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Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of

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Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Jan 2019, 05:29
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A
B
C
D
E

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Question Stats:

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Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of stainless steel or of nylon. In a study of such instruments, 10 complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments required 3.4 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments, whereas 50 complete sterilizations of a set of stainless steel instruments required 2.1 times the amount of energy required to manufacture that set of instruments.

If the statements above are true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT:


(A) The 50 complete sterilizations of nylon instruments used more energy than did the 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments.

(B) More energy was required for each complete sterilization of the nylon instruments than was required to manufacture the nylon instruments.

(C) More nylon instruments than stainless steel instruments were sterilized in the study.

(D) More energy was used to produce the stainless steel instruments than was used to produce the nylon instruments.

(E) The total cost of 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments was greater than the cost of manufacturing the stainless steel instruments.


Official LSAT Test Prep 9, Section 2, Q-17
(B) If this one reminded you of a logic game, so much the better: Your LG skills serve
you well here. First, note that the question asks for the one thing that cannot be true. Next,
draw out the information the stimulus gives — and doesn’t give. There are two sets of
instruments; the same procedures are done to each; and the procedures yield similar
results. It takes more energy to sterilize a set of these instruments than it does to
manufacture them. But we don’t know how many instruments make up each set, nor do
we know exactly how much energy it takes to manufacture either set. It could take more to
make nylon tools, or it could take more to make stainless steel, or it could take equal
amounts of energy for both. We just don’t know. Unfortunately there’s no way to predict
the answer here. It’s just a matter of slogging through the choices until you find the right
one.
(A) could be true. If the same amount of energy was required to manufacture both the
nylon and the steel instruments, then sterilizing the nylon instruments would have been
more energy consuming than sterilizing the steel. (B), however, can’t be true, and yes, it
takes a little math-thinking, but that’s life. (You could have skipped this choice and
checked out the others; if all of them can be true, then (B) must be correct whether or not
you understand why.) If 50 complete sterilizations of the nylon instruments took 3.4 times
the energy to make that set, then they should be able to do roughly 15 sterilizations with
the same energy as manufacture. One complete sterilization, then, must have taken far less
than the energy of manufacture. (C) could be true; as we noted above, we don’t know how
many types of instrument appear in each kit, so there could be more nylon instruments
than steel. Since both kits were sterilized an equal number of times, more nylon
instruments could have been sterilized. (D) absolutely could be true, since we don’t know
how much energy was required to produce either set. (E) is also quite possible. If
materials are cheap, and energy is very expensive, then using far more energy to sterilize
than manufacture steel instruments could make sterilizing them more expensive than
making them in the first place.

Originally posted by x97agarwal on 28 Jul 2008, 15:29.
Last edited by Bunuel on 06 Jan 2019, 05:29, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 29 Jul 2008, 10:13
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x97agarwal wrote:
Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of stainless steel or of nylon. In a study of such instruments, 10 complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments required 3.4 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments, whereas 50 complete sterilizations of a set of stainless steel instruments required 2.1 times the amount of energy required to manufacture that set of instruments.
If the statements above are true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT:
(A) The 50 complete sterilizations of nylon instruments used more energy than did the 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments.
(B) More energy was required for each complete sterilization of the nylon instruments than was required to manufacture the nylon instruments.
(C) More nylon instruments than stainless steel instruments were sterilized in the study.
(D) More energy was used to produce the stainless steel instruments than was used to produce the nylon instruments.
(E) The total cost of 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments was greater than the cost of manufacturing the stainless steel instruments.


b) More energy was required for each complete sterilization of the nylon instruments than was required to manufacture the nylon instruments.

10 complete sterilizations of set --> 3.4 time amount of energy for manufacture set ..
1 complete sterilizations of set -> 0.34 time amount of energy for manufacture set ..

Argument clearly disapprove B..
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Originally posted by x2suresh on 29 Jul 2008, 10:05.
Last edited by x2suresh on 29 Jul 2008, 10:13, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2008, 05:13
1
I actually chose E - because the passage makes no mention of costs.

What's the OA?
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Re: Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 29 Jul 2008, 10:09
bigfernhead wrote:
I actually chose E - because the passage makes no mention of costs.

What's the OA?


The total cost of 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments was greater than the cost of manufacturing the stainless steel instruments.

This can be true or can't be true.. we are not 100% sure.
(other costs.. like raw material cost, operating cost.. other factors too..)
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Originally posted by x2suresh on 29 Jul 2008, 10:08.
Last edited by x2suresh on 29 Jul 2008, 10:09, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2010, 18:14
2
B

the approach that I took is to determine what could be definitely contrary to the info stated in the question. as mentioned before, cost to sterilize nylon inst's is 0.34 times of the cost to mnf given the data.
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Re: Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2011, 23:05
x97agarwal wrote:
Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of stainless steel or of nylon. In a study of such instruments, 10 complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments required 3.4 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments, whereas 50 complete sterilizations of a set of stainless steel instruments required 2.1 times the amount of energy required to manufacture that set of instruments.

If the statements above are true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT:

(A) The 50 complete sterilizations of nylon instruments used more energy than did the 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments. Passage doesn't compare about the energy used between Nylon and Stainless Steel sterilization, it talks about the energy used in Sterilization and energy used for manufacturing set of instrument either Nylon or Stainless
(B) More energy was required for each complete sterilization of the nylon instruments than was required to manufacture the nylon instruments. it is mentioned in passage
10 complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments = 3.4 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments,
so, for each complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments = 0.34 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments,

(C) More nylon instruments than stainless steel instruments were sterilized in the study. true
(D) More energy was used to produce the stainless steel instruments than was used to produce the nylon instruments. true
(E) The total cost of 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments was greater than the cost of manufacturing the stainless steel instruments.passage doesn't talk about the cost


so, possible ans for me is a,b or E.

can some1 please explain if i am wrong.?
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New post 14 Sep 2011, 03:01
321kumarsushant wrote:
x97agarwal wrote:
Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of stainless steel or of nylon. In a study of such instruments, 10 complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments required 3.4 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments, whereas 50 complete sterilizations of a set of stainless steel instruments required 2.1 times the amount of energy required to manufacture that set of instruments.

If the statements above are true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT:

(A) The 50 complete sterilizations of nylon instruments used more energy than did the 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments. Passage doesn't compare about the energy used between Nylon and Stainless Steel sterilization, it talks about the energy used in Sterilization and energy used for manufacturing set of instrument either Nylon or Stainless
(B) More energy was required for each complete sterilization of the nylon instruments than was required to manufacture the nylon instruments. it is mentioned in passage
10 complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments = 3.4 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments,
so, for each complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments = 0.34 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments,

(C) More nylon instruments than stainless steel instruments were sterilized in the study. true
(D) More energy was used to produce the stainless steel instruments than was used to produce the nylon instruments. true
(E) The total cost of 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments was greater than the cost of manufacturing the stainless steel instruments.passage doesn't talk about the cost


so, possible ans for me is a,b or E.

can some1 please explain if i am wrong.?


Consider the best case scenario to rule out each option.

A) The 50 complete sterilizations of nylon instruments used more energy than did the 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments.
Quantity of energy consumption is not mentioned in the passage, so we can assume any value for the energy to make the statement true.

Energy used 50 complete sterilizations of nylon instruments- 17 Terajoule
Energy used 50 complete sterilizations of SS instruments- 2.4 joule

So far we take a value that doesn't conflict with the information provided in the passage, we are free to choose any number.
Could be true.

E) The total cost of 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments was greater than the cost of manufacturing the stainless steel instruments.

Say $x spent on energy used for manufacturing.
$2.1x spent on energy used for 50 sterilizations.

The difference=2.1x-x=1.1x

If the manufacturing cost of SS < 1.1x, this will also hold true.
Could be true.

(B) can't be true. To make it true, we'll have to contradict the information in the passage, something we must not do.

Ans: "B"
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Re: Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2012, 05:42
Let's take an example .

Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of stainless steel or of nylon. In a study of such instruments, 10 complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments required 3.4 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments, whereas 50 complete sterilizations of a set of stainless steel instruments required 2.1 times the amount of energy required to manufacture that set of instruments.


Let's assume that energy required to manufacture a nylon instrument is 20 kwh.
10 sterilizations consumed 3.4 x 20 = 74
Each sterilization requires - 74/10 = 7.4 kwh


Let's assume that energy required to manufacture a stainless steel instrument is 0.5 kwh
Therefore the energy required for 50 complete sterilizations is 2.1 times x .5 = about 1 kwh
Energy required for each sterilization is 1/50 = 0.02 kwh

Clearly the cost to manufacture a stainless steel instrument is unrelated to the cost to manufacture a nylon based instrument.



This example indicates that only B can be false. The above example disproves (D)


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New post 13 Sep 2012, 23:01
P1: Certain Set of Instruments were made from Nylon and Steel
P2: 10 * En = 3.4 * (Em)
50 * Es = 2.1 * (Em)

Where,
En = Energy Required Sterilization of Nylon
Es = Energy Required Sterilization of Steel
Em = Energy required for Manufacturing set of instruments

(A) The 50 complete sterilizations of nylon instruments used more energy than did the 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments.

5* (10 * En) = 5*3.4* Em = 17 Em (since Em is always positive)

50 Es = 2.1 Em < 17 Em So We can conclude (A) from above Premises. ( So This is not the Answer)
=============================================================
(B) More energy was required for each complete sterilization of the nylon instruments than was required to manufacture the nylon instruments.

We do not know anyting about the values of En and Em So we cannot compare these two values. So this could be the answer
=============================================================
(C) More nylon instruments than stainless steel instruments were sterilized in the study.

This is a out scope choice. Nowhere in the Premises, the author talked about the number of nylon / steel instruments. So leave it.
=============================================================
(D) More energy was used to produce the stainless steel instruments than was used to produce the nylon instruments.
This is also an out of scope answer choice.
=============================================================
(E) The total cost of 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments was greater than the cost of manufacturing the stainless steel instruments.
This is also an out of scope answer choice.
Author did not talk about the price at all.
=============================================================

So the answer is : Choice B.
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Re: Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2012, 05:41
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x97agarwal wrote:
Certain instruments used in veterinary surgery can be made either of stainless steel or of nylon. In a study of such instruments, 10 complete sterilizations of a set of nylon instruments required 3.4 times the amount of energy used to manufacture that set of instruments, whereas 50 complete sterilizations of a set of stainless steel instruments required 2.1 times the amount of energy required to manufacture that set of instruments.

If the statements above are true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT:

(A) The 50 complete sterilizations of nylon instruments used more energy than did the 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments.
(B) More energy was required for each complete sterilization of the nylon instruments than was required to manufacture the nylon instruments.
(C) More nylon instruments than stainless steel instruments were sterilized in the study.
(D) More energy was used to produce the stainless steel instruments than was used to produce the nylon instruments.
(E) The total cost of 50 complete sterilizations of the stainless steel instruments was greater than the cost of manufacturing the stainless steel instruments.



Let me try explaining this ...
Equation 1 says:
10 Sterilizations = 3.4 (Manufacturing of Nylon group)
or 1 Sterilizations = .34 (Manufacturing of Nylon group)
or 1 Sterilizations = 34% (Manufacturing of Nylon group)

Equation 2 says:
50 Sterilizations = 2.1 (Manufacturing of Steel group)
or 1 Sterilizations = 2.1/50 (Manufacturing of Nylon group)
1 Sterilizations = 4% (Manufacturing of Nylon group)

That's all we know. No relationship between the cost of Nylon and Steel group defined. Neither their number is certain.

A) As stated above, we don't know this relation so no comments.
C) As stated above, we don't know this relation so no comments.
D) As stated above, we don't know this relation so no comments.
E) Yes, we know this is true from equation 2. If 50 Sterilizations equals 2.1 times Manu, then 50 S must be bigger than 1 times Manu for sure ..

Correct Answer: B) In case of Nylon, the option suggests 1 S > 100% Manu; however, we know that 1 S just equals 34% manu and cant be bigger than that.

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New post 08 Jul 2015, 21:44
If you don't get (B) right away, you will most likely boil it down to (B) and (C).

(B) Sterilization per nylon instrument > total energy on manufacturing nylon instruments. Not true.

(C) Although they do mention only 10 nylon and 50 stainless steel instruments, it doesn't imply that only 10 nylon and only 50 stainless steel instruments were studied. The statement can be read as, "for every 10" or "for every 50". They merely state a ratio. So, it is possible that more nylon instruments were tested in the study.
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