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Question Stats: 64% (01:47) correct 36% (01:52) wrong based on 1046 sessions

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Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.

(A) Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.

(B) In contrast to the numerous theorems of Geometry readily accessible to high school students, most of the theorems of Number Theory are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.

(C) Compared with the numerous theorems of Geometry, which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.

(D) Compared to Geometry, numerous theorems of which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated as those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.

(E) Compared to Geometry, which has numerous theorems that are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory, which has many theorems that are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.

Originally posted by mba1382 on 07 Mar 2014, 02:55.
Last edited by hazelnut on 28 May 2018, 18:02, edited 2 times in total.
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I chose C, but on a re-look I agree with B.

A. Wrong Comparison
B. Compares 'numerous theorems of Geometry readily accessible to HS students' with 'numerous theorems of NT'
C. Compares 'numerous theorems of Geometry' with 'Number Theory' <--- WRONG
D. No verb in the main clause.
E. Improper Construction

The comparison here is about the 'number of theorems'.
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I choose B. Very confusing wording. It took me 3 and half mins!

A has no meaning what so ever.

B. In contrast to the numerous theorems of Geometry readily accessible to high school students, most of the theorems of Number Theory are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
Appropriate comparison between theorems, nothing wrong with "In contrast to" ... B seems good to me.

C. Compared with the numerous theorems of Geometry, which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
Compares theorems with Number theory... Incorrect

D. Compared to Geometry, numerous theorems of which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated as those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.
"mathematics only understanding them" WHAT?

E. Compared to Geometry, which has numerous theorems that are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory, which has many theorems that are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
It just sounds wrong, bad sentence formation
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Got B!
In A,wrong comparison between high school students and theorems in Number Theory.
In C,again wrong comparison between theorems of Geometry and Number Theory.
In D,'has theorems so sophisticated' is unnecessarily wordy.'Only understanding them' is also incorrect.
In E,doesn't make the correct comparison.The sentence doesn't seem complete.

Though one question:Is understandable=accessible?
Why does B replace easily understandable with easily accessible?

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Seems like you got the answer correct but failed to understand the meaning conveyed - as I understand GMAT stresses more on meaning than on grammar subtleties.. If you closely look at option B, it never says understandable=accessible-or- replaces easily understandable with easily accessible. It sequences both without changing inherent meaning. Here is OE for your reference:

Split #1: the comparison: what, exactly, is being compared?

(A) compares students to theorems = incorrect

(B) compares theorems to theorems = correct

(C) compares theorems to branch of math = incorrect

(D) compares branch of math to branch of math = correct

(E) compares branch of math to branch of math = correct

Split #2: idiom of consequence. The correct idiom is "so sophisticated that" --- we need the word "that" as part of this. Choice (A) omits both the "so" and the "that", and choice (D) omits the "that". Both are incorrect.

Split #3: the missing verb mistake. Choice (E) has the form "compared to Geometry [noun modifier], Number Theory [noun modifier]." Presumably, "Number Theory" is meant to be the main subject of the sentence, but this subject has no verb. Choice (E) makes the classic "missing verb mistake" and is therefore not a sentence at all.

Split #4: placement of the word "only". This is a common "Logical Predication" mistake. The limitation implied by the word "only" is meant to apply to those who understand Number Theory --- a relatively small group, compared to those who understand Geometry. The correct target of "only" is the pronoun "those". Choice (A) & (D) incorrectly use the word "only" to modify "understanding", as if we want these mathematicians to do some action more significant that merely "understanding" --- that's not the meaning of the sentence! Those two choices are incorrect.

The only possible answer is choice (B).

AKG1593 wrote:
Got B!
In A,wrong comparison between high school students and theorems in Number Theory.
In C,again wrong comparison between theorems of Geometry and Number Theory.
In D,'has theorems so sophisticated' is unnecessarily wordy.'Only understanding them' is also incorrect.
In E,doesn't make the correct comparison.The sentence doesn't seem complete.

Though one question:Is understandable=accessible?
Why does B replace easily understandable with easily accessible?

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Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.

A. Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.
B. In contrast to the numerous theorems of Geometry readily accessible to high school students, most of the theorems of Number Theory are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
C. Compared with the numerous theorems of Geometry, which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
D. Compared to Geometry, numerous theorems of which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated as those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.
E. Compared to Geometry, which has numerous theorems that are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory, which has many theorems that are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them. - Incomplete sentence
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Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.

A. Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.
B. In contrast to the numerous theorems of Geometry readily accessible to high school students, most of the theorems of Number Theory are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
C. Compared with the numerous theorems of Geometry, which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
D. Compared to Geometry, numerous theorems of which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated as those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.
E. Compared to Geometry, which has numerous theorems that are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory, which has many theorems that are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them. fragment

Good Question.
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In option B, shouldnt 'Theorums of Gemetry' be followed by a relative pronoun such as 'that are' before introducing modifying phrase 'readily accesible to high school students'? Experts please resolve this confusion. Is this called Ellipsis? If yes then how to judge proper usage of Ellipsis?

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OreoShake wrote:
In option B, shouldnt 'Theorums of Gemetry' be followed by a relative pronoun such as 'that are' before introducing modifying phrase 'readily accesible to high school students'? Experts please resolve this confusion. Is this called Ellipsis? If yes then how to judge proper usage of Ellipsis?

Oreo

Both are correct.
"that are readily accessible": relative clause
Both can be used as modifier.
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sayantanc2k wrote:
OreoShake wrote:
In option B, shouldnt 'Theorums of Gemetry' be followed by a relative pronoun such as 'that are' before introducing modifying phrase 'readily accesible to high school students'? Experts please resolve this confusion. Is this called Ellipsis? If yes then how to judge proper usage of Ellipsis?

Oreo

Both are correct.
"that are readily accessible": relative clause
Both can be used as modifier.

Got it. 'Accessible' is the adjective and 'readily' is the adverb modifying the adjective that modfies 'Theorums of geometry'. So this is not Elipsis.
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Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.

A. Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.
-- High school students are compared with theorems of number theory. - wrong.

B. In contrast to the numerous theorems of Geometry readily accessible to high school students, most of the theorems of Number Theory are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.

C. Compared with the numerous theorems of Geometry, which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
- "numerous theorems of Geometry" is compared with "Number Theory." - wrong

D. Compared to Geometry, numerous theorems of which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated as those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.
- Loss of details - "most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated"
- we can't have ing form - understanding here.

E. Compared to Geometry, which has numerous theorems that are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory, which has many theorems that are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
- No Verb
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B vs D -

Notice the difference with the placement of "only".
(B) In contrast to the numerous theorems of Geometry readily accessible to high school students, most ofthe theorems of Number Theory are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.
Meaning -Only people with advanced degree in mathematics can understand them.

(D) Compared to Geometry, numerous theorems of which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated as those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.
Meaning -People with advanced degree in mathematics ONLY can understand them. Clearly not the intended meaning.

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A compares “high school students” to “the theorems of Number Theory”, so it is wrong. C changes the meaning of the sentence by replacing ‘readily understand’ with ‘readily available’. D tense issue with ‘only understanding them’. Also the entire sentence is practically gibberish. E is very poorly constructed.

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mba1382 wrote:
Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.

(A) Compared to high school students, who readily understand the numerous theorems of Geometry, most of the theorems of Number Theory are sophisticated, with those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.

(B) In contrast to the numerous theorems of Geometry readily accessible to high school students, most of the theorems of Number Theory are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.

(C) Compared with the numerous theorems of Geometry, which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.

(D) Compared to Geometry, numerous theorems of which are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory has theorems so sophisticated as those with advanced degrees in mathematics only understanding them.

(E) Compared to Geometry, which has numerous theorems that are readily accessible to high school students, Number Theory, which has many theorems that are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.

The OA has changed the meaning. We are not concerned with "accessibility of theorem" but with "understanding of two different theorems by two different level of students".
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didn't realize the difference between theorems and theory and marked C. Definitely B is correct
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GMATNinja generis

What is "those" referring to in all the options? Not sure if it is the correct usage.

Can you put some light on the above?
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mba1382 wrote:
(B) In contrast to the numerous theorems of Geometry readily accessible to high school students, most of the theorems of Number Theory are so sophisticated that only those with advanced degrees in mathematics can understand them.

pikolo2510 wrote:
GMATNinja generis

What is "those" referring to in all the options? Not sure if it is the correct usage.

Can you put some light on the above?

pikolo2510 , good catch, +1. I'm surprised that no one has caught the issue until now.
Those means "those [people] with advanced degrees in mathematics,"
but as you note, the usage is not unmistakably correct.

This question cuts awfully close; I cannot recall an official question in which
a correct answer contained those as it is used in this case.

• Infer meaning from context, but

... in a looser sense than that usually required by GMAC

From context we can infer that "those" = the people with advanced degrees in math
(I list all the things that "those" cannot be in my second bullet point, below)

The issue is
(1) either that there is no antecedent for the word those if those is a pronoun
[the antecedent, e.g., could be math students generally if the question were worded differently]
(2) or that there is no noun for the demonstrative "those" to point to if "those" is a demonstrative adjective

demonstrative adjectives point to a particular noun:
-- this red umbrella, not that yellow umbrella;
-- these people who are studying in this part of the common room,
not those people with a wet bar already set up and drinks in hand

We must infer from context that those means those people [with advanced degrees in math]
or per the OE, those mathematicians.

This inference from context, though, is different from what we normally use to assess GMAT questions.

If those showed up in five options in a GMAT question,
one or some of the options would almost certainly include a prior mention of the noun to which "those" refers
or would use "those people."

• Approach

If we were to encounter this question on the GMAT, we would note:

1) that all of the options use "those" in the same way, so the word those is not a decision point;

2) that those cannot be high school students because they are a specific and separate group of people who cannot understand the hard theorems;

3) that "those" cannot refer to students generally in this setup.
The noun is too particular. Its essential adjectives "high school" cannot be tossed out;

4) that those cannot be theorems. Theorems cannot understand anything and do not have advanced degrees in mathematics.

We conclude

5) that those is attached to [advanced degrees...] and means "those persons with advanced degrees in mathematics" —
only people get math degrees.

I cannot recall a single official question in which those is allowed to stand alone in this way. I will look.

In the meantime ... the usage of "those" is not ideal in a GMAT-specific sense.

If another option were to mention an antecedent for those
or were to use "those people [with advanced degrees...],"
and all else were correct, we would choose that answer over option B.

If we encountered this question on the GMAT, though,
we would use POE to eliminate incorrect comparisons in options A, C, D, and E
and accept that "those" in (B) is a little weird on the GMAT, but comprehensible.

Hope that helps. _________________
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