Gerschenkron and Hough succeed at their similar tasks; not only do both authors provide enough evidence to document the anomalous nature of the cases they investigate, but they use their anomalous cases to increase the explanatory range of the existing theories without altering those theories beyond recognition.
1. The author's main point in the passage is reflected most accurately in which one of the following statements?
(A) Gerschenkron and Hough share a similar theoretical enterprise in their works, and both manage this enterprise successfully.
(B) In their research, both Gerschenkron and Hough react to prevailing theories within their fields.
(C) Gerschenkron and Hough both use evidence from the Soviet case to highlight the anomalous features of the former Soviet experience.
(D) The works of Gerschenkron and Hough are expansive because both authors attempt to refute existing theories within their fields and to replace these theories with better explanations.
(E) The works of Gerschenkron and Hough are similar with respect to the specific central tenets of their research.

2. The passage suggests that both Gerschenkron and Hough would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements?
(A) Scientific studies of the former Soviet Union should be limited to an emphasis on industrialization patterns or methods of bureaucratic organization.
(B) W. W. Rostow's industrialization model can be expanded by incorporating the variable of economic backwardness.
(C) All countries pass through stages of industrialization similar to those experienced by England during its early growth.
(D) Empirical research into anomalous cases can broaden the explanatory range of current theories.
(E) Empirical research should focus on attempting to falsify theories through emphasis on disconfirming cases.

3. Which one of the following is explicitly cited as evidence to demonstrate a specific use to which Gerschenkron put his work?
(A) Gerschenkron reacted to the accepted notion that industrialization does not require states to possess any prerequisite characteristics.
(B) Gerschenkron and Hough differed regarding the specific orientation of their respective works.
(C) Gerschenkron described the monistic image of bureaucratic organization in order to show how centralized authority helps to promote bureaucratic efficiency.
(D) Gerschenkron demonstrated that the speed of a country's industrialization affects the country's degree of economic backwardness.
(E) Gerschenkron incorporated a new factor into the model of industrialization put forth by a previous theorist.

4. The author refers to the concept of monism in the second paragraph in order to
(A) support the claim that the former Soviet Union deviated in its development from the normal European pattern of industrialization
(B) refute the notion that Hough provides an alternative conception of bureaucratic efficiency
(C) demonstrate that Hough's work takes issue with the conventional view that efficient bureaucratic organization must conform to the American idealized image
(D) support the claim that Hough portrays the former Soviet Union as similar to most industrialized nations in its bureaucratic structure
(E) provide evidence for the conclusion that the former Soviet case displayed many elements of the idealized American model of bureaucratic organization


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Re: Both Alexander Gerschenkron and Jerry Hough view the former Soviet Uni  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2018, 02:38

Gerschenkron and Hough. What Makes It Difficult


The names alone are a pain, so maybe keeping track of them as simply G and H is the way to go. As for serious considerations, the subject matter is fairly dry and it's fairly difficult to visualize what these guys are talking about, though "book review" passages are common in Reading Comprehension. The concept of the Soviet Union as an "anomalous" nation is a tough one to assimilate, and the various repetitions of "anomalous" throughout the final paragraph magnify this complexity. The "compare and contrast" passage structure, while common to GMAT Reading Comp, is blurred a bit by the presentation of similarities in the work of Gerschenkron and Hough. Keeping the two theorists' views straight in your mind is no easy task, and the questions continually test your ability to distinguish one from the other. The choices are long and complex. Overall, a very tough passage. Let's break it down to its key points.

Key Points of the Passage Purpose and Main Idea

: The author's purpose is to compare how Gerschenkron and Hough approach the case of the former Soviet Union in their scholarly works. The main idea is that both authors share a similar theoretical approach in their works, and both are successful in their theoretical endeavors.

Paragraph Structure

: Paragraph 1 introduces the passage by noting that both Gerschenkron and Hough view the former Soviet Union as an anomalous nation. Although they focus on different aspects of the former Soviet anomaly, they nonetheless share a similar approach in their research.
Paragraph 2 explains one aspect of similarity between the authors' approaches: both develop ideas in reaction to existing theories in their fields. We are told first what Gerschenkron reacts to and then what Hough reacts to in his work.
Paragraph 3 provides a second aspect of similarity between the authors' approaches: both attempt to supplement existing theories in their fields. Again, we are given a description of Gerschenkron's attempt, and then a description of Hough's. The final paragraph summarizes the points made in paragraphs 2 and 3. It also draws a final conclusion: not only are the authors' tasks similar, but they both succeed in these tasks.
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Both Alexander Gerschenkron and Jerry Hough view the former Soviet Uni  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2018, 02:41

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 1.A, 2.D, 3.E, 4.С



1

. (A) This question asks for the author's main point, or the main idea of the passage. This question would be a good one to prephrase, since a careful focus on purpose and structure should make the main idea clear. In this case, the main idea has two parts and is summed up in paragraph 4: the theorists share similar tasks, and they succeed at these tasks as well. This is well stated in choice (A).
(В), (C) These choices describe only parts of the author's claim; they are not broad enough to reflect the main idea. Choice (B) summarizes the point of paragraph 2, while choice (C) discusses a point raised in paragraph 1 about the anomalies of the former Soviet case.
(D) contradicts the author's argument as laid out in paragraph 4. The author specifically states that the theorists use their anomalous cases to "increase the explanatory range of the existing theories." In other words, their works supplement the existing theories. This is a far cry from replacing the theories, as choice (D) suggests.
(E) Again, the opposite is suggested: the author tells us in paragraph 1 that Gerschenkron and Hough focus on different aspects of the Soviet experience—Gerschenkron on industrialization and Hough on bureaucratic organization. Their specific central tenets differ, but their overall theoretical approach is the same.

2

. (D) Next we're asked to choose a statement about which both Gerschenkron and Hough would likely agree. Rather than attempt to prephrase the answer (the possibilities could be very broad), we should scan the choices to determine the correct one.
(D) provides the best summary of a statement that would align with both theorists' views, since paragraph 4 tells us that both men use research into anomalous cases to broaden the explanatory value of existing theories. Presumably, since both theorists use such cases to broaden such explanations, they would agree that using such research in this way is possible.
(A) The author doesn't suggest that studies of the former Soviet Union should be limited to any subjects, and neither does she imply that (B) Gerschenkron and Hough believe this. All we know is that industrialization and bureaucracy are their respective areas of concern. We (C) can't infer that they think that Soviet studies should be limited to their subjects. Gerschenkron would agree with this, but the passage does not indicate Hough's views on Rostow's model. Be wary of an answer that uses extreme language such as "all countries" here. This choice is wrong because we know from lines 4-6 that in Gerschenkron's view, at least one country—the Soviet Union—deviates from the expected European pattern of industrialization. (E) Again, on the contrary: Gerschenkron and Hough do not attempt to falsify the existing theories they deal with—they attempt to supplement them. They would therefore, if anything, probably disagree with the notion that empirical research should focus on falsification. An 800 test taker is extremely sensitive to distortions of the text.

3

. (E) This question asks for a detail from the passage. We know this because we're asked for a statement that is "explicitly cited" in the text. Can't get much clearer than that! (E) generalizes the author's point in paragraph 3 regarding Gerschenkron, the references being to the discussion of Gerschenkron's incorporation of the "economic backwardness" factor into Rostow's industrialization model.
(A) On the contrary: Paragraph 2 tells us that Gerschenkron reacted to the notion that states must possess specific characteristics in orderto industrialize.
(B) True, Gerschenkron may differ from Hough in the specific orientation of his work, but this statement is not explicitly cited as evidence of how Gerschenkron put his work to use.
(C) This description applies to neither Gerschenkron nor Hough's work. Gerschenkron addressed industrialization, not bureaucratic organization, and Hough's work showed that monism is not the only efficient method of bureaucratic organization.
(D) reverses the evidence in the text. Paragraph 3 tells us that Gerschenkron showed that economic backwardness affects the speed of industrialization, not vice versa.

4

. (C) This question asks us to determine what function is served by the introduction of the concept of monism in paragraph 2. This paragraph demonstrates that both authors react in their works to existing theories. Without looking at the answer choices, we can prephrase that "monism is introduced to show that Hough's work reacted to an existing theory." Do we find such an answer with a scan of the choices? In fact, (C) conveys just this idea—albeit a bit more specifically than our prephrase.
An 800 test taker attempts to prephrase answers to Critical Reasoning and Reading Comprehension questions and is adept at spotting the choice in each question that conveys the gist of her prephrase. (A) This choice refers to the subject discussed by Gerschenkron, not Hough.
(B) and (D) present yet two more notions that go against the grain of the passage. Hough reacts against the American system known as monism, and according to paragraph 3, Hough's examination of the former Soviet case results in an alternative conception of bureaucratic efficiency. In addition, the author tells us in paragraph 1 that Hough portrayed the former Soviet Union as anomalous, or different, in its bureaucratic structure. The mention of monism in paragraph 2 is in no way included to show otherwise. (E) Again, the author states that Hough portrayed the former Soviet Union as different from the American monistic model.
An 800 test taker realizes that with passages including a number of theorists and theories, the test makers are simply testing his ability to keep the various elements of the passage straight.

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Re: Both Alexander Gerschenkron and Jerry Hough view the former Soviet Uni  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2018, 09:55
Can someone help me with this question, please?

3. Which one of the following is explicitly cited as evidence to demonstrate a specific use to which Gerschenkron put his work?
(A) Gerschenkron reacted to the accepted notion that industrialization does not require states to possess any prerequisite characteristics.
(B) Gerschenkron and Hough differed regarding the specific orientation of their respective works.
(C) Gerschenkron described the monistic image of bureaucratic organization in order to show how centralized authority helps to promote bureaucratic efficiency.
(D) Gerschenkron demonstrated that the speed of a country's industrialization affects the country's degree of economic backwardness.
(E) Gerschenkron incorporated a new factor into the model of industrialization put forth by a previous theorist.

Now, I opted to go for B even though I wasn't feeling it 100% because initially, I was going to pick E. But then doubts started frustrating me. I thought, alright, "Gerschenkron incorporated a new factor into the model of industrialization put forth by a previous theorist."
The third paragraph certainly supports that, however, the final paragraph reads:

"Ultimately, Gerschenkron and Hough succeed at their similar tasks; not only do both authors provide enough evidence to document the anomalous nature of the cases they investigate, but they use their anomalous cases to increase the explanatory range of the existing theories without altering those theories beyond recognition."

Isn't something *new* technically something that IS in fact unrecognizable as what came before it? So the last paragraph is suggesting they just added to the theory, but didn't really alter it or bring anything new.

What am I missing? Where am I mis-reading?

All help will be greatly appreciated!
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Both Alexander Gerschenkron and Jerry Hough view the former Soviet Uni  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2018, 00:53
1
GmatWizard wrote:

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS



1.A, 2.D, 3.E, 4.Сheader3]1[/header3]. (A) This question asks for the author's main point, or the main idea of the passage. This question would be a good one to prephrase, since a careful focus on purpose and structure should make the main idea clear. In this case, the main idea has two parts and is summed up in paragraph 4: the theorists share similar tasks, and they succeed at these tasks as well. This is well stated in choice (A).
(В), (C) These choices describe only parts of the author's claim; they are not broad enough to reflect the main idea. Choice (B) summarizes the point of paragraph 2, while choice (C) discusses a point raised in paragraph 1 about the anomalies of the former Soviet case.
(D) contradicts the author's argument as laid out in paragraph 4. The author specifically states that the theorists use their anomalous cases to "increase the explanatory range of the existing theories." In other words, their works supplement the existing theories. This is a far cry from replacing the theories, as choice (D) suggests.
(E) Again, the opposite is suggested: the author tells us in paragraph 1 that Gerschenkron and Hough focus on different aspects of the Soviet experience—Gerschenkron on industrialization and Hough on bureaucratic organization. Their specific central tenets differ, but their overall theoretical approach is the same.

2

. (D) Next we're asked to choose a statement about which both Gerschenkron and Hough would likely agree. Rather than attempt to prephrase the answer (the possibilities could be very broad), we should scan the choices to determine the correct one.
(D) provides the best summary of a statement that would align with both theorists' views, since paragraph 4 tells us that both men use research into anomalous cases to broaden the explanatory value of existing theories. Presumably, since both theorists use such cases to broaden such explanations, they would agree that using such research in this way is possible.
(A) The author doesn't suggest that studies of the former Soviet Union should be limited to any subjects, and neither does she imply that (B) Gerschenkron and Hough believe this. All we know is that industrialization and bureaucracy are their respective areas of concern. We (C) can't infer that they think that Soviet studies should be limited to their subjects. Gerschenkron would agree with this, but the passage does not indicate Hough's views on Rostow's model. Be wary of an answer that uses extreme language such as "all countries" here. This choice is wrong because we know from lines 4-6 that in Gerschenkron's view, at least one country—the Soviet Union—deviates from the expected European pattern of industrialization. (E) Again, on the contrary: Gerschenkron and Hough do not attempt to falsify the existing theories they deal with—they attempt to supplement them. They would therefore, if anything, probably disagree with the notion that empirical research should focus on falsification. An 800 test taker is extremely sensitive to distortions of the text.

3

. (E) This question asks for a detail from the passage. We know this because we're asked for a statement that is "explicitly cited" in the text. Can't get much clearer than that! (E) generalizes the author's point in paragraph 3 regarding Gerschenkron, the references being to the discussion of Gerschenkron's incorporation of the "economic backwardness" factor into Rostow's industrialization model.
(A) On the contrary: Paragraph 2 tells us that Gerschenkron reacted to the notion that states must possess specific characteristics in orderto industrialize.
(B) True, Gerschenkron may differ from Hough in the specific orientation of his work, but this statement is not explicitly cited as evidence of how Gerschenkron put his work to use.
(C) This description applies to neither Gerschenkron nor Hough's work. Gerschenkron addressed industrialization, not bureaucratic organization, and Hough's work showed that monism is not the only efficient method of bureaucratic organization.
(D) reverses the evidence in the text. Paragraph 3 tells us that Gerschenkron showed that economic backwardness affects the speed of industrialization, not vice versa.

4

. (C) This question asks us to determine what function is served by the introduction of the concept of monism in paragraph 2. This paragraph demonstrates that both authors react in their works to existing theories. Without looking at the answer choices, we can prephrase that "monism is introduced to show that Hough's work reacted to an existing theory." Do we find such an answer with a scan of the choices? In fact, (C) conveys just this idea—albeit a bit more specifically than our prephrase.
An 800 test taker attempts to prephrase answers to Critical Reasoning and Reading Comprehension questions and is adept at spotting the choice in each question that conveys the gist of her prephrase. (A) This choice refers to the subject discussed by Gerschenkron, not Hough.
(B) and (D) present yet two more notions that go against the grain of the passage. Hough reacts against the American system known as monism, and according to paragraph 3, Hough's examination of the former Soviet case results in an alternative conception of bureaucratic efficiency. In addition, the author tells us in paragraph 1 that Hough portrayed the former Soviet Union as anomalous, or different, in its bureaucratic structure. The mention of monism in paragraph 2 is in no way included to show otherwise. (E) Again, the author states that Hough portrayed the former Soviet Union as different from the American monistic model.
An 800 test taker realizes that with passages including a number of theorists and theories, the test makers are simply testing his ability to keep the various elements of the passage straight.


Hey Hi aanjumz92,
You can read the answers and explanations here
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Both Alexander Gerschenkron and Jerry Hough view the former Soviet Uni &nbs [#permalink] 14 Nov 2018, 00:53
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