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# Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 05 Jan 2014, 10:19
eyunni wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.
(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words were added
(E) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added

One choice is slightly tweaked to make life difficult. Please explain your choice.

We don't have to focus on s-v agreement (language is makes sense). However, we need to focus on tense.

A) You cannot use "HAS been added" when you're refering to three languages. It needs to be HAVE been added. A is wrong
B) "added to which is" should be "added to which are", and even at that this structure is weird and I don't think it is ideomatically correct. B is wrong
C) "were" does not make sense since a specific timeframe is needed, otherwise we have ambiguity. Also, were sort of implies that the language no longer exists/applies, as if it is a dead language that no longer functions in our world. That is also not the intent of the author. Simple past is wrong tense. C is gone
D) "are" added is wrong, sure "is" is present tense but the words are not added right at this instant. So D is wrong. Also, "and, in addition" sounds weird.
E) "have been" is correct, "something that happened in the past and is no longer happening". This keeps the intent of the author intact. Also "to which.. added" makes ideomatical sense, especially in comparison to the other options.

E is correct

Originally posted by aeglorre on 05 Jan 2014, 10:06.
Last edited by aeglorre on 05 Jan 2014, 10:19, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2014, 10:15
nmohindru wrote:
eyunni wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.
(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words were added
(E) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added

One choice is slightly tweaked to make life difficult. Please explain your choice.

IMO C).

E) uses present perfect which means action is still happening. However this dialect was "brought" in 1755.

That is an incorrect assesment. "have been added" does not imply the action is still happening, it implies that in the past, words were added and the process of adding words is no longer happening. Were added needs to refer to some timeframe, otherwise it makes no sense. If we're going to use simple past, we need a specific time to connect "were" to. (Otherwise, what period of time does were specifically refer to? A hundred years ago? 5 minutes ago? It's ambiguous) Have been added is much more flexible in that sense, since it simply states that "in the past X happened, and it is no longer happening". Thus, E is correct.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2014, 11:10
4
suyash23n wrote:
pqhai wrote:
Dhairya275 wrote:
The answer is incorrect. Its QG 12 Ques 129.

The QA is E.

Please correct the QA so that others aren't missed guided.

Yes, I'd like to confirm OA is E for this question.

Other version of this question is:

Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added ==> CORRECT.
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

OA is C.

But in the question we're discussing, the order of the OA is switched.

Hope it's clear now.

For the question posted, i would go for C. I can't understand why present perfect is used. However, i see in the OG, we do not have same options as they are in the original post ( already mentioned by the author), and hence want to know, if we use "were" instead of "are", would you still prefer option E.
It would be great if you can explain.

Hi Suyash,

I’m not sure if you are still looking for a response on this question. But here it is anyway.

You have correctly identified that the correct answer for the posted question is option C i.e. “to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added.”
Now, to find out why the present perfect tense is used here, let’s try to understand the meaning of the sentence:

Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians
o who migrated there in 1755;
their language is basically seventeenth-century French
o to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words.

MEANING
So, the sentence tells us about a dialect that Cajuns speak. This dialect was brought to southern Louisiana by 4,000 Arcadians in 1755.
It also tells us that the language of the Arcadians is basically seventeenth-century French. English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added to this language.

Now, the reason for using the present perfect tense is that these words have been added over a long time. The action of adding words to a language happens with the evolution of the language. We use the present perfect tense to refer to an action that started in the past and has continued into the present. So, the use of this tense is correct in the context of this sentence. The intended meaning here is that these words have been added to the language over the course of time.

Option E

If we use ‘are/were added’ as the verb in this sentence, that means the action of adding these words happened at a certain point of time. Now, since there is no point of time mentioned in the sentence, we cannot use ‘were added’.

Also, this option has two more errors:

Meaning Error: It’s not clear what the words are added to. Logically we know that these words are added to the seventeenth-century French, but it’s not mentioned in this option.

Redundancy Error: The phrase ‘in addition’ and the word ‘and’ both are used in the sentence to provide some additional information. So, one of them is redundant here.

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Deepak
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2014, 10:13
I wonder why A is incorrect. Can anyone explain that? Thank you in advance.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2014, 13:15
Here is my explenation:

First of all we should consider what the "author" wants to explain: the fact that to french have been added several languages;

In the original sentence the subject are English, Spanish AND italian languages; but the verb is singular; As we know the conjuction and makes the subject plural so the verb should be have. We could have used has if, and only if the sentence would have introduced a conjuction like or.
Finally we should decide between C and E ( i did not say among, check the difference), but we figure out that we cannot use the past simple, instead, we should use the present perfect simply because there are no time references and the only thing we can assume is that the action happened in the past.

I believe that E is the correct answer.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2014, 20:43
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words - singular verb for words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words - singular word for words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added - correct verb. Words were added in past and they are are still present in language.
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it - With refers to subject not to french, it is ambigous
(E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added - Words were added in past not in present, connector missing between two independent clause. Comma should be before "and" rather than after
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2015, 11:15
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words - plural verb needed
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words - plural verb needed
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added - Correct (have is used correctly)
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it - having been is incorrectly used here
(E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added - "and" & "in addition" together are redundant.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2015, 15:11
amitkaneria wrote:
confused between 'C' and 'E' .... would prefer 'E'

E is terribly wrong. Look at the verb in C and take away adjectives. Language is (=) French. If you separate the sentence with "and, in addition" you are opening a new Verb Participle. If you do this it would be the same as saying "Their language is (=), in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian are added" That makes no sense whatsoever. The language is not E, S, and I. "Are added" is just left in there. Are added to what? To the language? To the universe? To a small hole? In addition is awkward. Its just terribly wrong. I don't see how anyone could pick E.

Try to remember that the verb "is" is almost identical to an = sign.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2015, 05:35
I am not sure whether my OG is the right version, but it says the OA is C.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words
An inverted attributive clause.
"has" is wrong because three languages have been added.

(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
"is" is wrong because three languages have been added.

(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
Correct.
An inverted restrictive attributive clause.

(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it
IMO it is grammatically correct.
However, this is a prepositional phrase, which means that its modification function is weaker than a restrictive attributive clause.

Wrong tense. "are" is wrong.
Since we have witnessed the verb "brought", there is sufficient ground to believe that the context suggests a present perfect tense.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2016, 22:35
egmat wrote:
suyash23n wrote:
pqhai wrote:
[quote="Dhairya275"]The answer is incorrect. Its QG 12 Ques 129.

The QA is E.

Please correct the QA so that others aren't missed guided.

Yes, I'd like to confirm OA is E for this question.

Other version of this question is:

Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added ==> CORRECT.
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

OA is C.

But in the question we're discussing, the order of the OA is switched.

Hope it's clear now.

For the question posted, i would go for C. I can't understand why present perfect is used. However, i see in the OG, we do not have same options as they are in the original post ( already mentioned by the author), and hence want to know, if we use "were" instead of "are", would you still prefer option E.
It would be great if you can explain.

Hi Suyash,

I’m not sure if you are still looking for a response on this question. But here it is anyway.

You have correctly identified that the correct answer for the posted question is option C i.e. “to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added.”
Now, to find out why the present perfect tense is used here, let’s try to understand the meaning of the sentence:

Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians
o who migrated there in 1755;
their language is basically seventeenth-century French
o to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words.

MEANING
So, the sentence tells us about a dialect that Cajuns speak. This dialect was brought to southern Louisiana by 4,000 Arcadians in 1755.
It also tells us that the language of the Arcadians is basically seventeenth-century French. English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added to this language.

Now, the reason for using the present perfect tense is that these words have been added over a long time. The action of adding words to a language happens with the evolution of the language. We use the present perfect tense to refer to an action that started in the past and has continued into the present. So, the use of this tense is correct in the context of this sentence. The intended meaning here is that these words have been added to the language over the course of time.

Option E

If we use ‘are/were added’ as the verb in this sentence, that means the action of adding these words happened at a certain point of time. Now, since there is no point of time mentioned in the sentence, we cannot use ‘were added’.

Also, this option has two more errors:

Meaning Error: It’s not clear what the words are added to. Logically we know that these words are added to the seventeenth-century French, but it’s not mentioned in this option.

Redundancy Error: The phrase ‘in addition’ and the word ‘and’ both are used in the sentence to provide some additional information. So, one of them is redundant here.

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Deepak[/quote]
Hi e-GMAT,

Thanks for the explanation. Could you please explain the use of 'having been' in GMAT (Option D also has 'having been')?

Sent from my HM NOTE 1LTE using GMAT Club Forum mobile app
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 20:24
eyunni wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

A "Has been" should be plural in number.
B "Is" should be plural in number.
C Correct.
D "Having been" is incorrect.
E "And" and "in addition" are redundant. "Are" is also the wrong tense.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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20 May 2017, 17:32
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2017, 20:18
eyunni wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

Hi sayantanc2k
Is there also no verb in D? is having been a modifier acting as verb-ing? Since after AND independent clause should
follow, I think verb is missing in later part of sentence after semicolon and and
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2018, 21:29
@e-gmat, sayantan2ck
Can you pl explain why the tense having been added is wrong in option d.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2018, 13:41
hassu13 wrote:
@e-gmat, sayantan2ck
Can you pl explain why the tense having been added is wrong in option d.

Posted from my mobile device

GMAT prefer to express action with full subject + verb vs. preposition+noun+-ing
Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 &nbs [#permalink] 30 Jul 2018, 13:41

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