It is currently 25 Jun 2017, 11:00

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

5 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 16 Oct 2006
Posts: 159
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 02 Nov 2006, 22:18
5
This post received
KUDOS
45
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  35% (medium)

Question Stats:

64% (02:07) correct 36% (01:07) wrong based on 3934 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

OG16 SC114
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
VP
VP
avatar
Joined: 21 Mar 2006
Posts: 1127
Location: Bangalore
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 03 Nov 2006, 15:22
another C.
You need the second and to join two independent clauses.
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 08 Dec 2010
Posts: 203
WE 1: 4 yr IT
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jan 2011, 02:52
C
by looking at the underlined portion we can say it requires "and" to fit with "was completed.."
A and D eliminated.
begun is inappropriate...so B and E eliminated
_________________

this time, we play for keeps


Last edited by vinzycoolfire on 18 Jan 2011, 03:07, edited 1 time in total.
14 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 14 Feb 2010
Posts: 160
Location: Banaglore
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jan 2011, 03:00
14
This post received
KUDOS
19
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Relative pronouns such as which, that, who etc. should always touch the noun they are modifying. This is called the relative pronoun touch rule.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was: in this sentence the pronoun 'which' is modifying The Roman Colosseum. This is correct and should be the intented meaning of the sentence.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, offi cially known : In this sentence the ...officially known.. phrase modifies the subject of the main clause i.e. Construction of the Roamn Colesseum. This is wrong.
4 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 14 Feb 2010
Posts: 160
Location: Banaglore
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jan 2011, 03:43
4
This post received
KUDOS
17
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Relative pronouns are used for modifying a Noun only. Never use a relative pronoun to modify a verb. Examples of relative pronous :

Which
That
Who
When
Whom

Always remember the touch rule for relative pronouns. i.e. the Reltive pronoun should touch the noun its modifying.

Note:
1. Comma + 'which' : should be used when the modifying information that is non essential.
eg. The red car, which i drove when i was in college.

i drove when i was in college : non essential information.
The red : essential information.

2. 'That' : should be used when the information is essential. ( please never use comma with 'That' ).

e.g The car that i painted red.

i painted red : essential information.
Intern
Intern
User avatar
Joined: 03 May 2010
Posts: 5
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jan 2011, 04:07
Thanks lot for the clarification.

Can you look into the below example and let me know what is your take on this-

Astrologers saw the comet as a portent of the DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM, which happened as expected.

Notice that ‘which’ is taking the place of the phrase ‘DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM’ that is used as as OBJECT of the preceding main clause. Notice that ‘which’ takes the place of the phrase ‘destruction of Jerusalem’, not ‘Jerusalem’ that is used as the object of the prepositional phrase ‘destruction of Jerusalem’ which is used as the complement of the noun ‘portent’.

(I got this note from one of the GMATCLUB forum discussion)
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 14 Feb 2010
Posts: 160
Location: Banaglore
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Jan 2011, 01:05
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Astrologers saw the comet as a portent of the DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM, which happened as expected

OF JERUSALEM : A perpositional modifier. These types of modifiers are essential modifiers.

which happened as expected : A relative clause starting with 'which'. A non essential modifiers.

If you look at the sentence both the modifiers are modifying DESTRUCTION. But the essential modifiers is placed close to the Noun and the non essential modifier follows it.
1 KUDOS received
Math Forum Moderator
avatar
Joined: 20 Dec 2010
Posts: 2010
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Jul 2011, 00:16
1
This post received
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
abhicoolmax wrote:
gb8 wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


Could somebody please please explain me why BEGAN is correct? Doesn't this need HAD BEGUN?

Seems to me like the reason why C is correct is because it is the "best" of the available choices, and there is NO HAD BEGUN in any of the option, CORRECT? Somebody please explain.


Actually, it'd unnecessary to use "Had Begun" (Past Perfect) in this scenario and there are reasons:
1. A construction can never finish before it begins. So, we already know the sequence of events.
2. completed a decade later; the word "later" clearly signifies that the event of completion occurred after the beginning of the construction.

Modifiers:
which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater
AND
officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater
Are both correct, with latter more elegant and GMAT style. However, we decide the correctness of the sentence on the basis of these modifiers because they both are correct.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
Let's shorten:
Construction began in A.D. 69 was completed later.
Two discrete events with two verbs "began" and "was" makes the sentence wrong. These verbs must be separated by AND.

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
"begun in A.D. 69"-- acts as a modifier for Roman Colosseum; Roman Colosseum begun in AD 69: what does this mean?


Construction during the reign of Vespasian was completed a decade later: decade later of what.
Bad.

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
Correct.
Construction began in A.D. 69 and was completed a decade later.
Construction had begun in A.D. 69 and completed a decade later. Guess this is correct as well.

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
Same error as B's. Roman Colosseum begun in AD 69.

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
", and" -- demands a clause when the later part is a phrase
"was completed a decade later"-- No subject.
Roman Colosseum was begun in AD 69.
_________________

~fluke

GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2009
Posts: 138
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jul 2012, 07:30
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.


A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

can an expert please help me vvith this


Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,

during the reign of Vespasian  does this imply that it was completed a decade later
began in A.D. 69.. is this sentence vvrong because there is no AND betvven
began in A.D. 69 ,was completed a decade later


B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Does begun imply it is still continuing
The and is parallel to vvhich verb here



C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Correct:


D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it

Is this vvrong because it is vvrong parelleleim
officially known ……….. and begun


E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Can I considee this as vvrong because it is vvordy

which was begun in A.D. 69
VP
VP
User avatar
Status: Been a long time guys...
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 1381
Location: United States (NY)
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
GPA: 3.75
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Oct 2012, 04:12
Quoting everyone above.
THE TOUCH RULE IS NOT VALID WHEREVER ONE WISHES.
go for #26 OG12.
what I am trying to say is that we must have to look over the sentences, which contain a relative pronoun.
Ex-
The box of nails, which is on the counter, is to be used on this object.
In this case, "which" CANNOT refer to "nails", since the verb "is" is singular. Therefore the nearest eligible noun is box.
For more info:
the-gmat-tends-to-write-sentences-in-which-141100.html

Coming to this question, BDE refer "Construction of Colosseum" to "Flavian Amphitheatre".
Also begun should always be followed by "have".
+1 C
Hope that helps.
-s
_________________

Prepositional Phrases Clarified|Elimination of BEING| Absolute Phrases Clarified
Rules For Posting
www.Univ-Scholarships.com

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 02 Sep 2012
Posts: 247
Location: United States
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Finance
GMAT Date: 07-25-2013
GPA: 3.83
WE: Architecture (Computer Hardware)
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Dec 2012, 22:11
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

a) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
b) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

c)which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
d) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
e) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Please do explain with a reason why B is wrong over here.
I chose B beco z of the reason that two events are happened in the past so used past perfect.But i dont understand why it is wrong??pls explain
_________________

"Giving kudos" is a decent way to say "Thanks" and motivate contributors. Please use them, it won't cost you anything

4 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 21 Jun 2011
Posts: 80
Location: United States
Concentration: Accounting, Finance
WE: Accounting (Accounting)
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Dec 2012, 23:47
4
This post received
KUDOS
Option C is correct.

a) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, Punctuation issue connecting two verbs with a comma i.e began in ..... and, was completed.... you can't connect it with a comma. You create a run on sentence.

b) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

what is the verb here...begun? no because it is a past participle.... it needs a helping verb...other wise the sentence is a fragment.
c)which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and-correct
d) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it- here the modifier implies that construction was known as Flavian Amphitheater because the sentence lacks relative pronoun.
e) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and- same as e

Hope I was able to clarify your query...lets kudos
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 12 Jul 2011
Posts: 128
Concentration: Strategy, Sustainability
Schools: Booth '15 (M)
WE: Business Development (Non-Profit and Government)
Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Dec 2012, 01:43
Marcab wrote:
Hii NonYankee.
Can you elaborate on one issue here?
"Contruction of the Roman Colosseum" intoduces a prepositional phrase here-"the Roman Colosseum". Since the prepositional phrase can't contain the subject, then how can "which" refer to "Roman Colosseum"?
Thanks in advance .


Hi Marcab,

First, I don't know why you said that the prepositional phrase can't contain the subject. Is that a rule?

Second, the prepositional phrase doesn't contain the subject. The (simple) subject is construction.

Third, why wouldn't which be allowed to refer to Roman Colosseum?

Consider the following sentences:
She's a friend of my brother Rudolph.
She's a friend of my brother, whom you've met.

Both have as a subject She. Both have as a prepositional object brother. One follows the prepositional object with an appositive; one follows the prepositional object with a non-restrictive relative clause. Both sentences apply modifyers to the object of the preposition, and both are grammatically correct.

You might find these pages worth reading:
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm
http://www2.gsu.edu/~eslhpb/grammar/lec ... ative.html
_________________

My GMAT debrief

Expert Post
MBA Section Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 3807
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Energy and Utilities)
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Dec 2012, 01:51
Marcab wrote:
Hii NonYankee.
Can you elaborate on one issue here?
"Contruction of the Roman Colosseum" intoduces a prepositional phrase here-"the Roman Colosseum". Since the prepositional phrase can't contain the subject, then how can "which" refer to "Roman Colosseum"?
Thanks in advance .

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

a) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
b) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
c)which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
d) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
e) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

1. which modifies Colosseum and not construction.
2. subject of the main verbs in the sentence, however, is construction and not the Colosseum.
Is that what you are talking about Marcab?
_________________

My GMAT Resources
V30-V40: How to do it! | GMATPrep SC | GMATPrep CR | GMATPrep RC | Critical Reasoning Megathread | CR: Numbers and Statistics | CR: Weaken | CR: Strengthen | CR: Assumption | SC: Modifier | SC: Meaning | SC: SV Agreement | RC: Primary Purpose | PS/DS: Numbers and Inequalities | PS/DS: Combinatorics and Coordinates

My MBA Resources
Everything about the MBA Application | Over-Represented MBA woes | Fit Vs Rankings | Low GPA: What you can do | Letter of Recommendation: The Guide | Indian B Schools accepting GMAT score | Why MBA?

My Reviews
Veritas Prep Live Online

Expert Post
MBA Section Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 3807
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Energy and Utilities)
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Dec 2012, 01:55
In an other case if you are referring to the "which touches the preceding noun" rule and its exception, remember that the rule is flexible. This is difference between SC and Quant in that grammar is not as hardcore as algebra is.

I sent letters to my dad, which got lost in the post office.
Which modifies letters and "to my dad" is a small prepositional phrase.

I sent letters to the post office, which failed to deliver them to my dad.
Here, which modifies the post office.

hope this helps!
_________________

My GMAT Resources
V30-V40: How to do it! | GMATPrep SC | GMATPrep CR | GMATPrep RC | Critical Reasoning Megathread | CR: Numbers and Statistics | CR: Weaken | CR: Strengthen | CR: Assumption | SC: Modifier | SC: Meaning | SC: SV Agreement | RC: Primary Purpose | PS/DS: Numbers and Inequalities | PS/DS: Combinatorics and Coordinates

My MBA Resources
Everything about the MBA Application | Over-Represented MBA woes | Fit Vs Rankings | Low GPA: What you can do | Letter of Recommendation: The Guide | Indian B Schools accepting GMAT score | Why MBA?

My Reviews
Veritas Prep Live Online

VP
VP
User avatar
Status: Been a long time guys...
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 1381
Location: United States (NY)
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
GPA: 3.75
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Dec 2012, 02:10
NonYankee wrote:
Marcab wrote:
Hii NonYankee.
Can you elaborate on one issue here?
"Contruction of the Roman Colosseum" intoduces a prepositional phrase here-"the Roman Colosseum". Since the prepositional phrase can't contain the subject, then how can "which" refer to "Roman Colosseum"?
Thanks in advance .


Hi Marcab,

First, I don't know why you said that the prepositional phrase can't contain the subject. Is that a rule?

Second, the prepositional phrase doesn't contain the subject. The (simple) subject is construction.

Third, why wouldn't which be allowed to refer to Roman Colosseum?

Consider the following sentences:
She's a friend of my brother Rudolph.
She's a friend of my brother, whom you've met.

Both have as a subject She. Both have as a prepositional object brother. One follows the prepositional object with an appositive; one follows the prepositional object with a non-restrictive relative clause. Both sentences apply modifyers to the object of the preposition, and both are grammatically correct.

You might find these pages worth reading:
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm
http://www2.gsu.edu/~eslhpb/grammar/lec ... ative.html


consider these sentences:
1)Angela, along with the other leaders of EU, wants Spain to get a bailout.
Here "along with the other leaders of EU" is a part of prepositional phrase.

2) The box of nails, which was kept upon the table, was black in color.
Here we are referring to box.

Since "construction of the Roman Colosseum" also introduces a prepositional phrase, thats why I was confused.

1) http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/f ... subjpp.htm
As per this link, the prepositional phrases as subjects typically refer to only time and space.

2)www.chompchomp.com/terms/prepositionalphrase.htm
As per this link, the prepositional phrases never act as subjects.
_________________

Prepositional Phrases Clarified|Elimination of BEING| Absolute Phrases Clarified
Rules For Posting
www.Univ-Scholarships.com

VP
VP
User avatar
Status: Been a long time guys...
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 1381
Location: United States (NY)
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
GPA: 3.75
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Dec 2012, 02:47
souvik101990 wrote:
Marcab wrote:
Hii NonYankee.
Can you elaborate on one issue here?
"Contruction of the Roman Colosseum" intoduces a prepositional phrase here-"the Roman Colosseum". Since the prepositional phrase can't contain the subject, then how can "which" refer to "Roman Colosseum"?
Thanks in advance .

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

a) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
b) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
c)which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
d) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
e) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

1. which modifies Colosseum and not construction.
2. subject of the main verbs in the sentence, however, is construction and not the Colosseum.
Is that what you are talking about Marcab?


Hii Souvik.
Can you please elaborate on the blue part?
Also consider this sentence:
Neither of these cookbooks contains the recipe for Manhattan-style squid eyeball stew.

In BDE, what is "officially known as....." modifying? Is it Construction or the Colosseum.
_________________

Prepositional Phrases Clarified|Elimination of BEING| Absolute Phrases Clarified
Rules For Posting
www.Univ-Scholarships.com

Expert Post
2 KUDOS received
MBA Section Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 3807
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Energy and Utilities)
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Dec 2012, 02:52
2
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
which modifies Colosseum and not construction.

It is NOT the case that, just because there is a prepositional phrase after a noun, the first noun is automatically the modified noun.

Rather, IF there is a noun followed by an essential description (typically accomplished via a short prepositional phrase), then it is POSSIBLE for that first noun to be the main noun to which the following noun modifier applies. But this does not have to be the case - it could still be the case that the noun right before the comma (that is, the noun in the prepositional phrase) is the modified noun.

The presence of a short, essential descriptor simply makes the sentence more flexible. The default is to assume that the immediately preceding noun is the modified noun, unless that flexibility exists, in which case the main noun could be the modified noun. This is an exception - it does not happen that often.

-excerpt from Stacey Koprince on this issue.
_________________

My GMAT Resources
V30-V40: How to do it! | GMATPrep SC | GMATPrep CR | GMATPrep RC | Critical Reasoning Megathread | CR: Numbers and Statistics | CR: Weaken | CR: Strengthen | CR: Assumption | SC: Modifier | SC: Meaning | SC: SV Agreement | RC: Primary Purpose | PS/DS: Numbers and Inequalities | PS/DS: Combinatorics and Coordinates

My MBA Resources
Everything about the MBA Application | Over-Represented MBA woes | Fit Vs Rankings | Low GPA: What you can do | Letter of Recommendation: The Guide | Indian B Schools accepting GMAT score | Why MBA?

My Reviews
Veritas Prep Live Online

Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
MBA Section Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 3807
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Energy and Utilities)
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Dec 2012, 05:16
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
Marcab wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Marcab wrote:
So in simple words, what she means to say is Follow the rule but be flexible.
Am i right?


Yes. Exactly.
However, I do want to emphasis that the RULE is that "which touches the noun preceding it". But it sometime is violated for some hard GMAT question such as this.

Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.
A. Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering
B. Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ended shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber
C. Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and that ends shortly before Emily’s death in 1886 and outnumbering
D. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother, ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, and outnumbering
E. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA is E


Thats the question which showcases my point.
"which" will modify the noun preceding it but in case if the noun before "which" is a part of "prepositional phrase", then it will modify the "noun before the prepositional phrase".
Answer choice
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E
does exactly the same.

Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson, which were...bla bla.
Now It will be great if you or anyone explain me when to apply the "touch rule" and when its "exception".

Moreover what does the "officially known as the ....." modify? Is it "construction" or is it "colosseum"?
How to move further with the correct split i.e. "which was officially known as" vs "officially known as"?
Thanks in advance



Marcab,
There are 2 VERY important things that you have to know here:
1. Grammar is flexible. You can't assign very stringent rules and that makes them more painful/interesting. Modifiers are most important to things that they modify and that changes with logic and meaning.
Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.

In this example the "which must touch the preceding noun" is violated just to establish the fact that grammar is not always mechanical.
But that does not mean that the touch rule is completely invalid for prepositional phrases. It still has its weight.
But there is a bigger picture here
ALMOST ALL SENTENCE CORRECTION ANSWER CHOICES ARE WRONG BECAUSE OF MULTIPLE REASONS
If you see the above example "outnumbering" does not apply AT ALL as an ING modifier will always modify the entire preceding clause and that distorts the meaning. So we go with a better "outnumber".

As to your second question:
both "officially known as" and "which is known has" have nothing inherently wrong with them and both refer to the Colosseum not because there are specific rules but simply because "which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" or " officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" CAN NOT refer to "construction". So just because the Colosseum is wrapped in a prep phrase does not make it too impotent to be modified.

But then Colosseum, however is still not the subject. Remember that modifiers can modify nouns. These nouns CAN or CAN NOT be the main subject of the sentence. In this particular sentence the main verbs "was began" and "was completed" can only make sense if the subject is construction.

So bottom line is, Rules do not make subjects/verbs/tenses. Logic and meaning does.
Does this help?
_________________

My GMAT Resources
V30-V40: How to do it! | GMATPrep SC | GMATPrep CR | GMATPrep RC | Critical Reasoning Megathread | CR: Numbers and Statistics | CR: Weaken | CR: Strengthen | CR: Assumption | SC: Modifier | SC: Meaning | SC: SV Agreement | RC: Primary Purpose | PS/DS: Numbers and Inequalities | PS/DS: Combinatorics and Coordinates

My MBA Resources
Everything about the MBA Application | Over-Represented MBA woes | Fit Vs Rankings | Low GPA: What you can do | Letter of Recommendation: The Guide | Indian B Schools accepting GMAT score | Why MBA?

My Reviews
Veritas Prep Live Online

1 KUDOS received
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 16 May 2013
Posts: 30
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Jun 2013, 01:01
1
This post received
KUDOS
zuberahmed wrote:
Relative pronouns such as which, that, who etc. should always touch the noun they are modifying. This is called the relative pronoun touch rule.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was: in this sentence the pronoun 'which' is modifying The Roman Colosseum. This is correct and should be the intented meaning of the sentence.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, offi cially known : In this sentence the ...officially known.. phrase modifies the subject of the main clause i.e. Construction of the Roamn Colesseum. This is wrong.


I beg to differ on the point made about Relative pronouns. In some cases relative pronouns can modify a far off noun. Fro e.g.

The committee chose Mr. Smith of Left Block, who was the most experienced member, to lead all the management-related operations.

This sentence is correct, even though the relative pronoun "Who" is not placed next to the Noun "Mr. Smith" that it modifies. Since Mr.Smith is followed by "of Left Block" which is a prepositional phrase , "Mr.Smith of Left Block" becomes a noun phrase. In this case who correctly modifies this noun phrase.
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially   [#permalink] 04 Jun 2013, 01:01

Go to page    1   2   3    Next  [ 46 posts ] 

    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
1 Experts publish their posts in the topic *700* Construction of the Roman Colosseum souvik101990 5 09 Apr 2015, 23:19
Which form of sentence construction is more appropriate? amolg 1 25 Dec 2014, 12:27
Which form of sentence construction is more appropriate? amolg 2 26 Dec 2014, 08:03
1 Which sentence construction is preferable? Ralphcuisak 3 18 Mar 2015, 02:42
5 Rhetorical Construction boomtangboy 3 29 Sep 2014, 19:21
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.