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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2019, 06:59
DivyaKnows wrote:
The line "the pilot....records" within the commas can be removed completely and the sentence should still make sense is that not right?
But that doesnt work here, does it?
That's a "tactic", not a rule. In this case, that portion contains one of the two important subject-verb pairs in the sentence.

The pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new...
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 04:40
Even though I chose the correct answer. I couldn't find a solid reason to eliminate option A and eliminated it since it uses the wrong idiom So X....for... Y instead of So X....that... Y.

AjiteshArun GMATNinja could you please elaborate on why option A is wrong further?
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 06:22
guhancr7 wrote:
Even though I chose the correct answer. I couldn't find a solid reason to eliminate option A and eliminated it since it uses the wrong idiom So X....for... Y instead of So X....that... Y.

AjiteshArun GMATNinja could you please elaborate on why option A is wrong further?
You're on the right track here. The so... for is a good reason not to pick option A. A couple of other points:

1. The and she earned them at a time just adds 3 additional words to the sentence. Earned at a time is enough.

2. When we use for this way (with something like too) we mean that the thing the for introduces is not true. For example:

There were too many confounding factors for the analysis to provide any meaningful information.

This means that the analysis did not actually provide any meaningful information. Similarly, in this question:

... she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

This means that the planes were not "of dangerously experimental design". That is the exact opposite of the intended meaning.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 21:36
Hi

Can anybody please explain the absence of past perfect here: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records <...>"

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Thank you guys
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 23:14
jawele wrote:
Can anybody please explain the absence of past perfect here: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records <...>"

Hi jawele, I do think past perfect would also have been a valid (and perhaps better) usage here.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2019, 12:17
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earning these and earning them ie usage of these and them confused me generally as in this example both are used interchangeably in the underlined portion.
is there any rule to differentiate them?
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2019, 23:42
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Cheryn wrote:
earning these and earning them ie usage of these and them confused me generally as in this example both are used interchangeably in the underlined portion.
is there any rule to differentiate them?

Cheryn , yes, they are different kinds of words.
On the GMAT, we use these followed by a noun
as a way to point to the noun:
these cookies that you just baked, these horses that we are taking to the vet,
these questions in this forum


These is a demonstrative adjective, not a noun or pronoun.

By contrast, them replaces the noun and stands alone.

• On the GMAT, these, plural of this, is a demonstrative adjective or determiner—it points to specific nouns.

Correct: She earned these gold medals in the museum case because she was a fabulous pilot.
(points to "gold medals" and not the silver medals, for example)
Wrong: She earned them gold medals in the museum case because she was a fabulous pilot.
(them is an object pronoun, not an adjective and determiner)

Incorrect on the GMAT (and in formal writing):
I am impressed by her many medals and surprised that she won all these so quickly.
Correction (use them, the pronoun):
I am impressed by her many medals and surprised that she won all of them so quickly.

Correct: These chocolate truffles without nuts are tasty.
(Points to "chocolate truffles." I don't like the truffles that contain nuts.)
Wrong: These without nuts are tasty.
These WHAT?

Them is a pronoun and the direct object of a verb or a preposition.
Them stands alone, stands in for the noun, and is not followed by the noun
(them does not "point" to the noun).

Correct, direct object of the verb earned, pronoun:
Airplane enthusiasts still marvel at Cochran's many medals because
she earned THEM so quickly.

("them" is the direct object of the verb "earned" and is a pronoun that replaces the noun "medals."
Wrong:
Airplane enthusiasts still marvel at Cochran's many medals
because she earned them medals so quickly.
(OUCH.)

Direct object of a preposition, pronoun:
She was accomplished and gracious; though she won many medals for her flying,
she never bragged about them.


Wrong: She was accomplished and gracious; though she won many flying medals,
she never bragged about these.

Essentially
-- do not leave the word "these" by itself, i.e., without a noun following it,
whereas
-- them stands IN for the noun (so that we don't have to say the noun twice)
Them does stand by itself (is not followed by the noun).

Hope that helps.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2019, 02:32
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generis

Thank you very much for explaining .

so this means even "this" should be used in the similar fashion ( PLEASE CLARIFY AS THIS IS MY REGULAR USAGE)

for eg

if i say thank you very much for explaining this ( singular form of these), then it is wrong..

i should say thank you very much for explaining it ( singular from of them)..

REALLY THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR ENLIGHTENING ME IN THE ABOVE TOPIC ( even here i typed enlightening this and then substituted by enlightening me ......)

so kindly clarify this also.
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2019, 22:29
Cheryn wrote:
generis

Thank you very much for explaining .

so this means even "this" should be used in the similar fashion ( PLEASE CLARIFY AS THIS IS MY REGULAR USAGE)

for eg

if i say thank you very much for explaining this ( singular form of these), then it is wrong..

i should say thank you very much for explaining it ( singular from of them)..

REALLY THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR ENLIGHTENING ME IN THE ABOVE TOPIC ( even here i typed enlightening this and then substituted by enlightening me ......)

so kindly clarify this also.

Cheryn , on the GMAT, as a general rule, these should be followed by a plural noun and this should be followed by a singular noun.

But if the other four answers are incorrect and one answer is logical and otherwise grammatical but contains THIS or THESE as a pronoun, choose that answer.

I know of exactly one official question in which the correct answer includes the word this used as a pronoun.
That question was published two weeks ago in Official Guide 2020.

Spoiler alert: the correct answer to a very new official question is revealed.

In this OG 2020 question, here the word "this" is a pronoun. Only one of the five answers contains "this" used this way, and that answer is correct.


Similarly, I know of exactly one official question in which the correct answer includes the use of the word THESE as a pronoun.
That GMAT Prep question was available in 2008, I believe. You can find that question here.

I would read the topic thread discussions about those two questions.
The discussions are interesting and may help you.

Almost all of the time on the GMAT, these and this are demonstrative articles.

I cannot give you a better answer than that. [In the preceding sentence, pronoun that is a copy of answer.]
I sense that you would like me to give you a guarantee or an inviolable rule.

I can't do so. GMAC does not publish an official guide or grammar book.
We know what to expect on the GMAT only from published questions that have been retired.

Some grammarians accept the use of this and these as pronouns.
Other grammarians reject the use of this and these as pronouns.

Quote:
If i say thank you very much for explaining this ( singular form of these), then it is wrong..

On the GMAT, that construction is highly unlikely to be the correct answer.
Check the other four answers.
Quote:
i should say thank you very much for explaining it ( singular from of them)..

Not quite. You should use a specific noun or noun phrase, because so far in your post, none exists.
You could say,
"Thank you for answering my question."
"Thank you for explaining the difference between them and these."
"Thank you for explaining the issue."
(I understand what "the issue" refers to because I wrote the answer.)

On the GMAT the word it needs an antecedent.
What does "it" refer to?

You wrote:
PLEASE CLARIFY AS THIS IS MY REGULAR USAGE,

You are asking about the GMAT.
On the GMAT, the typical way in which you use the word this is very likely to be wrong.

I hope that answer helps.
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2019, 02:35
Hi egmat

Isnt Earned a verb here? When the do-er of the action is not the subject of the sentence, VERB-ED is a modifier which agrees with the closest noun(records here), but when Do-er of the action is the subject of the sentence, VERB-ED is Verb of the sentence.

I worked hard to get 780 on GMAT, Considered as the most challenging score by EGMAT. Here worked is verb of the sentence as "I" am doing the action of working. Considered is a modifier as someone else is doing the action of Considering, and it is agreeing to 780.

Isnt JC doing the action of earning here?


Since the act of earning is the result of getting records, shouldnt it be better represented using a verb-ing? In my understanding, we can not use parallelism for cause and effect relationship. If B had "when'" rather than "that', would it be a better option?
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national   [#permalink] 04 Jun 2019, 02:35

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