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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2019, 06:59
DivyaKnows wrote:
The line "the pilot....records" within the commas can be removed completely and the sentence should still make sense is that not right?
But that doesnt work here, does it?
That's a "tactic", not a rule. In this case, that portion contains one of the two important subject-verb pairs in the sentence.

The pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new...
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 04:40
Even though I chose the correct answer. I couldn't find a solid reason to eliminate option A and eliminated it since it uses the wrong idiom So X....for... Y instead of So X....that... Y.

AjiteshArun GMATNinja could you please elaborate on why option A is wrong further?
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 06:22
guhancr7 wrote:
Even though I chose the correct answer. I couldn't find a solid reason to eliminate option A and eliminated it since it uses the wrong idiom So X....for... Y instead of So X....that... Y.

AjiteshArun GMATNinja could you please elaborate on why option A is wrong further?
You're on the right track here. The so... for is a good reason not to pick option A. A couple of other points:

1. The and she earned them at a time just adds 3 additional words to the sentence. Earned at a time is enough.

2. When we use for this way (with something like too) we mean that the thing the for introduces is not true. For example:

There were too many confounding factors for the analysis to provide any meaningful information.

This means that the analysis did not actually provide any meaningful information. Similarly, in this question:

... she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

This means that the planes were not "of dangerously experimental design". That is the exact opposite of the intended meaning.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 21:36
Hi

Can anybody please explain the absence of past perfect here: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records <...>"

GMATNinja

Thank you guys
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 23:14
jawele wrote:
Can anybody please explain the absence of past perfect here: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records <...>"

Hi jawele, I do think past perfect would also have been a valid (and perhaps better) usage here.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2019, 12:17
earning these and earning them ie usage of these and them confused me generally as in this example both are used interchangeably in the underlined portion.
is there any rule to differentiate them?
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2019, 23:42
Cheryn wrote:
earning these and earning them ie usage of these and them confused me generally as in this example both are used interchangeably in the underlined portion.
is there any rule to differentiate them?

Cheryn , yes, they are different kinds of words.
On the GMAT, we use these followed by a noun
as a way to point to the noun:
these cookies that you just baked, these horses that we are taking to the vet,
these questions in this forum


These is a demonstrative adjective, not a noun or pronoun.

By contrast, them replaces the noun and stands alone.

• On the GMAT, these, plural of this, is a demonstrative adjective or determiner—it points to specific nouns.

Correct: She earned these gold medals in the museum case because she was a fabulous pilot.
(points to "gold medals" and not the silver medals, for example)
Wrong: She earned them gold medals in the museum case because she was a fabulous pilot.
(them is an object pronoun, not an adjective and determiner)

Incorrect on the GMAT (and in formal writing):
I am impressed by her many medals and surprised that she won all these so quickly.
Correction (use them, the pronoun):
I am impressed by her many medals and surprised that she won all of them so quickly.

Correct: These chocolate truffles without nuts are tasty.
(Points to "chocolate truffles." I don't like the truffles that contain nuts.)
Wrong: These without nuts are tasty.
These WHAT?

Them is a pronoun and the direct object of a verb or a preposition.
Them stands alone, stands in for the noun, and is not followed by the noun
(them does not "point" to the noun).

Correct, direct object of the verb earned, pronoun:
Airplane enthusiasts still marvel at Cochran's many medals because
she earned THEM so quickly.

("them" is the direct object of the verb "earned" and is a pronoun that replaces the noun "medals."
Wrong:
Airplane enthusiasts still marvel at Cochran's many medals
because she earned them medals so quickly.
(OUCH.)

Direct object of a preposition, pronoun:
She was accomplished and gracious; though she won many medals for her flying,
she never bragged about them.


Wrong: She was accomplished and gracious; though she won many flying medals,
she never bragged about these.

Essentially
-- do not leave the word "these" by itself, i.e., without a noun following it,
whereas
-- them stands IN for the noun (so that we don't have to say the noun twice)
Them does stand by itself (is not followed by the noun).

Hope that helps.
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national   [#permalink] 18 Apr 2019, 23:42

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